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GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 1 - 6, 31.03.2021

Öz

Gebeliğin ilk trimesterinde bulantı ve kusma şikâyeti oldukça sık yaşanmaktadır. Etiyolojisinde hormonal, psikolojik yatkınlık, evrimsel adaptasyon gibi farklı teoriler bulunmaktadır ancak hala nedeni kesinlik kazanmamıştır. Bulantı kusmanın maternal ve fetal etkileri, semptomların şiddetine göre değişiklik göstermektedir. Bulantı ve kusma gebenin yaşam kalitesini arttırmak, gebeliğe adaptasyonunu sağlamak ve fetal komplikasyonları ortadan kaldırmak için azaltılmalı/ortadan kaldırılmalıdır. Bulantı kusmanın tedavisinde her gebeye bireysel bakım sağlanmakta şikayetlerin şiddetine göre semptomatik yaklaşım uygulanmaktadır. Tedavi seçeneklerinde farmakolojik ve nonfarmakolojik pek çok yöntem bulunmakla birlikte, gebelerin doğal ve zararsız olarak gördükleri bitkisel yöntemler önem kazanmaktadır. Teratojenik ve abortifasiyan etkileri nedeniyle, birçok bitkinin gebelikte kullanılması kontrendikedir. Genellikle Güney Asya'da kendi kendine yetişen çok yıllık bir bitki olan zencefilin (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), gebelikte kullanımı klinik araştırmalar ile güvenilir kabul edilmiştir. Bu derlemenin amacı nonfarmakolojik yöntemlerden biri olan zencefilin, gebelik bulantı kusma tedavisindeki kullanımını ve etkilerini incelemektir.

Kaynakça

  • Topçu GB, Ateş NA, Küğcümen G. Gebelikte bulantı ve kusma yönetimi. Cumhuriyet Üniv Sağ Bil Enst Derg. 2019;4(2):29-33.
  • Matthews A, Haas DM, O'Mathúna DP, Dowswell T. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007575.
  • Sridharan K, Sivaramakrishnan G. Interventions for treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy:A network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018;11(11):1143-1150.
  • Bustos M, Venkataramanan R, Caritis S. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy- What's new? Auton Neurosci. 2017;202:62-72.
  • Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea And Vomiting Of Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan;131(1): e15-e30.
  • Mecdi M, Rathfisch G. Gebelikte oluşan rahatsızlıklarda kanıta dayalı uygulamalar. FNJN. 2013;21(2):129-138.
  • Ozgoli G, Saei Ghare Naz M. Effects of complementary medicine on nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A systematic review. Int J Prev Med. 2018;30(9):75.
  • Bülbül M, Kaplanoğlu M, Yıldırım EA, Yılmaz B. Hiperemezis gravidarum. Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi. 2017;26(3):269-296.
  • Yekenkunrul D. Gebelikte bulantı kusma, evlilik uyumu ve eş ilişkisi arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Doctoral dissertation, DEÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. 2011. 
  • O'Brien B, Evans M, White-McDonald E. Isolation from "being alive": coping with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Nursing Research. 2002;51(5):302-308.
  • Timur S, Kızılırmak A, Gebelerin bulantı kusma ile baş etme yöntemleri, FNJN. 2011;19(3):129-134.
  • Hinkle SN, Mumford SL, Grantz KL, et al. Association of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy with pregnancy loss: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(11):1621-1627.
  • Regodón Wallin A, Tielsch JM, Khatry SK, et al. Nausea, vomiting and poor appetite during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes in rural Nepal: An observational cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;17;20(1):545.
  • Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002;109(3):227-235.
  • ACOG (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology) Practice Bulletin No. 153: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(3):e12-24.
  • Fendoğlu B, Şöhretoğlu D. Gebelikte bitkisel ürün kullanımı. J Lit Pharm Sci. 2018;7(3):175-84.
  • Ahmadi F, Yazdandoust Y. Use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A systematic review. J Adv Pharm Edu Res 2020;10(S1):102-105.
  • Nikkhah Bodagh M, Maleki I, Hekmatdoost A. Ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: A systematic review of clinical trials. Food Sci Nutr. 2018;7(1):96-108.
  • Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger--an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005;8(2):125-32.
  • Konuklugil B. Zencefil'in (zingiber officinale) tarih boyunca önemi ve günümüzdeki kullanımı. Ankara Üniversitesi Akademik Arşiv Sistemi. 2004 https://dspace.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12575/64316/14665.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Erişim tarihi: 22.11.2020)
  • Lete I, Allué J. The effectiveness of ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and chemotherapy. Integr Med Insights. 2016;31(11):11-7.
  • Ozgoli G, Goli M, Simbar M. Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(3):243-246.
  • Morvaridzadeh M, Fazelian S, Agah S, et al. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cytokine. 2020;135:155224.
  • Saneei Totmaj A, Emamat H, Jarrahi F, et al. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients: A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(8):1957-1965.
  • Güceyü Ç, Goncagül G, Günaydın E, Akpınar P. Zencefil’in antibakteriyal etkisi. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2019;30(1),44-50.
  • Mao Qian-Qian, Xu Xiao-Yu, Cao Shi-Yu, Gan Ren-You, Corke Harold, Beta Trust, Li Hua-Bin. Bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Foods. 2019;8(6):185.
  • Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, Rezaiie M, Farhadifar F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14(16):817-820.
  • Haji Seid Javadi E, Salehi F, Mashrabi O. Comparing the effectiveness of vitamin B6 and ginger in treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;2013:927834.
  • Saberi F, Sadat Z, Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Taebi M. Acupressure and ginger to relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A randomized study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(9):854-861.
  • Narenji F, Delavar M, Rafiei M. Comparison the effects of the ginger fresh root and vitamin B6 on the nausea and vomiting in Pregnancy. IJOGI. 2012;15(2):35-41.
  • Saberi F, Sadat Z, Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Taebi M. Effect of ginger on relieving nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2014;3(1):e11841.
  • Firouzbakht M, Nikpour M, Jamali B, Omidvar S. Comparison of ginger with vitamin B6 in relieving nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Ayu. 2014;35(3):289-293.
  • Rukh L, Nazar H, Usmanghani K. Efficacy of gingocap as compared to pyridoxine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016;29(6):1937-1943.
  • Pakniat H, Memarzadeh MR, Azh N, Mafi M, Ranjkesh F. Comparison of the effect of chamomile, ginger and vitamin B6 on treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial. IJOGI. 2018;21(8):47-54.
  • Nazari S, Shayan A, Shobeiri F, et al. Comparison of the effects of ondansetron, vitamin b6 and ginger rhizome in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial. IJOGI. 2018;21(7):29-35.
  • Sharifzadeh F, Kashanian M, Koohpayehzadeh J, et al. A comparison between the effects of ginger, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and placebo for the treatment of the first trimester nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(19):2509-2514.
  • Kusumawardani PA, Cholifah S, Multazam MT, Nandiyanto ABD, Abdullah AG, Widiaty I. Effect of ginger drinks on nausea vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. In IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2018; 288(1):12161.
  • Moghadam ZK, Najfabady MT, Abedi P, et al. Investigating the effect of ginger capsules on the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) in Mahshahr Clinics, eIJPPR. 2019;9(3):9-15.
  • Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutr J. 2014;19(13):20.

USE OF GINGER IN PREGNANCY NAUSEA AND VOMITING

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 1 - 6, 31.03.2021

Öz

Complaints of nausea and vomiting are quite common in the first trimester of pregnancy. There are theories claiming a role in etiology such as hormonal, psychological predisposition and evolutionary adaption, but they are still not clear. Maternal and fetal effects of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy varies depending on the severity of symptoms. Nausea and vomiting should be reduced / eliminated to increase the quality of life, to adapt to pregnancy and to eliminate fetal complications. In the treatment of nausea and vomiting, individual care is provided to each pregnant woman and a symptomatic approach is applied according to the severity of the complaints. There are many pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods in its treatment. Among these treatments, herbal methods, which pregnant women see as natural and harmless, gain importance. Many herbs are contraindicated to use during pregnancy due to their teratogenic and abortifacient effects. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), which is a perennial herb that usually grows in South Asia, in pregnancy has been recognized as reliable by clinical studies. The point of this review is to examine the use and effects of ginger, one of the non-pharmacological methods, in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Kaynakça

  • Topçu GB, Ateş NA, Küğcümen G. Gebelikte bulantı ve kusma yönetimi. Cumhuriyet Üniv Sağ Bil Enst Derg. 2019;4(2):29-33.
  • Matthews A, Haas DM, O'Mathúna DP, Dowswell T. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007575.
  • Sridharan K, Sivaramakrishnan G. Interventions for treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy:A network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018;11(11):1143-1150.
  • Bustos M, Venkataramanan R, Caritis S. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy- What's new? Auton Neurosci. 2017;202:62-72.
  • Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea And Vomiting Of Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan;131(1): e15-e30.
  • Mecdi M, Rathfisch G. Gebelikte oluşan rahatsızlıklarda kanıta dayalı uygulamalar. FNJN. 2013;21(2):129-138.
  • Ozgoli G, Saei Ghare Naz M. Effects of complementary medicine on nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A systematic review. Int J Prev Med. 2018;30(9):75.
  • Bülbül M, Kaplanoğlu M, Yıldırım EA, Yılmaz B. Hiperemezis gravidarum. Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi. 2017;26(3):269-296.
  • Yekenkunrul D. Gebelikte bulantı kusma, evlilik uyumu ve eş ilişkisi arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Doctoral dissertation, DEÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. 2011. 
  • O'Brien B, Evans M, White-McDonald E. Isolation from "being alive": coping with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Nursing Research. 2002;51(5):302-308.
  • Timur S, Kızılırmak A, Gebelerin bulantı kusma ile baş etme yöntemleri, FNJN. 2011;19(3):129-134.
  • Hinkle SN, Mumford SL, Grantz KL, et al. Association of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy with pregnancy loss: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(11):1621-1627.
  • Regodón Wallin A, Tielsch JM, Khatry SK, et al. Nausea, vomiting and poor appetite during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes in rural Nepal: An observational cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;17;20(1):545.
  • Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002;109(3):227-235.
  • ACOG (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology) Practice Bulletin No. 153: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(3):e12-24.
  • Fendoğlu B, Şöhretoğlu D. Gebelikte bitkisel ürün kullanımı. J Lit Pharm Sci. 2018;7(3):175-84.
  • Ahmadi F, Yazdandoust Y. Use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A systematic review. J Adv Pharm Edu Res 2020;10(S1):102-105.
  • Nikkhah Bodagh M, Maleki I, Hekmatdoost A. Ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: A systematic review of clinical trials. Food Sci Nutr. 2018;7(1):96-108.
  • Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger--an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005;8(2):125-32.
  • Konuklugil B. Zencefil'in (zingiber officinale) tarih boyunca önemi ve günümüzdeki kullanımı. Ankara Üniversitesi Akademik Arşiv Sistemi. 2004 https://dspace.ankara.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.12575/64316/14665.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Erişim tarihi: 22.11.2020)
  • Lete I, Allué J. The effectiveness of ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and chemotherapy. Integr Med Insights. 2016;31(11):11-7.
  • Ozgoli G, Goli M, Simbar M. Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(3):243-246.
  • Morvaridzadeh M, Fazelian S, Agah S, et al. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cytokine. 2020;135:155224.
  • Saneei Totmaj A, Emamat H, Jarrahi F, et al. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients: A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(8):1957-1965.
  • Güceyü Ç, Goncagül G, Günaydın E, Akpınar P. Zencefil’in antibakteriyal etkisi. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2019;30(1),44-50.
  • Mao Qian-Qian, Xu Xiao-Yu, Cao Shi-Yu, Gan Ren-You, Corke Harold, Beta Trust, Li Hua-Bin. Bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Foods. 2019;8(6):185.
  • Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, Rezaiie M, Farhadifar F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14(16):817-820.
  • Haji Seid Javadi E, Salehi F, Mashrabi O. Comparing the effectiveness of vitamin B6 and ginger in treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;2013:927834.
  • Saberi F, Sadat Z, Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Taebi M. Acupressure and ginger to relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A randomized study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(9):854-861.
  • Narenji F, Delavar M, Rafiei M. Comparison the effects of the ginger fresh root and vitamin B6 on the nausea and vomiting in Pregnancy. IJOGI. 2012;15(2):35-41.
  • Saberi F, Sadat Z, Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Taebi M. Effect of ginger on relieving nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2014;3(1):e11841.
  • Firouzbakht M, Nikpour M, Jamali B, Omidvar S. Comparison of ginger with vitamin B6 in relieving nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Ayu. 2014;35(3):289-293.
  • Rukh L, Nazar H, Usmanghani K. Efficacy of gingocap as compared to pyridoxine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016;29(6):1937-1943.
  • Pakniat H, Memarzadeh MR, Azh N, Mafi M, Ranjkesh F. Comparison of the effect of chamomile, ginger and vitamin B6 on treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial. IJOGI. 2018;21(8):47-54.
  • Nazari S, Shayan A, Shobeiri F, et al. Comparison of the effects of ondansetron, vitamin b6 and ginger rhizome in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial. IJOGI. 2018;21(7):29-35.
  • Sharifzadeh F, Kashanian M, Koohpayehzadeh J, et al. A comparison between the effects of ginger, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and placebo for the treatment of the first trimester nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;31(19):2509-2514.
  • Kusumawardani PA, Cholifah S, Multazam MT, Nandiyanto ABD, Abdullah AG, Widiaty I. Effect of ginger drinks on nausea vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. In IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2018; 288(1):12161.
  • Moghadam ZK, Najfabady MT, Abedi P, et al. Investigating the effect of ginger capsules on the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) in Mahshahr Clinics, eIJPPR. 2019;9(3):9-15.
  • Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutr J. 2014;19(13):20.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri, Hemşirelik
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Yağmur ERİŞEN>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-9805-5901
Türkiye


Hüsniye DİNÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-8461-643X
Türkiye


Sevil GÜNAYDIN>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0003-2539-8783
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum YOK
Proje Numarası YOK
Teşekkür -
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 3 Ocak 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 4 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 15 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gtatder909469, journal = {Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi}, eissn = {2757-7643}, address = {}, publisher = {Sakarya Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 6}, title = {GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI}, key = {cite}, author = {Erişen, Yağmur and Dinç, Hüsniye and Günaydın, Sevil} }
APA Erişen, Y. , Dinç, H. & Günaydın, S. (2021). GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI . Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi , 3 (1) , 1-6 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gtatder/issue/64164/909469
MLA Erişen, Y. , Dinç, H. , Günaydın, S. "GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI" . Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi 3 (2021 ): 1-6 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gtatder/issue/64164/909469>
Chicago Erişen, Y. , Dinç, H. , Günaydın, S. "GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI". Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi 3 (2021 ): 1-6
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI AU - YağmurErişen, HüsniyeDinç, SevilGünaydın Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 6 VL - 3 IS - 1 SN - -2757-7643 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI %A Yağmur Erişen , Hüsniye Dinç , Sevil Günaydın %T GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI %D 2021 %J Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi %P -2757-7643 %V 3 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Erişen, Yağmur , Dinç, Hüsniye , Günaydın, Sevil . "GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI". Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi 3 / 1 (Mart 2021): 1-6 .
AMA Erişen Y. , Dinç H. , Günaydın S. GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI. Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi. 2021; 3(1): 1-6.
Vancouver Erişen Y. , Dinç H. , Günaydın S. GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI. Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi. 2021; 3(1): 1-6.
IEEE Y. Erişen , H. Dinç ve S. Günaydın , "GEBELİK BULANTI ve KUSMASINDA ZENCEFİL KULLANIMI", Geleneksel ve Tamamlayıcı Anadolu Tıbbı Dergisi, c. 3, sayı. 1, ss. 1-6, Mar. 2021