Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 19, 34 - 48, 30.03.2020

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., & Tanzi, V. (2010), “Income Distribution Determinants and Public Spending Efficiency”, Journal of Economic Inequality, 8(3), 367–389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-010-9138-z
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2005), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data (Third Edition), West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Bayar, Y., & Sasmaz, M. U. (2017), "Social Expenditures and Poverty in Central and Eastern European Union Countries : A Causality Analysis", David Procházka (Ed.) The Impact Of Globalization on Internatıonal Finance and Accountıng, 18th ACFA, Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics Books Series, 257–263.
  • Bayar, Y., Sasmaz, M. U., & Ozturk, O. F. (2017), "Corruption , Income Inequality and Poverty in Central and Eastern European Union Countries : A Panel Causality Analysis", İnsan ve toplum Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi, 6(6), 340–349.
  • Chu, K., Davoodi, H., & Gupta, S. (2000), "Income Distribution and Tax, and Government Social Spending Policies in Developing Countries" (No. 214), World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER), https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/wp214.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 9.1.2019).
  • Cimoli, M., Neto, A. M., Porcile, G., & Sossdorf, F. (2017), “Productivity, Social Expenditure and Income Distribution in Latin America”, Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, 37(4), 660–679. https://doi.org/10.1590/0101-31572017v37n04a01
  • Clements, B. (1997). "Income Distrution and Social Expenditure in Brazil", (No. WP/97/120), https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp97120.pdf, (Erişim: 9.1.2019).
  • Cutler, D. M., & Katz, L. F. (1992), "Rising Inequality, Changes in the Distribution of Income and Consumption in the 1980s" (No. 3964), https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/lkatz/files/cutler_katz_1991_aea.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 9.1.2019).
  • Čok, M., Urban, I., & Verbič, M. (2013), "Income Redistribution Through Taxes and Social Benefits: The Case of Slovenia and Croatia”, Panoeconomicus, 60(5), 667-686. https://doi.org/10.2298/PAN1305667C
  • Çalışkan, Ş. (2010), “Türkiye’de Gelir Eşitsizliği ve Yoksulluk”, Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları, 59(2), 89–132.
  • D’Agostino, G., Pieroni, L., & Procidano, I. (2016), "Revisiting the Relationship Between Welfare Spending and Income Inequality in OECD Countries", Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000349921.14519.2A
  • Devine, J. A. (1983), "Fiscal Policy and Class Income Inequality: The Distributional Consequences of Governmental Revenues and Expenditures in the United States 1949-1976", American Sociological Review, 48(5), 606–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094922
  • Eroğlu, N., Altaş, D., Turgut, Ü. N. & Ulu, M. İ. (2017), "OECD Ülkelerinde Sosyal Yardım Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımına Etkisi: Panel Veri Analizi", Uluslararası Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(3), 335–354.
  • Eurostat. (2018a), "Gini Coefficient of Equivalised Disposable Income - EU-SILC Survey", https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Eurostat. (2018b), "Tables by Functions, Aggregated Benefits and Grouped Schemes - in % of the GDP", http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=spr_exp_gdp&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Eurostat. (2018c), "Pensions- Percentage of GDP", http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=spr_exp_pens&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Feld, L. P., Fischer, J. A. V., & Kirchgässner, G. (2010), "The Effect of Direct Democracy on Income Redistribution: Evidence for Switzerland", Economic Inquiry, 48(4), 817–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00174.x
  • Goudswaard, K., Vliet, O. V., Been, J., & Caminada, K. (2012), "Pensions and Income Inequality in Old Age", CESifo DICE Report, ISSN 1613-6373, ifo Institut -Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München, München, 10(4), 21-26.
  • Hazman, G. G. (2011), "Türkiye’de Gelir Dağılımında Adalet ve Sosyal Güvenlik Harcamaları Arasındaki Nedensellik İlişkisi", Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(1), 205–216.
  • Holzner, M. (2010), "Inequality, Growth and Public Spending in Central, East and Southeast Europe", ECINEQ WP, 2011, 1-25
  • Huber, E.., Pribble, J., & Stephens, J. D. (2004), "Social Spending and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean" In Paper Delivered At The Meetings Of The Society For The Advancement Of Socio-Economics, Washington. DC. July.
  • ILO (2017), "World Social Protection Report 2017–19, Universal Social Protection to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals", World Social Protection Report 2017-19, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0104(02)00342-7
  • Im, K. S., Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (2003), "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels", Journal of Econometrics, 115(1), 53–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(03)00092-7
  • Inequality.org (2017), "Global Inequality", https://inequality.org/facts/global-inequality/, (Erişim Tarihi: 17.12.2018).
  • İlgün, M. F. (2015), "Kamu Sosyal Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: OECD Ülkelerine Yönelik Panel Veri Analizi", Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17(4), 493–516.
  • Jao, C. (2000), "The Impact of Tax Revenue and Social Welfare Expenditure on Income Distribution in Taiwan", Journal Of the Asia Pacific Economy, 5(1-2), 2018.
  • Jutz, R. (2015), "The Role of Income Inequality and Social Policies on Income-Related Health Inequalities in Europe", International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0247-y
  • Kao, C. (1999), "Spurious Regression and Residual-Based Tests for Cointegration in Panel Data", Journal of Econometrics, 90(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(98)00023-2
  • Kenworthy, L. (1999), "Do Social-Welfare Policies Reduce Poverty ? A Cross-National Assessment", Social Forces, 77(3), 1119–1139.
  • Kök, R. & Şimşek, N. (2009), "Panel Veri Analizi", http://www. deu.edu.tr/userweb/recep. kok/dosyalar/panel2, (Erişim Tarihi: 23.12.2018).
  • Kozuharov, S., & Petkovski, V. (2018), "The Impact of Social Transfers on Inequality Measured By Gini Index : The Example of Macedonia", UTMS Journal of Economics, 9(1), 49–61.
  • Levin, A., & Lin, C. F. (1993), "Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties", Unpublished Manuscript, University of California San Diego.
  • Maddala, G. S., & Wu, S. (1999), "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test", Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(s1), 631–652. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.61.s1.13
  • Niehues, J. (2010), "Social Spending Generosity and Income Inequality: A Dynamic Panel Approach", Dıscussıon Paper Serıes, IZA (No. 5178) (C. September). https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE201761556
  • OECD (2018), "Social Spending- Public of GDP", https://data.oecd.org/socialexp/social-spending.htm, (Erişim Tarihi: 17.12.2018).
  • Ospina, M. (2010), "The Effect of Social Spending on Income Inequality: An Analysis for Latin American Countries", (No. 10-03), Optometry and Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001103
  • Ozawa, M. N., & Kim, T. S. (1989), "Distributive Effects of Social Security and Pension Benefits", Social Service Review, 63(3), 335–358.
  • Pedroni, P. (1999), "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors", Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(s1), 653–670. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.61.s1.14
  • Pedroni, P. (2000), "Fully Modified Ols for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels. In Nonstationary Panels, Panels Cointegration and Dynamic Panels", Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 15, 93–130.
  • Pedroni, P. (2004), "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application to the PPP Hypothesis", Econometric Theory, 20, 597–625, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266466604203073
  • Reis, P. R. D C., Silveira, S. D. F. R., Braga, M. J., & Costa, T. D M. T. D. (2015), "Impact of Retirements and Pensions on the Social Welfare of the Households from Minas Gerais State", Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, 26(67), 106–118, https://doi.org/10.1590/1808-057x201511890
  • Schwabish, J., Smeeding, T., & Osberg, L. (2004), "Income Distribution and Social Expenditures: A Cross-National Perspective", Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper, 350
  • Ürper, T. D. (2018), "Kamu Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Türkiye Örneği", Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Maliye Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Yardımcıoğlu, F. (2012a), "Eğitim Harcamaları, Ekonomik Büyüme ve Gelir Dağılımı İlişkisi", Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, T.C. Sakarya Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Maliye Anabilim Dalı, Sakarya.
  • Yardımcıoğlu, F. (2012b), "OECD Ülkelerinde Sağlık ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisinin Ekonometrik Bir İncelemesi", Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 27–47.

Sosyal Harcamaların Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri Örneği

Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 19, 34 - 48, 30.03.2020

Öz

Sosyal refah devleti açısından önemli bir yere sahip olan sosyal harcamalar, düşük gelir grubuna yönelik olduğundan dolayı gelir dağılımı üzerinde etkili olabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada panel veri analizi kullanılarak 7 Orta ve Doğu Avrupa ülkesinde 2005-2017 yılları arasında sosyal harcamalar içerisinde yer alan sosyal koruma harcamaları ile emekli maaş ödemelerinin gelir dağılımı üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda emekli maaş ödemelerinin gelir dağılımı adaletsizliği üzerinde negatif yönlü bir etkiye sahip olduğu, sosyal koruma harcamalarının ise gelir dağılımı üzerinde anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., & Tanzi, V. (2010), “Income Distribution Determinants and Public Spending Efficiency”, Journal of Economic Inequality, 8(3), 367–389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-010-9138-z
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2005), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data (Third Edition), West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Bayar, Y., & Sasmaz, M. U. (2017), "Social Expenditures and Poverty in Central and Eastern European Union Countries : A Causality Analysis", David Procházka (Ed.) The Impact Of Globalization on Internatıonal Finance and Accountıng, 18th ACFA, Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics Books Series, 257–263.
  • Bayar, Y., Sasmaz, M. U., & Ozturk, O. F. (2017), "Corruption , Income Inequality and Poverty in Central and Eastern European Union Countries : A Panel Causality Analysis", İnsan ve toplum Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi, 6(6), 340–349.
  • Chu, K., Davoodi, H., & Gupta, S. (2000), "Income Distribution and Tax, and Government Social Spending Policies in Developing Countries" (No. 214), World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER), https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/wp214.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 9.1.2019).
  • Cimoli, M., Neto, A. M., Porcile, G., & Sossdorf, F. (2017), “Productivity, Social Expenditure and Income Distribution in Latin America”, Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, 37(4), 660–679. https://doi.org/10.1590/0101-31572017v37n04a01
  • Clements, B. (1997). "Income Distrution and Social Expenditure in Brazil", (No. WP/97/120), https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp97120.pdf, (Erişim: 9.1.2019).
  • Cutler, D. M., & Katz, L. F. (1992), "Rising Inequality, Changes in the Distribution of Income and Consumption in the 1980s" (No. 3964), https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/lkatz/files/cutler_katz_1991_aea.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 9.1.2019).
  • Čok, M., Urban, I., & Verbič, M. (2013), "Income Redistribution Through Taxes and Social Benefits: The Case of Slovenia and Croatia”, Panoeconomicus, 60(5), 667-686. https://doi.org/10.2298/PAN1305667C
  • Çalışkan, Ş. (2010), “Türkiye’de Gelir Eşitsizliği ve Yoksulluk”, Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları, 59(2), 89–132.
  • D’Agostino, G., Pieroni, L., & Procidano, I. (2016), "Revisiting the Relationship Between Welfare Spending and Income Inequality in OECD Countries", Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000349921.14519.2A
  • Devine, J. A. (1983), "Fiscal Policy and Class Income Inequality: The Distributional Consequences of Governmental Revenues and Expenditures in the United States 1949-1976", American Sociological Review, 48(5), 606–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094922
  • Eroğlu, N., Altaş, D., Turgut, Ü. N. & Ulu, M. İ. (2017), "OECD Ülkelerinde Sosyal Yardım Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımına Etkisi: Panel Veri Analizi", Uluslararası Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(3), 335–354.
  • Eurostat. (2018a), "Gini Coefficient of Equivalised Disposable Income - EU-SILC Survey", https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Eurostat. (2018b), "Tables by Functions, Aggregated Benefits and Grouped Schemes - in % of the GDP", http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=spr_exp_gdp&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Eurostat. (2018c), "Pensions- Percentage of GDP", http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=spr_exp_pens&lang=en, (Erişim Tarihi: 26.12.2019).
  • Feld, L. P., Fischer, J. A. V., & Kirchgässner, G. (2010), "The Effect of Direct Democracy on Income Redistribution: Evidence for Switzerland", Economic Inquiry, 48(4), 817–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00174.x
  • Goudswaard, K., Vliet, O. V., Been, J., & Caminada, K. (2012), "Pensions and Income Inequality in Old Age", CESifo DICE Report, ISSN 1613-6373, ifo Institut -Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München, München, 10(4), 21-26.
  • Hazman, G. G. (2011), "Türkiye’de Gelir Dağılımında Adalet ve Sosyal Güvenlik Harcamaları Arasındaki Nedensellik İlişkisi", Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(1), 205–216.
  • Holzner, M. (2010), "Inequality, Growth and Public Spending in Central, East and Southeast Europe", ECINEQ WP, 2011, 1-25
  • Huber, E.., Pribble, J., & Stephens, J. D. (2004), "Social Spending and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean" In Paper Delivered At The Meetings Of The Society For The Advancement Of Socio-Economics, Washington. DC. July.
  • ILO (2017), "World Social Protection Report 2017–19, Universal Social Protection to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals", World Social Protection Report 2017-19, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0104(02)00342-7
  • Im, K. S., Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (2003), "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels", Journal of Econometrics, 115(1), 53–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(03)00092-7
  • Inequality.org (2017), "Global Inequality", https://inequality.org/facts/global-inequality/, (Erişim Tarihi: 17.12.2018).
  • İlgün, M. F. (2015), "Kamu Sosyal Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: OECD Ülkelerine Yönelik Panel Veri Analizi", Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17(4), 493–516.
  • Jao, C. (2000), "The Impact of Tax Revenue and Social Welfare Expenditure on Income Distribution in Taiwan", Journal Of the Asia Pacific Economy, 5(1-2), 2018.
  • Jutz, R. (2015), "The Role of Income Inequality and Social Policies on Income-Related Health Inequalities in Europe", International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0247-y
  • Kao, C. (1999), "Spurious Regression and Residual-Based Tests for Cointegration in Panel Data", Journal of Econometrics, 90(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(98)00023-2
  • Kenworthy, L. (1999), "Do Social-Welfare Policies Reduce Poverty ? A Cross-National Assessment", Social Forces, 77(3), 1119–1139.
  • Kök, R. & Şimşek, N. (2009), "Panel Veri Analizi", http://www. deu.edu.tr/userweb/recep. kok/dosyalar/panel2, (Erişim Tarihi: 23.12.2018).
  • Kozuharov, S., & Petkovski, V. (2018), "The Impact of Social Transfers on Inequality Measured By Gini Index : The Example of Macedonia", UTMS Journal of Economics, 9(1), 49–61.
  • Levin, A., & Lin, C. F. (1993), "Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties", Unpublished Manuscript, University of California San Diego.
  • Maddala, G. S., & Wu, S. (1999), "A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test", Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(s1), 631–652. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.61.s1.13
  • Niehues, J. (2010), "Social Spending Generosity and Income Inequality: A Dynamic Panel Approach", Dıscussıon Paper Serıes, IZA (No. 5178) (C. September). https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE201761556
  • OECD (2018), "Social Spending- Public of GDP", https://data.oecd.org/socialexp/social-spending.htm, (Erişim Tarihi: 17.12.2018).
  • Ospina, M. (2010), "The Effect of Social Spending on Income Inequality: An Analysis for Latin American Countries", (No. 10-03), Optometry and Vision Science, https://doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001103
  • Ozawa, M. N., & Kim, T. S. (1989), "Distributive Effects of Social Security and Pension Benefits", Social Service Review, 63(3), 335–358.
  • Pedroni, P. (1999), "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors", Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(s1), 653–670. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.61.s1.14
  • Pedroni, P. (2000), "Fully Modified Ols for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels. In Nonstationary Panels, Panels Cointegration and Dynamic Panels", Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 15, 93–130.
  • Pedroni, P. (2004), "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application to the PPP Hypothesis", Econometric Theory, 20, 597–625, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266466604203073
  • Reis, P. R. D C., Silveira, S. D. F. R., Braga, M. J., & Costa, T. D M. T. D. (2015), "Impact of Retirements and Pensions on the Social Welfare of the Households from Minas Gerais State", Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, 26(67), 106–118, https://doi.org/10.1590/1808-057x201511890
  • Schwabish, J., Smeeding, T., & Osberg, L. (2004), "Income Distribution and Social Expenditures: A Cross-National Perspective", Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper, 350
  • Ürper, T. D. (2018), "Kamu Harcamalarının Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Türkiye Örneği", Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Maliye Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Yardımcıoğlu, F. (2012a), "Eğitim Harcamaları, Ekonomik Büyüme ve Gelir Dağılımı İlişkisi", Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, T.C. Sakarya Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Maliye Anabilim Dalı, Sakarya.
  • Yardımcıoğlu, F. (2012b), "OECD Ülkelerinde Sağlık ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisinin Ekonometrik Bir İncelemesi", Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 27–47.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Yayınlanma Tarihi Bahar
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Fatih YARDIMCIOĞLU
SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7758-8549
Türkiye


Yunus Emre YAYLA (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1924-4550
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 7, Sayı 19

Kaynak Göster

APA Yardımcıoğlu, F. & Yayla, Y. E. (2020). Sosyal Harcamaların Gelir Dağılımı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri Örneği . Gümrük ve Ticaret Dergisi , 7 (19) , 34-48 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumrukticaretdergisi/issue/53766/689318

Dergimiz ULAKBİM tarafından izlenmekte, ASOSINDEX ve SOBİAD tarafından taranmaktadır"