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Mobilya İmalatında Ahşap Tozu: Ağrı İlinde Maruziyet Belirleme Çalışması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 740 - 750, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.958563

Öz

Mobilya üretim süreçlerinde maruz kalınan ahşap tozu, çeşitli sağlık sorunlarına neden olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı Ağrı Organize Sanayi Bölgesinde bulunan küçük ölçekli mobilya atölyelerinde çalışanların solunabilir ve toplam toz maruziyetlerinin belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla çalışma ortamında maruz kalınan toz miktarı ölçülmüş ve sonuçlar ulusal ve uluslararası mevzuatta yer alan sınır değerler ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Ağrı Organize Sanayi Bölgesi'nde 10'dan az işçi çalıştıran beş mobilya marangozhanesi oluşturmuştur. Beş işyerinde toplam 22 kişi çalışmaktadır. Çalışmaya her atölyeden 3 olmak üzere toplam 15 çalışan katılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, toz örneklemesi için "MDHS 14/3: Solunabilir ve solunabilir tozların gravimetrik analizi ve örnekleme yöntemi" kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada 5 işyerinde 30 adet solunabilir toz örneği ve 5 adet toplam toz örneği alınmıştır. Bu ölçüm sonuçlarına göre TS EN 689 standardına göre her çalışan için günlük TWA hesaplanmıştır. Sonuçlar ulusal ve uluslararası standartlardaki değerlerle karşılaştırılmıştır. Sadece bir işyerinden elde edilen toz konsantrasyonu için maruz kalınan değerlerin ulusal ve uluslararası sınır değerlerin altında olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. İşyerlerinde hem solunabilir hem de toplam solunabilir toz maruziyet değerlerinin büyük bir kısmının sınır değerleri aştığı gözlemlenmiştir. Küçük ölçekli işletmelerde tozla mücadeleye katkı sağlayacak vergi indirimleri, teşvikler ve projeler gibi uygulama ve düzenlemeler yapılmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2021). “Woodworking e Tool”. Access Address: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/woodworking/production_wooddust.html#Hazards/Solutions. (Date of access: 10.05.2021).
  • Alonso-Sardón, M, Chamorro, A.J, Hernández-García, I, Iglesias-de-Sena, H, Martín-Rodero, H, Herrera, C. and Mirón- Canelo, J.A. (2015). “Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis”. PloS One, 10 (7), 1-16.
  • Vallières, E, Pintos, J, Parent, M.E and Siemiatycki, J. (2015) “Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Risk of Lung Cancer in Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Montreal Canada”. Environmental Health, 14 (1), 1-9.
  • Malo, J.L, and Cartier, A. (1989). “Occupational Asthma Caused By Exposure to Ash Wood Dust (Fraxinus Americana)”. European Respiratory Journal, 2 (4), 385-387.
  • Wiggans, R.E, Evans, G, Fishwick, D, and Barber, C.M. (2016). “Asthma in Furniture and Wood Processing Workers: A Systematic Review”. Occupational Medicine, 66 (3), 193-201.
  • Enarson, D.A. and Yeung, M.C. (1999). “Characterization of Health Effects of Wood Dust Exposures”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17 (1), 33-38.
  • IARC. (1995). “Wood Dust and Formaldehyde. In Monographs on The Evaluation of The Carcinogenetic Risk of Chemicals To Humans”. Access Address: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book- And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of- Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Wood-Dust-And- Formaldehyde-1995 (Date of access: 10 Oct 2020).
  • Hinds, W.C. (1988). “Basic for Size-Selective Sampling for Wood Dust”. Applied Industrial Hygiene, 3 (3), 67-72. ISO7708. (1995). “Air Quality: Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-Related Sampling,” International Standards Organisation Publication. Access Address: https://www.iso.org /standard/14534.html. (Date of access: 5 Oct 2020).
  • Brown, J.S, Gordon, T, Price, O, and Asgharian, B. (2013). “Thoracic and Respirable Particle Definitions For Human Health Risk Assessment”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 10 (1), 1-12.
  • Mrackova, E, Krisťak, L, Kucerka, M, Gaff, M, and Gajtanska, M. (2016). “Creation of Wood Dust During Wood Processing: Size Analysis, Dust Separation, and Occupational Health”. BioResources, 11 (1), 209-222.
  • SCOEL. (2002). “Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits” Access Address:https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=148&langId =en&intPageId=684. (Date of access: 19 Oct 2020).
  • Directive EU. (2017). “2017/2398 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2017” Access Address: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2017/2398/oj . (Date of access: 10 Nov 2020).
  • Black, N, Dilwort, M, and Summer, N. (2017). “Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust in the British Woodworking Industry in 1999/2000”. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51 (3), 249- 260.
  • Horvat, D, Čavlović, A, Zečić, Ž, Šušnjar, M, Bešlić, I, and Madunić-Zečić, V. (2005). “Research of Fir-Wood Dust Concentration in the Working Environment of Cutters. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering”. Journal for Theory and Application of Forestry Engineering, 26 (2), 85-90.
  • Marchi, E, Neri, F, Cambi, M, Laschi, A, Foderi, C, Sciarra, G. and Fabiano, F. (2017). “Analysis of Dust Exposure During Chainsaw Forest Operations”. iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry, 10 (1), 341-347. Black, N, Dilwort, M. and Summer, N. (2017).”Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust in the British Woodworking Industry in 1999/2000”. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51 (3), 249-260.
  • Kauppinen, T, Toikkanen, J, Pedersen, D, Young, R, Ahrens, W, Boffetta, P. and Kogevinas, M. (2000). “Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens in the European Union”. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57 (1), 10-18.
  • HSE. (2000). MDHS14/3, “Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances. General Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Inhalable and Respirable Dust”. Access Address: https://www.hse.gov.uk/acronym/ . (Date of access: 19 Sep 2020).
  • AIOH. (2016). “Dust Not Otherwise Specified (Dust Nos) and Occupational Health Issues Position Paper” Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists. Access Address: www.aioh. org.au/static/uploads/files/dusts-not-otherwise-specifiedand occupational-health-issues-wfhzhxeesvwz.pdf (Date of access: 19 Nov 2020).
  • ACGIH. (2020). “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati. Access Address:https://www.acgih.org/about/volunteerleadership/com mittees/ (Date of access: 2 Nov 2020).
  • HSE. (2012). “Toxic Woods. Wood Working Sheet No 30” Access Address: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/wis30.pdf (Date of access: 5 Nov 2020).
  • Tozla Mücadele Yönetmeliği. (2013). Sayı: Mukerrer, 05/11/2013.
  • SCOEL. (2003). “Recommendation from The Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits: Risk Assessment for Wood Dust” SCOEL/SUM/102, Belgium,. Access Address: https://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=3876&langId=en (Date of access: 5 Oct 2020).
  • Inthavong, K, Tian, Z. and Tu J. (2009). “Effect of Ventilation Design on Removal of Particles in Woodturning Workstations”. Building and Environment, 44 (1), 125-136.
  • Karakavak, A. (2014). “Talaşlı İmalat ve Kaynak İşlerinde Meslek İle İlgili Solunum Sistemi Hastalıklarının Önlenmesinde Endüstriyel Havalandırma. (Uzmanlık Tezi), ÇSGB, Ankara.
  • Mikkelsen, A.B, Schhlünssen, V, Sigsgaard, T. and Schaumburg, I. (2002). “Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry”. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 46 (8), 673-683. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mef082
  • Nor, MRBHM. (2014). “Effectiveness of Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems in Reducing Personal Exposure”. Journal of Applied Sciences, 14 (13), 1365-1371.
  • SCOEL. (2003). “Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits: Risk Assessment for Wood Dust” SCOEL/SUM/102, Belgium. Access Address: https://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=3876&langId=en . (Date of access 21 Oct 2020).
  • HSE. (2012). “Toxic Woods. Wood Working Sheet No 30” . Access Address: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/wis30.pdf . (Date of access 30 Nov 2020).
  • Kumar, V. (1988). Effectiveness of Local-Exhaust Ventilation for Drum-Filling Operations. Final Report (No. PB-89- 100226/XAB). PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (USA). Access Address: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6620868. (Date of access 25 Oct 2020).

Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 740 - 750, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.958563

Öz

Wood dust exposed during furniture manufacturing processes causes a variety of health problems. The aim of this study is to determine the respirable and inhalable dust exposure of the employees in small-scale furniture workshops located in Ağrı Organised Industrial Zone. For this purpose, the amount of dust exposure in the working environment was measured and the results were compared with the limit values in national and international legislation. Five furniture carpentry workshops in Ağrı Industrial Zone employing less than 10 workers constituted the universe of the study. A total of 22 people work in five workplaces. A total of 15 employees, 3 from each workshop, participated in the study. In this study, "MDHS 14/3: Gravimetric analysis and sampling method of respirable and inhalable dusts" was used for dust sampling. In the study, 30 respirable dust samples and 5 inhalable(total) dust samples were obtanied at 5 workplaces. Based on these measurement results, a daily TWA was calculated for each employee according to the TS EN 689 standard. The results were compared with the values in the national and international standards. It was concluded that the exposed values for dust concentration obtained from only one workplace were below the national and international limit values. It has been observed that a large part of both respirable and inhalable dust exposure values in workplaces exceeded the limit values. Practices and regulations such as tax reductions, incentives and projects that will contribute to the fight against dust in small-scale enterprises should be made.

Kaynakça

  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2021). “Woodworking e Tool”. Access Address: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/woodworking/production_wooddust.html#Hazards/Solutions. (Date of access: 10.05.2021).
  • Alonso-Sardón, M, Chamorro, A.J, Hernández-García, I, Iglesias-de-Sena, H, Martín-Rodero, H, Herrera, C. and Mirón- Canelo, J.A. (2015). “Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis”. PloS One, 10 (7), 1-16.
  • Vallières, E, Pintos, J, Parent, M.E and Siemiatycki, J. (2015) “Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Risk of Lung Cancer in Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Montreal Canada”. Environmental Health, 14 (1), 1-9.
  • Malo, J.L, and Cartier, A. (1989). “Occupational Asthma Caused By Exposure to Ash Wood Dust (Fraxinus Americana)”. European Respiratory Journal, 2 (4), 385-387.
  • Wiggans, R.E, Evans, G, Fishwick, D, and Barber, C.M. (2016). “Asthma in Furniture and Wood Processing Workers: A Systematic Review”. Occupational Medicine, 66 (3), 193-201.
  • Enarson, D.A. and Yeung, M.C. (1999). “Characterization of Health Effects of Wood Dust Exposures”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17 (1), 33-38.
  • IARC. (1995). “Wood Dust and Formaldehyde. In Monographs on The Evaluation of The Carcinogenetic Risk of Chemicals To Humans”. Access Address: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book- And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of- Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Wood-Dust-And- Formaldehyde-1995 (Date of access: 10 Oct 2020).
  • Hinds, W.C. (1988). “Basic for Size-Selective Sampling for Wood Dust”. Applied Industrial Hygiene, 3 (3), 67-72. ISO7708. (1995). “Air Quality: Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-Related Sampling,” International Standards Organisation Publication. Access Address: https://www.iso.org /standard/14534.html. (Date of access: 5 Oct 2020).
  • Brown, J.S, Gordon, T, Price, O, and Asgharian, B. (2013). “Thoracic and Respirable Particle Definitions For Human Health Risk Assessment”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 10 (1), 1-12.
  • Mrackova, E, Krisťak, L, Kucerka, M, Gaff, M, and Gajtanska, M. (2016). “Creation of Wood Dust During Wood Processing: Size Analysis, Dust Separation, and Occupational Health”. BioResources, 11 (1), 209-222.
  • SCOEL. (2002). “Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits” Access Address:https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=148&langId =en&intPageId=684. (Date of access: 19 Oct 2020).
  • Directive EU. (2017). “2017/2398 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2017” Access Address: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2017/2398/oj . (Date of access: 10 Nov 2020).
  • Black, N, Dilwort, M, and Summer, N. (2017). “Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust in the British Woodworking Industry in 1999/2000”. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51 (3), 249- 260.
  • Horvat, D, Čavlović, A, Zečić, Ž, Šušnjar, M, Bešlić, I, and Madunić-Zečić, V. (2005). “Research of Fir-Wood Dust Concentration in the Working Environment of Cutters. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering”. Journal for Theory and Application of Forestry Engineering, 26 (2), 85-90.
  • Marchi, E, Neri, F, Cambi, M, Laschi, A, Foderi, C, Sciarra, G. and Fabiano, F. (2017). “Analysis of Dust Exposure During Chainsaw Forest Operations”. iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry, 10 (1), 341-347. Black, N, Dilwort, M. and Summer, N. (2017).”Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust in the British Woodworking Industry in 1999/2000”. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51 (3), 249-260.
  • Kauppinen, T, Toikkanen, J, Pedersen, D, Young, R, Ahrens, W, Boffetta, P. and Kogevinas, M. (2000). “Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens in the European Union”. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57 (1), 10-18.
  • HSE. (2000). MDHS14/3, “Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances. General Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Inhalable and Respirable Dust”. Access Address: https://www.hse.gov.uk/acronym/ . (Date of access: 19 Sep 2020).
  • AIOH. (2016). “Dust Not Otherwise Specified (Dust Nos) and Occupational Health Issues Position Paper” Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists. Access Address: www.aioh. org.au/static/uploads/files/dusts-not-otherwise-specifiedand occupational-health-issues-wfhzhxeesvwz.pdf (Date of access: 19 Nov 2020).
  • ACGIH. (2020). “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati. Access Address:https://www.acgih.org/about/volunteerleadership/com mittees/ (Date of access: 2 Nov 2020).
  • HSE. (2012). “Toxic Woods. Wood Working Sheet No 30” Access Address: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/wis30.pdf (Date of access: 5 Nov 2020).
  • Tozla Mücadele Yönetmeliği. (2013). Sayı: Mukerrer, 05/11/2013.
  • SCOEL. (2003). “Recommendation from The Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits: Risk Assessment for Wood Dust” SCOEL/SUM/102, Belgium,. Access Address: https://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=3876&langId=en (Date of access: 5 Oct 2020).
  • Inthavong, K, Tian, Z. and Tu J. (2009). “Effect of Ventilation Design on Removal of Particles in Woodturning Workstations”. Building and Environment, 44 (1), 125-136.
  • Karakavak, A. (2014). “Talaşlı İmalat ve Kaynak İşlerinde Meslek İle İlgili Solunum Sistemi Hastalıklarının Önlenmesinde Endüstriyel Havalandırma. (Uzmanlık Tezi), ÇSGB, Ankara.
  • Mikkelsen, A.B, Schhlünssen, V, Sigsgaard, T. and Schaumburg, I. (2002). “Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry”. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 46 (8), 673-683. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mef082
  • Nor, MRBHM. (2014). “Effectiveness of Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems in Reducing Personal Exposure”. Journal of Applied Sciences, 14 (13), 1365-1371.
  • SCOEL. (2003). “Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits: Risk Assessment for Wood Dust” SCOEL/SUM/102, Belgium. Access Address: https://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=3876&langId=en . (Date of access 21 Oct 2020).
  • HSE. (2012). “Toxic Woods. Wood Working Sheet No 30” . Access Address: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/wis30.pdf . (Date of access 30 Nov 2020).
  • Kumar, V. (1988). Effectiveness of Local-Exhaust Ventilation for Drum-Filling Operations. Final Report (No. PB-89- 100226/XAB). PEI Associates, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (USA). Access Address: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6620868. (Date of access 25 Oct 2020).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Pınar BAYKAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
AĞRI İBRAHİM ÇEÇEN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0001-5279-3872
Türkiye


Ebru SENEMTAŞI ÜNAL
AGRI IBRAHIM CECEN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-8530-9423
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Scientific and Technological Research Council of Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University (BAP)
Proje Numarası MYO.19.003
Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gumussagbil958563, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {10}, pages = {740 - 750}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.958563}, title = {Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City}, key = {cite}, author = {Baykan, Pınar and Senemtaşı Ünal, Ebru} }
APA Baykan, P. & Senemtaşı Ünal, E. (2021). Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 10 (4) , 740-750 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563
MLA Baykan, P. , Senemtaşı Ünal, E. "Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 (2021 ): 740-750 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/67427/958563>
Chicago Baykan, P. , Senemtaşı Ünal, E. "Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 (2021 ): 740-750
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City AU - Pınar Baykan , Ebru Senemtaşı Ünal Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 740 EP - 750 VL - 10 IS - 4 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.958563 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City %A Pınar Baykan , Ebru Senemtaşı Ünal %T Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City %D 2021 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 10 %N 4 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.958563
ISNAD Baykan, Pınar , Senemtaşı Ünal, Ebru . "Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 10 / 4 (Aralık 2021): 740-750 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.958563
AMA Baykan P. , Senemtaşı Ünal E. Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 10(4): 740-750.
Vancouver Baykan P. , Senemtaşı Ünal E. Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 10(4): 740-750.
IEEE P. Baykan ve E. Senemtaşı Ünal , "Wood Dust in Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant Study in Ağrı City", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 10, sayı. 4, ss. 740-750, Ara. 2021, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.958563