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Effect of alkali treatment on nutrient composition, in vitro gas production and feed value of corn straw

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 61 - 67, 14.02.2022

Öz

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of treatment with diffrent alkalis on the feed value of corn straw.

Material and method: The feed material of the study consisted of corn straw obtained after harvest. Corn straw was diluted to 50% dry matter and respectively; alkalis such as 0% (control), 3% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3% calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), 3% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 3% calcium oxide (CaO) were added. Corn straw treated with alkali was opened after 21 days and nutrient compositions were determined. In vitro gas production, metabolic energy (ME) and organic matter digestion (OMS) of corn straw were determined by in vitro gas production technique. True dry matter digestion (GKMS) and neutral detergent fiber digestion (NDFS) were determined by the Daisy incubator technique. In addition, the relative feed value (RFV) properties of corn straw were calculated.

Results and conclusion: Treatment with diffrent alkalis significantly affected the nutrient composition of corn straw. The highest NYD (98.60) was found in corn straw treated with 3% NaOH. As a result, treatment of maize straw with alkalis improved both nutrient composition and nutrient digestion. It also positively affected in vitro gas production and relative feed value (NRV). It was concluded that the most effective alkali treatment method was 3% sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

Kaynakça

  • Abera, F., Urge, M. and Animut G. (2018). Feeding Value of Maize stover treated with urea or urea molasses for hararghe highland sheep. The Open Agriculture Journal, 12(1), 84-94. DOI:10.2174/1874331501812010084
  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. 5th rev. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA, USA. 930-954.
  • Arısoy, M. (1998). The Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on chemical composition and digestibility of straw. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciıences, 22,165-170.
  • Avcı M., Kaplan O. ve Denek N. (2013). Değişik katkılarla hazırlanan mısır sapı haylaj kalitesinin belirlenmesi. Harran Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(1) 32-35.
  • Ben Salem, H., and T. Smith. (2008). Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments. Small Ruminant Research, 77(2-3), 174-194.
  • Canbolat, Ö., Karasu, A., Bayram, G., Filya, İ. ve Kamalak, A. (2016). Farklı ekim yoğunluğunun koçansız şeker mısırı silajlarının besleme değeri, silaj kalite özellikleri ve besin madde verimi üzerine etkisi. U.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 30 (1), 101-112.
  • Canbolat, O., Ozgur. C.O. and Kamalak, A. (2007). Effects of NaOH treatment on condensed tanin contents and gas production kinetics of tree leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 138 (2), 189-194. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.024
  • Canbolat, Ö. (2020). Farklı kimyasal işlemlerin saz bitkisinin besin madde bileşimi ve yem değeri üzerine etkisi. 4th International Congress On Agriculture, Animal Science and Rural Development. 12-14 June 2020, 144-158. Ankara, Turkey. (Sözlü Bildiri-Tam Metin).
  • Casperson, B.A., Wertz-Lutz, A.E., Dunn, J.L. and Donkin, S.S. (2018). Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(3), 2027-2036. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13180
  • Chaudhry, A.S. (2000). Rumen degradation in sacco in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 83, 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00134-0
  • Donnelly, D. M., de Resende, L. C., Cook, D. E., Atalla, R. H. and Combs D. K. (2018). Technical note: A comparison of alkali treatment methods to improve neutral detergent fiber digestibility of corn stover. Journal of Dairy Science,101, 9058-9064. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-14317
  • Fahey, G.C., Bourquin, L.D., Titgemeyer, E.C. and Atwell, D.G. (1993). Postharvest treatment of fibrous feedstuffs to improve the nutritive value. P.715-766 in Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestbility. H.G. Jung, D.R. Buxton, R.D. Hatfield, and J. Ralph, ed. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.
  • Fritz, V.A.,. Randall, G.W. and Rosen. C.J. (2001). Characterization and utilization of nitrogen contained in sweet corn silage waste. Agronomy Journal, 93, 627-633.
  • Gao, J. L., Wang, P., Zhou, C. H., Li, P., Tang, H. Y., Zhang, J. B., and Cai, Y. (2019). Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn stover during field exposure and their fermentation characteristics of silage prepared with microbial additives. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 32(12), 1854-1863. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0886
  • Harada, C., Saito., Y., Nakamura, Y. and Minato, H. (2001). The Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment of rice straw on in situ disappearance of hemicellulose and lignin in its cell Wall. Animal Science Journal, 72 (1), 19-25. DOI:10.2508/chikusan.72.19
  • He, Y., Cone, J.W., Hendriks, W.H and Dijkstra, J. (2019). Relationships between chemical composition and in vitro gas production parameters of maize leaves and stems. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 104, 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13221
  • Karabulut, A., ve Filya, İ. (2016). Yemler Bilgisi ve Yem Teknolojisi. Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ders Notları, Genişletilmiş 6. Baskı, No: 67.
  • Li, H.Y., Xu, L., Liu, W.J., Fang, M.Q. and Wang, N. (2014). Assessment of the nutritive value of whole corn stover and its morphological fractions. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 27(2), 194-200. doi:10.5713/ajas.2013.13446
  • Liu, J.X., Susenbeth, A. and Südekum, K.H. (2002). In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interaction between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 517-524. DOI: 10.2527/2002.802517x
  • Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
  • Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., and Schneider, W. (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, 93(1), 217-222. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600086305
  • Methu, J.N., Owen, E., Abate, A.L. and Tanner, J.C. (2001). Botanical and nutritional composition of maize stover, intakes and feed selection by dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science, 71, 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00212-3
  • Mohamoud Abdi, A. and Kılıç, Ü. (2018). Farklı samanlarda lignin peroksidaz enzimi kullanımının yem değeri üzerine etkisi. KSÜ Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi, 21(3), 374-384. DOI:10.18016/ ksudobil. 346585
  • Mokhtarpour, A., and Jahantigh, M. (2018). Effect of supplementing common reed (Phragmites australis) with urea on intake, apparent digestibility and blood metabolites of Baluchi sheep. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 8(4), 623-628.
  • Mustafa, A.F., Hassanat, F. and Berthiaume, R.R. (2004). In situ forestomach and intestinal nutrient digestibilities of sweet corn residues. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 114(1-4), 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.08.013
  • Rohweder, D.A., Barnes, R.F. and N. Jorgensen. (1978). Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. Journal of Animal Science, 47(3), 747-759.
  • Shreck, A.L., Buckner, C.D. Erickson, G.E. and Klopfenstein, T.J. (2011). Digestibility of crop residues after chemical treatment and anaerobic storage. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP94: 35-36.
  • Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. (1967). Statistical Methots. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • Statistica, 1996. Minitab Inc: Minitab for Windows, Release 11.1. Minitab Inc., State College, 3081 Enterprise Drive, PA 16801-3008, USA.
  • Taddess, D., Urge, M., Goshu G. and Goraga, Z. (2016). Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sorghum stover ensiled with urea and effective microorganisms (EM) in West Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences,16 (8), 1473-1483. DOI:10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.8.105102
  • TÜİK. (2021). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Kategori/GetKategori?p=tarim-111&dil=1. (Erişim tarihi: 22.11.2021)
  • Van Soest, P.J.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis. B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  • Watson, A.K., MacDonald, J.C., Erickson, G.E. Kononoff, P.J. and Klopfenstein, T.J. (2015). Forages and pastures symposium: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets. Journal of Animal Science, 93, 2616-2625. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8780.
  • Wilkinson, J.M. and Phipps, R.H. (1979). The development of plant components and their effects on the composition of fresh and ensiled forage maize: 2. The effect of genotype, plant density and date of harvest on the composition of maize silage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92(2), 485-491. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063024
  • You, Z., Zhang, S., Kim, H., Chiang, P.C., Sun, Y., Guo, Z. and Xu, H. (2019). Effects of corn stover pretreated with NaOH and CaO on anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and corn stover. Applied Sciences, 9(1), 123. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010123

Alkalilerle işlemenin mısır samanının besin madde bileşimi, in vitro gaz üretimi ve yem değeri üzerine etkisi

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 61 - 67, 14.02.2022

Öz

Özet

Amaç: Bu çalışma, farklı alkalilerle işlemenin mısır samanının yem değeri üzerine olan etkilerini saptamayı amaçlamıştır.

Materyal ve yöntem: Araştırmanın yem materyalini hasat sonrası elde edilen mısır samanı oluşturmuştur. Mısır samanı kuru maddesi %50 olacak şekilde sulandırılmış ve sırasıyla; %0 (kontrol), %3 sodyum hidroksit (NaOH), %3 kalsiyum hidroksit (Ca(OH)2), %3 potasyum hidroksit (KOH) ve %3 kalsiyum oksit (CaO) gibi alkaliler ilave edilmiştir. Alkaliler ile işlenmiş mısır samanı 21 gün sonunda açılmış ve besin madde bileşimleri saptanmıştır. Mısır samanlarının in vitro gaz üretimleri, metabolik enerji (ME) ve organik madde sindirimleri (OMS) in vitro gaz üretim tekniği ile saptanmıştır. Gerçek kuru madde sindirimi (GKMS) ile nötr deterjan lif sindirimi (NDFS) ise Daisy inkübatör tekniği ile saptanmıştır. Ayrıca mısır samanlarının nispi yem değeri (NYD) hesaplanmıştır.

Bulgular ve sonuç: Farklı alkalilerle işleme mısır samanının besin madde bileşimini önemli düzeyde etkilemiştir. En yüksek NYD (98,60), %3 NaOH ile işlenmiş mısır samanında bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak, mısır samanının alkalilerle işlenmesi hem besin madde bileşimini hem de besin maddeleri sindirimini geliştirmiştir. Aynı zamanda in vitro gaz üretimi ve NYD özelliklerini de olumlu yönde etkilemiştir. En etkili alkali işleme yönteminin ise %3 NaOH olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Abera, F., Urge, M. and Animut G. (2018). Feeding Value of Maize stover treated with urea or urea molasses for hararghe highland sheep. The Open Agriculture Journal, 12(1), 84-94. DOI:10.2174/1874331501812010084
  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. 5th rev. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA, USA. 930-954.
  • Arısoy, M. (1998). The Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on chemical composition and digestibility of straw. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciıences, 22,165-170.
  • Avcı M., Kaplan O. ve Denek N. (2013). Değişik katkılarla hazırlanan mısır sapı haylaj kalitesinin belirlenmesi. Harran Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(1) 32-35.
  • Ben Salem, H., and T. Smith. (2008). Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments. Small Ruminant Research, 77(2-3), 174-194.
  • Canbolat, Ö., Karasu, A., Bayram, G., Filya, İ. ve Kamalak, A. (2016). Farklı ekim yoğunluğunun koçansız şeker mısırı silajlarının besleme değeri, silaj kalite özellikleri ve besin madde verimi üzerine etkisi. U.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 30 (1), 101-112.
  • Canbolat, O., Ozgur. C.O. and Kamalak, A. (2007). Effects of NaOH treatment on condensed tanin contents and gas production kinetics of tree leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 138 (2), 189-194. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.024
  • Canbolat, Ö. (2020). Farklı kimyasal işlemlerin saz bitkisinin besin madde bileşimi ve yem değeri üzerine etkisi. 4th International Congress On Agriculture, Animal Science and Rural Development. 12-14 June 2020, 144-158. Ankara, Turkey. (Sözlü Bildiri-Tam Metin).
  • Casperson, B.A., Wertz-Lutz, A.E., Dunn, J.L. and Donkin, S.S. (2018). Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(3), 2027-2036. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13180
  • Chaudhry, A.S. (2000). Rumen degradation in sacco in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 83, 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00134-0
  • Donnelly, D. M., de Resende, L. C., Cook, D. E., Atalla, R. H. and Combs D. K. (2018). Technical note: A comparison of alkali treatment methods to improve neutral detergent fiber digestibility of corn stover. Journal of Dairy Science,101, 9058-9064. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-14317
  • Fahey, G.C., Bourquin, L.D., Titgemeyer, E.C. and Atwell, D.G. (1993). Postharvest treatment of fibrous feedstuffs to improve the nutritive value. P.715-766 in Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestbility. H.G. Jung, D.R. Buxton, R.D. Hatfield, and J. Ralph, ed. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.
  • Fritz, V.A.,. Randall, G.W. and Rosen. C.J. (2001). Characterization and utilization of nitrogen contained in sweet corn silage waste. Agronomy Journal, 93, 627-633.
  • Gao, J. L., Wang, P., Zhou, C. H., Li, P., Tang, H. Y., Zhang, J. B., and Cai, Y. (2019). Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn stover during field exposure and their fermentation characteristics of silage prepared with microbial additives. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 32(12), 1854-1863. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0886
  • Harada, C., Saito., Y., Nakamura, Y. and Minato, H. (2001). The Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment of rice straw on in situ disappearance of hemicellulose and lignin in its cell Wall. Animal Science Journal, 72 (1), 19-25. DOI:10.2508/chikusan.72.19
  • He, Y., Cone, J.W., Hendriks, W.H and Dijkstra, J. (2019). Relationships between chemical composition and in vitro gas production parameters of maize leaves and stems. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 104, 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13221
  • Karabulut, A., ve Filya, İ. (2016). Yemler Bilgisi ve Yem Teknolojisi. Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ders Notları, Genişletilmiş 6. Baskı, No: 67.
  • Li, H.Y., Xu, L., Liu, W.J., Fang, M.Q. and Wang, N. (2014). Assessment of the nutritive value of whole corn stover and its morphological fractions. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 27(2), 194-200. doi:10.5713/ajas.2013.13446
  • Liu, J.X., Susenbeth, A. and Südekum, K.H. (2002). In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interaction between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 517-524. DOI: 10.2527/2002.802517x
  • Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
  • Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., and Schneider, W. (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, 93(1), 217-222. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600086305
  • Methu, J.N., Owen, E., Abate, A.L. and Tanner, J.C. (2001). Botanical and nutritional composition of maize stover, intakes and feed selection by dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science, 71, 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00212-3
  • Mohamoud Abdi, A. and Kılıç, Ü. (2018). Farklı samanlarda lignin peroksidaz enzimi kullanımının yem değeri üzerine etkisi. KSÜ Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi, 21(3), 374-384. DOI:10.18016/ ksudobil. 346585
  • Mokhtarpour, A., and Jahantigh, M. (2018). Effect of supplementing common reed (Phragmites australis) with urea on intake, apparent digestibility and blood metabolites of Baluchi sheep. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 8(4), 623-628.
  • Mustafa, A.F., Hassanat, F. and Berthiaume, R.R. (2004). In situ forestomach and intestinal nutrient digestibilities of sweet corn residues. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 114(1-4), 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.08.013
  • Rohweder, D.A., Barnes, R.F. and N. Jorgensen. (1978). Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. Journal of Animal Science, 47(3), 747-759.
  • Shreck, A.L., Buckner, C.D. Erickson, G.E. and Klopfenstein, T.J. (2011). Digestibility of crop residues after chemical treatment and anaerobic storage. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP94: 35-36.
  • Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. (1967). Statistical Methots. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • Statistica, 1996. Minitab Inc: Minitab for Windows, Release 11.1. Minitab Inc., State College, 3081 Enterprise Drive, PA 16801-3008, USA.
  • Taddess, D., Urge, M., Goshu G. and Goraga, Z. (2016). Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sorghum stover ensiled with urea and effective microorganisms (EM) in West Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences,16 (8), 1473-1483. DOI:10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.8.105102
  • TÜİK. (2021). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Kategori/GetKategori?p=tarim-111&dil=1. (Erişim tarihi: 22.11.2021)
  • Van Soest, P.J.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis. B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  • Watson, A.K., MacDonald, J.C., Erickson, G.E. Kononoff, P.J. and Klopfenstein, T.J. (2015). Forages and pastures symposium: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets. Journal of Animal Science, 93, 2616-2625. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8780.
  • Wilkinson, J.M. and Phipps, R.H. (1979). The development of plant components and their effects on the composition of fresh and ensiled forage maize: 2. The effect of genotype, plant density and date of harvest on the composition of maize silage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92(2), 485-491. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063024
  • You, Z., Zhang, S., Kim, H., Chiang, P.C., Sun, Y., Guo, Z. and Xu, H. (2019). Effects of corn stover pretreated with NaOH and CaO on anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and corn stover. Applied Sciences, 9(1), 123. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010123

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Gıda ve Yem Bilimi-Teknolojisi Dergisi
Yazarlar

Önder CANBOLAT Bu kişi benim 0000-0001-7139-1334

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Şubat 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Sayı: 27

Kaynak Göster

APA CANBOLAT, Ö. (2022). Alkalilerle işlemenin mısır samanının besin madde bileşimi, in vitro gaz üretimi ve yem değeri üzerine etkisi. Gıda Ve Yem Bilimi Teknolojisi Dergisi(27), 61-67.