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Safe Maternal Attachment and Breastfeeding in Newborns during the COVID-19 Pandemic Process

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 993 - 999, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870322

Öz

The COVID-19 factor, which started in China and showed its effect all over the world in a short time, has negatively affected every age period. In this process, social distance measures implemented within the scope of the measures taken due to the COVID-19 pandemic cause difficulties in terms of secure maternal attachment and breastfeeding, especially for newborns and their mothers. Maternal attachment and breastfeeding are very important practices that have positive effects in the neonatal period and continue in adulthood in the long term. With the mother-infant interaction initiated in the early period, the breastfeeding process also takes place in a positive way. However, due to the pandemic process, there are disruptions in both maternal attachment and breastfeeding processes. International health organizations such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that breastfeeding should not be interrupted during the COVID-19 process and that the mother and baby should not be separated during this process. In this process, it is recommended that healthcare personnel maintain secure maternal attachment and breastfeeding by accessing up-to-date information from the right source. In this review, the principles of secure maternal attachment and breastfeeding in newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic were examined in line with current guidelines.

Kaynakça

  • Yang, N, Che, S, Zhang, J, Wang, X, Tang, Y, Wang, J. et al. (2020). “Breastfeeding of Infants Born To Mothers with COVID-19: A Rapid Review”. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8 (10), 618.
  • Ma, X, Zhu, J. and Du, L. (2020). “Neonatal Management During the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak: The Chinese Experience”. NeoReviews, 21 (5), e293–e297.
  • Panahi, L, Amiri, M. and Pouy, S. (2020). “Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Infection in Newborns and Pediatrics: A Systematic Review”. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8 (1), e50.
  • Tscherning, C, Sizun, J. and Kuhn, P. (2020). “Promoting Attachment between Parents and Neonates Despite the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Acta Paediatrica, 109 (10), 1937-1943.
  • TJOD İstanbul Bülteni. (2020). “COVID-19 özel sayısı”. Erişim adresi: index (tjodistanbul.org) (Erişim Tarihi: 02 Aralık 2020).
  • Nacar, E.H. ve Gökkaya, F. (2019). “Bağlanma ve Maternal Bağlanma Konusunda Bir Derleme”. Kıbrıs Türk Psikiyatri ve Psikoloji Dergisi, 1 (1), 50-56.
  • Meredith, P.J, Strong, J. and Feeney, J.A. (2007). “Adult Attachment Variables Predict Depression before and after Treatment for Chronic Pain”. European Journal of Pain, 11 (2), 164–170.
  • Peters, K.L, Rosychuk, R.J, Hendson, L, Coté, J.J, Mc Pherson, C. and Tyebkhan, J.M. (2009). “Improvement of Short-and Long-Term Outcomes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Edmonton NIDCAP Trial”. Pediatrics, 124 (4), 1009-20.
  • Charpak, N, Tessier, R, Ruiz, J.G, Hernandez, J.T, Uriza, F, Villegas, J. et al. (2017). “Twenty-year Follow-Up of Kangaroo Mother Care Versus Traditional Care”. Pediatrics, 139 (1), e20162063.
  • Jaafar, S.H, Ho, J.J. and Lee, KS. (2016). “Rooming-in for New Mother and Infant Versus Separate Care for Increasing The Duration of Breastfeeding”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 26 (8), CD006641.
  • Blair, P.S. and Ball, H.L. (2004). “The Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Parent-Infant Bed-Sharing in England”. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89 (12), 1106–1110.
  • Çınar, N, Sözeri, C, Dede, C. ve Cevahir, R. (2010). “Anne ve Bebeğin Aynı Odada Uyumasının Emzirmeye Etkisi”. Maltepe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Bilim ve Sanatı Dergisi, 235-241.
  • Dong, Y, Mo, X, Hu, Y, Qi, X, Jiang, F, Jiang, Z. and Tong, S. (2020). “Epidemiology of COVID-19 among Children in China”. Pediatrics, 145 (6), e20200702.
  • Sinha, IP, Harwood, R, Semple, MG, Hawcutt, DB, Thursfield, R, Narayan, O. et al. (2020). “COVID-19 Infection in children”. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8 (5), 446-447.
  • Wold Health Organization. (2020). “Infant Mortality Rate (Deaths per 1000 Live Births)”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/infant-mortality-rate-(deaths-per-1000-live-births). (Erişim tarihi: 03 Aralık 2020).
  • Ludvigsson, J.F. (2020). “Systematic review of COVID‐19 in Children Shows Milder Cases and A Better Prognosis Than Adults”. Acta Paediatrica, 109 (6), 1088-1095.
  • Tezer, H. and Demi̇rdağ, T. (2020). “Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Children”. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50, 592-603.
  • Chen, H, Guo, J, Wang, C, Luo, F, Yu, X, Zhang, W. et al. (2020). “Clinical Characteristics and Intrauterine Vertical Transmission Potential of COVID-19 Infection İn Nine Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records”. Lancet, 395 (10226), 809-15.
  • Ard, N.C. (2000). “Prenatal and Postnatal Attachment in Adolescent Mother”. Journal of Child and Family Nursing, 3 (5), 313-325.
  • Fraley, R.C. and Shaver, PR. (2000). “Adult Romantic Attachment: Theoretical Developments, Emerging, Controversies and Unanswered Questions”. Review of General Psychology, 4 (2), 132-154.
  • Moore, E.R, Anderson, G.C. and Bergman, N. (2007). “Early Skin-To-Skin Contact for Mothers and Their Healthy Newborn Infants”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD003519.
  • Stuebe A. (2020). “Should Infants Be Separated from Mothers with COVID-19? First, Do No Harm”. Breastfeeding Medicine, 15 (5), 351-352.
  • Vincenzo, B. and Hughes, B. (2020). “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Pregnancy issues”. Erişim adresi: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-pregnancy-issues-and-antenatal-care. (Erişim tarihi: 09 Aralık 2020).
  • López-Maestro, M, Sierra-Garcia, P, Diaz-Gonzalez, C, Torres-Valdivieso, M.J, Lora-Pablos, D, Ares-Segura, S. et al. (2017). “Quality of Attachment in Infants less than 1500g or less than 32 Weeks. Related Factors”. Early Human Development, 104 (2017), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.11.003
  • Wold Health Organization. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus2019?gclid=EAIaIQob ChMIw77zqoys6QIVA7DtCh0icga6EAAYASAAEgIGCfD_BwE (Erişim tarihi: 09 Aralık 2020).
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Breastfeeding”. Erişim adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/maternal-or-infant-illnesses/covid-19-and-breastfeeding.html (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • World Health Organization. (2004). “Guiding Principles for Feeding Infants and Young Children During Emergencies”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/emer gencies/9241546069/en/ (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • WHO and United Nations Children’s Fund. (2003). “Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9241562218/en/ (Erişim tarihi: 11 Aralık 2020).
  • Yurtdaş, G, Çalık, G, Yalçın, T. ve Kaner, G. (2020). “COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Anne Sütü ile Beslenmenin Önemi”. İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 5 (2), 153-158.
  • El-Gilany, AH. (2020). “COVID-19 and Breastfeeding”. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep, 3 (2), 102-105.
  • Salvatore, C.M, Han, J.Y, Acker, K.P, Tiwari, P, Jin, J, Brandler, M, Cangemi, C, Gordon, L, Parow, A, DiPace, J. and DeLaMora, P. (2020). “Neonatal Management and Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic: an Observation Cohort Study”. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4 (10), 721-727.
  • Li, F, Feng, Z.C. and Shi, Y. (2020). “Proposal for Prevention and Control of The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease in Newborn Infants”. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 105 (6), 683–684.
  • Fernández-Carrasco, FJ, Vázquez-Lara, J.M, González-Mey, U, Gómez-Salgado, J, Parrón-Carreño, T. and Rodríguez-Díaz, L. (2020). “Coronavirus Covid-19 Infection and Breastfeeding: An Exploratory Review”. Revista Espanola de Salud Publica, 94, e202005055.
  • Davanzo, R, Moro, G, Sandri, F, Agosti, M, Moretti, C. and Mosca, F. (2020). “Breastfeeding and Coronavirus Disease-2019: Ad Interim Indications of the Italian Society of Neonatology Endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies”. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 16 (3), e13010.
  • Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2020). “ABM Statement on Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)”. Erişim adresi: https://www.bfmed.org/abm-statement-coronavirus (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): What Parents Should Know”. Erişim adresi: https://www.unicef.org/stories/ novel-coronavirus-outbreak-what-parents-should-know (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • World Health Organization. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Pregnancy and Childbirth”. https://www.who.int/ news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-pregnancy-and-childbirth (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı (2021). “COVID-19 Çocuk Hasta Yönetimi ve Tedavi”. Erişim adresi: https://covid19.saglik.gov. tr/TR-66342/cocuk-hasta-yonetimi-ve-tedavi.html (Erişim tarihi: 30 Haziran 2021).
  • Yıldızhan, E. (2017). “Bağlanma Teorisi ve Bağlanma Bozukluklarına Genel Bir Bakış”. Anatol Clin, 22, 66-72.
  • Köse, D, Çınar, N. ve Altınkaynak, S. (2013). “Yenidoğanın Anne ve Baba ile Bağlanma Süreci”. Sürekli Tıp Eğitim Dergisi, 22 (6), 239-45.

COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 993 - 999, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870322

Öz

Çin’de başlayarak kısa sürede tüm dünyada etkisini gösteren COVID-19 etkeni her yaş dönemini olumsuz bir şekilde etkilemiştir. Bu süreçte COVID-19 pandemisi sebebiyle alınan tedbirler kapsamında uygulanan sosyal mesafe önlemleri özellikle yenidoğanlar ve anneleri için güvenli maternal bağlanma ve emzirme açısından güçlüklere neden olmaktadır. Maternal bağlanma ve emzirme yenidoğan döneminde olumlu etkilerinin başladığı ve uzun vadede yetişkinlik döneminde de bu etkilerin devam ettiği çok önemli uygulamalardır. Erken dönemde başlatılan anne-bebek etkileşimi ile emzirme süreci de olumlu bir şekilde gerçekleşmektedir. Fakat pandemi sürecinden kaynaklı hem maternal bağlanma hem de emzirme sürecinde aksaklıklar yaşanmaktadır. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü, Birleşmiş Milletler Çocuklara Yardım Fonu, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Hastalık Önleme ve Kontrol Merkezi gibi uluslararası sağlık kuruluşları COVID-19 sürecinde emzirmenin kesintiye uğramamasını ve anne ile bebeğin bu süreçte birbirinden ayrılmaması gerektiğini belirtmektedir. Bu süreçte sağlık personellerinin güncel bilgilere doğru kaynaktan ulaşarak güvenli maternal bağlanmayı ve emzirmeyi sürdürmeleri önerilmektedir. Bu derlemede COVID-19 pandemi sürecinde yenidoğanlarda güvenli maternal bağlanma ve emzirme ilkeleri güncel kılavuzlar doğrultusunda incelenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Yang, N, Che, S, Zhang, J, Wang, X, Tang, Y, Wang, J. et al. (2020). “Breastfeeding of Infants Born To Mothers with COVID-19: A Rapid Review”. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8 (10), 618.
  • Ma, X, Zhu, J. and Du, L. (2020). “Neonatal Management During the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak: The Chinese Experience”. NeoReviews, 21 (5), e293–e297.
  • Panahi, L, Amiri, M. and Pouy, S. (2020). “Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Infection in Newborns and Pediatrics: A Systematic Review”. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8 (1), e50.
  • Tscherning, C, Sizun, J. and Kuhn, P. (2020). “Promoting Attachment between Parents and Neonates Despite the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Acta Paediatrica, 109 (10), 1937-1943.
  • TJOD İstanbul Bülteni. (2020). “COVID-19 özel sayısı”. Erişim adresi: index (tjodistanbul.org) (Erişim Tarihi: 02 Aralık 2020).
  • Nacar, E.H. ve Gökkaya, F. (2019). “Bağlanma ve Maternal Bağlanma Konusunda Bir Derleme”. Kıbrıs Türk Psikiyatri ve Psikoloji Dergisi, 1 (1), 50-56.
  • Meredith, P.J, Strong, J. and Feeney, J.A. (2007). “Adult Attachment Variables Predict Depression before and after Treatment for Chronic Pain”. European Journal of Pain, 11 (2), 164–170.
  • Peters, K.L, Rosychuk, R.J, Hendson, L, Coté, J.J, Mc Pherson, C. and Tyebkhan, J.M. (2009). “Improvement of Short-and Long-Term Outcomes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Edmonton NIDCAP Trial”. Pediatrics, 124 (4), 1009-20.
  • Charpak, N, Tessier, R, Ruiz, J.G, Hernandez, J.T, Uriza, F, Villegas, J. et al. (2017). “Twenty-year Follow-Up of Kangaroo Mother Care Versus Traditional Care”. Pediatrics, 139 (1), e20162063.
  • Jaafar, S.H, Ho, J.J. and Lee, KS. (2016). “Rooming-in for New Mother and Infant Versus Separate Care for Increasing The Duration of Breastfeeding”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 26 (8), CD006641.
  • Blair, P.S. and Ball, H.L. (2004). “The Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Parent-Infant Bed-Sharing in England”. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89 (12), 1106–1110.
  • Çınar, N, Sözeri, C, Dede, C. ve Cevahir, R. (2010). “Anne ve Bebeğin Aynı Odada Uyumasının Emzirmeye Etkisi”. Maltepe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Bilim ve Sanatı Dergisi, 235-241.
  • Dong, Y, Mo, X, Hu, Y, Qi, X, Jiang, F, Jiang, Z. and Tong, S. (2020). “Epidemiology of COVID-19 among Children in China”. Pediatrics, 145 (6), e20200702.
  • Sinha, IP, Harwood, R, Semple, MG, Hawcutt, DB, Thursfield, R, Narayan, O. et al. (2020). “COVID-19 Infection in children”. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8 (5), 446-447.
  • Wold Health Organization. (2020). “Infant Mortality Rate (Deaths per 1000 Live Births)”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/infant-mortality-rate-(deaths-per-1000-live-births). (Erişim tarihi: 03 Aralık 2020).
  • Ludvigsson, J.F. (2020). “Systematic review of COVID‐19 in Children Shows Milder Cases and A Better Prognosis Than Adults”. Acta Paediatrica, 109 (6), 1088-1095.
  • Tezer, H. and Demi̇rdağ, T. (2020). “Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Children”. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50, 592-603.
  • Chen, H, Guo, J, Wang, C, Luo, F, Yu, X, Zhang, W. et al. (2020). “Clinical Characteristics and Intrauterine Vertical Transmission Potential of COVID-19 Infection İn Nine Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records”. Lancet, 395 (10226), 809-15.
  • Ard, N.C. (2000). “Prenatal and Postnatal Attachment in Adolescent Mother”. Journal of Child and Family Nursing, 3 (5), 313-325.
  • Fraley, R.C. and Shaver, PR. (2000). “Adult Romantic Attachment: Theoretical Developments, Emerging, Controversies and Unanswered Questions”. Review of General Psychology, 4 (2), 132-154.
  • Moore, E.R, Anderson, G.C. and Bergman, N. (2007). “Early Skin-To-Skin Contact for Mothers and Their Healthy Newborn Infants”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD003519.
  • Stuebe A. (2020). “Should Infants Be Separated from Mothers with COVID-19? First, Do No Harm”. Breastfeeding Medicine, 15 (5), 351-352.
  • Vincenzo, B. and Hughes, B. (2020). “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Pregnancy issues”. Erişim adresi: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-pregnancy-issues-and-antenatal-care. (Erişim tarihi: 09 Aralık 2020).
  • López-Maestro, M, Sierra-Garcia, P, Diaz-Gonzalez, C, Torres-Valdivieso, M.J, Lora-Pablos, D, Ares-Segura, S. et al. (2017). “Quality of Attachment in Infants less than 1500g or less than 32 Weeks. Related Factors”. Early Human Development, 104 (2017), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.11.003
  • Wold Health Organization. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/ emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus2019?gclid=EAIaIQob ChMIw77zqoys6QIVA7DtCh0icga6EAAYASAAEgIGCfD_BwE (Erişim tarihi: 09 Aralık 2020).
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Breastfeeding”. Erişim adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/maternal-or-infant-illnesses/covid-19-and-breastfeeding.html (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • World Health Organization. (2004). “Guiding Principles for Feeding Infants and Young Children During Emergencies”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/emer gencies/9241546069/en/ (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • WHO and United Nations Children’s Fund. (2003). “Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding”. Erişim adresi: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9241562218/en/ (Erişim tarihi: 11 Aralık 2020).
  • Yurtdaş, G, Çalık, G, Yalçın, T. ve Kaner, G. (2020). “COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Anne Sütü ile Beslenmenin Önemi”. İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 5 (2), 153-158.
  • El-Gilany, AH. (2020). “COVID-19 and Breastfeeding”. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep, 3 (2), 102-105.
  • Salvatore, C.M, Han, J.Y, Acker, K.P, Tiwari, P, Jin, J, Brandler, M, Cangemi, C, Gordon, L, Parow, A, DiPace, J. and DeLaMora, P. (2020). “Neonatal Management and Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic: an Observation Cohort Study”. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4 (10), 721-727.
  • Li, F, Feng, Z.C. and Shi, Y. (2020). “Proposal for Prevention and Control of The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease in Newborn Infants”. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 105 (6), 683–684.
  • Fernández-Carrasco, FJ, Vázquez-Lara, J.M, González-Mey, U, Gómez-Salgado, J, Parrón-Carreño, T. and Rodríguez-Díaz, L. (2020). “Coronavirus Covid-19 Infection and Breastfeeding: An Exploratory Review”. Revista Espanola de Salud Publica, 94, e202005055.
  • Davanzo, R, Moro, G, Sandri, F, Agosti, M, Moretti, C. and Mosca, F. (2020). “Breastfeeding and Coronavirus Disease-2019: Ad Interim Indications of the Italian Society of Neonatology Endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies”. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 16 (3), e13010.
  • Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2020). “ABM Statement on Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)”. Erişim adresi: https://www.bfmed.org/abm-statement-coronavirus (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): What Parents Should Know”. Erişim adresi: https://www.unicef.org/stories/ novel-coronavirus-outbreak-what-parents-should-know (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • World Health Organization. (2020). “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Pregnancy and Childbirth”. https://www.who.int/ news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-pregnancy-and-childbirth (Erişim tarihi: 06 Aralık 2020).
  • T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı (2021). “COVID-19 Çocuk Hasta Yönetimi ve Tedavi”. Erişim adresi: https://covid19.saglik.gov. tr/TR-66342/cocuk-hasta-yonetimi-ve-tedavi.html (Erişim tarihi: 30 Haziran 2021).
  • Yıldızhan, E. (2017). “Bağlanma Teorisi ve Bağlanma Bozukluklarına Genel Bir Bakış”. Anatol Clin, 22, 66-72.
  • Köse, D, Çınar, N. ve Altınkaynak, S. (2013). “Yenidoğanın Anne ve Baba ile Bağlanma Süreci”. Sürekli Tıp Eğitim Dergisi, 22 (6), 239-45.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Gamzegül ALTAY (Sorumlu Yazar)
RECEP TAYYİP ERDOĞAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4895-5338
Türkiye


Duygu ARIKAN
ATATURK UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9451-8799
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Destekleyen bir kurum yoktur.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gumussagbil870322, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {10}, pages = {993 - 999}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.870322}, title = {COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme}, key = {cite}, author = {Altay, Gamzegül and Arıkan, Duygu} }
APA Altay, G. & Arıkan, D. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 10 (4) , 993-999 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322
MLA Altay, G. , Arıkan, D. "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 (2021 ): 993-999 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/67427/870322>
Chicago Altay, G. , Arıkan, D. "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 (2021 ): 993-999
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme AU - Gamzegül Altay , Duygu Arıkan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 993 EP - 999 VL - 10 IS - 4 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870322 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme %A Gamzegül Altay , Duygu Arıkan %T COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme %D 2021 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 10 %N 4 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.870322
ISNAD Altay, Gamzegül , Arıkan, Duygu . "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 / 4 (Aralık 2021): 993-999 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.870322
AMA Altay G. , Arıkan D. COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 10(4): 993-999.
Vancouver Altay G. , Arıkan D. COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 10(4): 993-999.
IEEE G. Altay ve D. Arıkan , "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Yenidoğanlarda Güvenli Maternal Bağlanma ve Emzirme", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 10, sayı. 4, ss. 993-999, Ara. 2021, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.870322