Yıl 2018, Cilt 3 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 8 - 15 2018-06-25

YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ

Sevinç EŞER DURMAZ [1] , Alev KESER [2]


Dünya genelinde şeker üretimi 19. yüzyıldan bu yana önemli düzeyde artmıştır ve 1950’li yıllarda besinlerde rafine şeker yaygın olarak kullanılmaya başlamıştır. Şekere kıyasla daha az enerji ve daha yoğun tatlı tadı sağlayan tatlandırıcıların, obezitenin önlenmesine ve tedavisine, ideal vücut ağırlığının korunmasına katkı sağladığı, böylece tatlandırıcı tüketimine eğilimin arttığı bildirilmiştir. Şekerden daha tatlı olmalarının yanı sıra enerji içeriklerinin çok düşük olması ya da olmaması nedeniyle, tatlandırıcıların sağlığı olumlu yönde etkilediği düşünülmektedir. Bununla birlikte yapılan bilimsel çalışmalar sonucunda tatlandırıcıların, besin tüketim durumuna ve metabolizma üzerine farklı etkilerinin olduğu bildirilmiştir. Uzun süre tatlandırıcı tüketiminin enerji homeostazını ve iştah metabolizmasını etkilediği, yeme isteğini artırdığı, bozulmuş kan glukoz regülasyonuna ve insülin direncine neden olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Ancak tatlandırıcıların özellikle insanlar üzerindeki metabolik etkileri son derece tartışmalıdır. Bu nedenle derleme olarak hazırlanan bu çalışmada, günümüzde yaygın olarak kullanılan, enerji içermeyen tatlandırıcıların obezite ve insülin direnci üzerine etkilerini değerlendirmek amaçlanmıştır. 

Yapay tatlandırıcı, vücut ağırlığı, obezite, insülin direnci, iştah
  • 1. Giesse JH. Alternative sweeteners and bulking agents. Food Technology. 1993; 1: 114-115, 118, 120-122. 2. Edwards C, Rossi M, Corpe C, Butterworth P, Ellis P. The role of sugars and sweeteners in food, diet and health: Alternatives for the future. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2016; 56: 158-166. 3. Burke M, Small D. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism. Physiology & Behavior. 2015; 152: 381–388. 4. Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Yönetmeliği http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/09/20170922-4.htm Erişim tarihi: 17.03.2018 5. U.S FDA. High intensity sweeteners. Güncelleme: 19.12.2017 Erişim Tarihi: 17.03.2018 https://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm397716.htm 6. Blundell J, Hill A. Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (Aspartame) on appetite. Lancet. 1986; 1: 1092-1093. 7. Rogers P, Carlyle J, Hill A, Blundell J. Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: Comparison of the effects of glucose and three ıntense sweeteners on hunger and food intake. Physiology & Behavior. 1988; 43: 547-555. 8. Swithers S. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity. Appetite. 2015; 93: 85-90. 9. Tey S, Salleh N, Henry J, Forde C. Effects of aspartame, monk fruit, stevia and sucrose sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake. International Journal of Obesity. 2016; 225: 1-21. 10. Blundell J, Green S. Effect of sucrose and sweeteners on appetite and energy intake. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 1996; 20: 12–17. 11. Fowler S, Williams K, Resendez R, Hunt K, Hazuda H, Stern M. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity. 2008; 16: 1894-1900. 12. Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 89: 1–14. 13. Blackburn G, Kanders B, Lavin P, Keller S, Whatley J. The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; 5: 409-418. 14. Raben A, Vasilaras T, Moller A, Astrup A. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 76: 721–729. 15. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm E, Willett W, Hu F. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011; 364: 2392-2404. 16. Swithers SE. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. Trends Endocrinology Metabolism. 2013; 24 :431–441. 17. Swithers S, Laboy A, Clark K, Cooper S, Davidson T. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 2012; 233: 1–14. 18. Pepino M. Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners. Physiology & Behavior. 2015; 152: 450–455. 19. Ahren B, Holst J. The cephalic insulin response to meal ingestion in humans is dependent on both cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms and is important for postprandial glycemia. Diabetes. 2001; 50: 1030-1038. 20. Pepino M, Tiemann C, Patterson B, Wice B, Klein S. Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 2530–2535. 21. Nakagawa Y, Nagasawa M, Yamada S, Hara A, Mogami H, Nikolaev VO, et al. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic β-cells activates the calcium and cyclic amp signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion. Plos One. 2009; 4: 1-11. 22. Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, Schapira G, Thaiss C, Maza O, et al. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature. 2014; 000: 1-5. 23. Romo-Romo A, Aguilar-Salinas C, Brito-Cordova G, Diaz R, Valentin D, Almeda-Valdes P. Effects of the non-nutritive sweeteners on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones: Systematic review of observational prospective studies and clinical trials. Plos One. 2016; 11: 1-17. 24. Fernstrom JD. Non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 6: 119–136. 25. Peters J, Beck J, Cardel M, Wyatt H, Foster G, Pan Z, et al. The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial. Obesity. 2016; 24: 297-304. 26. Tordoff M, Alleva A. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1990; 51: 963-969. 27. Koning L, Malik V, Rimm E, Willett W, Hu F. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011; 93: 1321–1327. 28. Vanselow MS, Pereira MA, Neumark Sztainer D, Raatz SK. Adolescent beverage habits and changes in weight over time: findings from Project EAT. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 90: 1489–1495. 29. Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 89: 1–14. 30. Manyema M, Veerman L, Chola L, Tugendhaft A, Sartorius B, Labadarios D et al. The potential ımpact of a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages on obesity in South African adults: A mathematical model. Plos One. 2014; 9: 1-10. 31. Tate D, Mcgrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012; 95: 555–563. 32. Miller P, Perez V. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014; 100: 765–777. 33. Stellman S, Garfinkel L. Artificial sweetener use an done year weight change among women. Preventive Medicine. 1986; 15: 195-202. 34. Roberts J. The paradox of artificial sweeteners in managing obesity. Current Gastroenterology Reports . 2015; 17: 1. 35. Dyer J, Salmon KSH, Zibrik L, Shirazi Beechey SP. Expression of sweet taste receptors of the T1R family in the intestinal tract and enteroendocrine cells. Biochemical Society Transactions. 2005; 33: 302–305. 36. Jang HJ, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis MJ, Carlson OD, Kim BJ, Zhou J et al. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. PNAS. 2007; 104: 15069–15074. 37. Janssen P, Rotondo A, Mule F, Tack J. Review article: a comparison of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2013; 37: 18–36. 38. Shirazi Beechey SP, Moran AW, Batchelor DJ, Daly K, Alrammahi M. Glucose sensing and signalling; regulation of intestinal glucose transport. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2011; 70: 185–193. 39. Margolskee RF, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon KSH, Ilegems E, Daly K et al. T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na + -glucose cotransporter 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007; 104: 15075-15080. 40. Ludwig DS. Artificially sweetened beverages: cause for concern. JAMA. 2009; 302: 2477–2478. 41. Ebbeling C, Feldman H, Osganian S, Chomitz V, Ellenbogen S, Ludwig D. Effects of decreasing sugar sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. 2006; 117: 673-680. 42. Malik V, Schulze M, Hu F. Intake of sugar sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 84(2): 274–288. 43. Malik V, Popkin B, Bray G, Despres J, Willett W, Hu F. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 2477–2483. 44. Malik V, Hu F. Sweeteners and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: The role of sugar-sweetened beverages. Current Diabetes Reports. 2012; 12: 195–203. 45. Berkey C, Rockett H, Field A, Gillman M, Colditz G. Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obesity Research. 2004; 12: 778-788. 46. Kuk JL, Brown RE. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2016; 41: 795–798. 47. Chia C, Shardell M, Tanaka T, Liu D, Gravenstein K, Simonsick E et al. Chronic low-calorie sweetener use and risk of abdominal obesity among older adults: A cohort study. Plos One. 2016; 11: 1-15.
Birincil Dil tr
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Sevinç EŞER DURMAZ (Sorumlu Yazar)

Yazar: Alev KESER

Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 25 Haziran 2018

Bibtex @derleme { gsbdergi432966, journal = {Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2548-0383}, address = {}, publisher = {Gazi Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {3}, pages = {8 - 15}, doi = {}, title = {YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ}, key = {cite}, author = {EŞER DURMAZ, Sevinç and KESER, Alev} }
APA EŞER DURMAZ, S , KESER, A . (2018). YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 3 (2) , 8-15 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gsbdergi/issue/37812/432966
MLA EŞER DURMAZ, S , KESER, A . "YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 3 (2018 ): 8-15 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gsbdergi/issue/37812/432966>
Chicago EŞER DURMAZ, S , KESER, A . "YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 3 (2018 ): 8-15
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ AU - Sevinç EŞER DURMAZ , Alev KESER Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 8 EP - 15 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - 2548-0383- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ %A Sevinç EŞER DURMAZ , Alev KESER %T YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ %D 2018 %J Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2548-0383- %V 3 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD EŞER DURMAZ, Sevinç , KESER, Alev . "YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 3 / 2 (Haziran 2018): 8-15 .
AMA EŞER DURMAZ S , KESER A . YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 3(2): 8-15.
Vancouver EŞER DURMAZ S , KESER A . YAPAY TATLANDIRICILARIN VÜCUT AĞIRLIĞI VE İNSÜLİN DİRENCİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 3(2): 15-8.