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Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 300 - 307, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880

Öz

Professional search and rescue (SAR) dogs, which are members of urban search and rescue teams with the help of their higher sense organs with rigorous training, are very helpful in finding buried or missing persons in disasters. In these environments where chaos and disorder prevail, it becomes inevitable for them to face very dangerous and risky situations. As a result of a disaster caused by chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) accidents, dangers such as chemical leaks, pathogenic microorganisms, toxins, vectors, and radioactive and nuclear materials in the environment are among the forgotten or neglected facts that SAR dogs affect as well as affect humanity. Working with little or no personal protective equipment during search and rescue interventions makes them completely vulnerable to these hazards. In the limited resources in the literature on CBRN risks and dangers that search and rescue dogs working in disaster areas may encounter, SAR dogs are exposed to many chemicals and toxic agents during these studies, as well as biological hazards such as protozoal or coliform bacterial organisms, and radiological hazards such as the risk of ingesting radioactive materials and breathing dust. their arrival has been determined. With this study, it was aimed to emphasize the dangers faced by SAR dogs and to emphasize what has been done and what should be done to reduce the possible risks. As a result, necessary precautions should be taken to prevent and/or reduce these possible exposures of SAR dogs, and further studies should be carried out for appropriate standard procedures for appropriate rehabilitation and decontamination.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Kadıoğlu, M. and Özdamar, E. (2008). “Afet Zararlarını Azaltmanın Temel İlkeleri”. JICA Türkiye Ofisi, Ankara, 1. Baskı, s. 302.
  • 2. Firdhous, M. F. M. and Karuratane, P. M. (2018). “A Model for Enhancing the Role of Information and Communication Technologies for Improving the Resilience of Rural Communities to Disasters”. Procedia Engineering, 212, 707-714.
  • 3. Kaszeta, D. (2013). “CBRN and Hazmat Incidents At Major Public Events: Planning and Response”. John Wiley and Sons, Cop, Hoboken, N.J. doi:10.1002/9781118529713.
  • 4. Sezigen, S. (2009. “Sağlık Kurumlarında Kitlesel NBC (KBRN) Yaralanmalarına Yönelik Davranış Modelinin Oluşturulması”. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi Komutanlığı Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • 5. Greenawald, L A., Karwacki, C. J., Palya, F., Browe, M. A., Bradley, D. and Szalajda, J. V. (2020). “Conducting An Evaluation Of CBRN Canister Protection Capabilities Against Emerging Chemical And Radiological Hazards”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 17 (10), 480–494. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2020.1798452.
  • 6. 6.Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2018). “Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments”. Joint Publication, 3-11, United States.
  • 7. 7.Renni, E., Krausmann, E. and Cozzani, V. (2010), “Industrial Accidents Triggered By Lightning”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184 (1-3), 42–48.
  • 8. WHO. (2018). “Chemical Releases Caused By Natural Hazard Events and Disasters”, Information For Public Health Authorities, Geneva: World Health Organization. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  • 9. UNISDR. (2017). ”Words into Action Guidelines: National Disaster Risk Assessment Hazard Specific Risk Assessment, Biological Hazards Risk Assessment” https://www. preventionweb.net/files/52828_05biologicalhazardsriskassessment.pdf.
  • 10. 10.Shi, P. (2019). “Hazards, Disasters, and Risks”, Disaster Risk Science, 1, 1-48. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6689-5-1.
  • 11. EPR-FIRST Responders. (2006). Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency, Incident and Emergency Centre, Austria.
  • 12. Lemyre, L., Corneil, W., Johnson, C. and Boutette, P. (2010). “Psychosocial Considerations About Children And Radiological Events”. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 142 (1), 70–76.
  • 13. Bulanda, S. (1994), “Ready! The Training Of The Search And Rescue Dog”. Wilsonville, Ore: Doral Publishing Inc, vi, 1–14.
  • 14. Case, L. P. (2005), “The Dog: Its Behavior, Nutrition, and Health”. Second edition, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN: 0-8138-1254- 2. 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK.
  • 15. Sergei, A. K and Barnes, P. J. (2006). “Exhaled Biomarkers” Chest, 130 (24), 1541-1546.
  • 16. Shivik, J. A. (2002). “Odor-adsorptive Clothing, Environmental Factors, And Search-Dog Ability”. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30 (3), 721-727.
  • 17. O” Connor, MB., O “Connor, C. and Walsh, C. H. (2008). “A Dog’s Detection Of Low Blood Sugar: A Case Report”. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 177 (2), 155–157.
  • 18. Curry, E., Skogen, M. and Roth, T. (2021). “Evaluation Of An Odour Detection Dog For Non-İnvasive Pregnancy Diagnosis In Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus): Considerations For Training Sniffer Dogs For Biomedical İnvestigations İn Wildlife Species”. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 9 (1), 1–7.
  • 19. Sharun, K., Jose, B., Tiwari, R., Natesan, S. and Dhama, K. (2021). “Bio-Detection Dogs For Covıd-19: An Alternative Diagnostic Screening Strategy”. Public Health, 197, 10-12.
  • 20. Dalziel, D., Uthman, B., Mcgorray, S. and Reep, Rl. (2003). “Seizure-alert Dogs: A Review And Preliminary Study”. Seizure. 12 (2), 115–120.
  • 21. Sanders, C. R. (2000). “The Impact of Guide Dogs on the Identity of People with Visual Impairments”. Anthrozoös, 13 (3), 131-139.
  • 22. Wells, D. L. (2007). “Domestic Dogs And Human Health: An Overview”. British Journal of Health Psychology. 12 (1), 145–156.
  • 23. Miller, P. E. and Murphy, C. J. (1995).“Vision In Dogs”.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 207 (12), 1623-1634.
  • 24. 24.Szetei, V., Miklósi, Á., Topál, J. and Csányi, V. (2003). “When Dogs Seem To Lose Their Nose: An Investigation on The Use of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Communicative Context Between Dog and Owner”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 83 (2), 141–152.
  • 25. Lorenzo, N., Wan, T., Harper, R. J., Hsu, Y-L., Chow, M., Rose, S. and Furton, K. G. (2003). “Laboratory And Field Experiments Used To Identify canis lupus var. Familiaris Active Odor Signature Chemicals From Drugs, Explosives, and Humans”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 376 (8), 1212–1224.
  • 26. Atasoy, F. and Erdem, E. (2014). “Köpek Duyuları”. Lalahan Hay. Araşt. Enst. Dergisi, 54 (1), 33-38.
  • 27. Pickel, D., Manucy, G. P., Walker, D. B., Hall, S. B. and Walker, J. C. (2004). “Evidence for canine olfactory detection of melanoma”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 89 (1-2), 107–116.
  • 28. Altom, EK., Davenport, GM., Myers, LJ. and Cummins, KA. (2003). “Effect of Dietary Fat Source And Exercise on Odorant-Detecting Ability of Canine Athletes”. Research in Veterinary Science, 75 (2), 149–155.
  • 29. Stepień, I., Stepień, L. and Lubińska, E. (1990). “Function of Dog”s Auditory Cortex In Tests Involving Auditory Location Cues And Directional Instrumental Response”, Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 50 (1-2), 1-12.
  • 30. Wyatt, T. H., Wilkerson, H., Gordon, L. E., Cole, G., Henderson, A., Millis, D, (2016). “Training and Common Injuries of Urban Search and Rescue Dogs”. J Vet Sci Res., 1 (2), 000112.
  • 31. Wojtaś, J., Karpiński, M. and Czyżowski, P. (2020). “Salivary Cortisol Interactions in Search and Rescue Dogs and Their Handlers”. Animals, 10 (4), 595.
  • 32. Fox, P. R., Puschner, B. and Ebel, J. G. (2008). “Assessment of Acute Injuries, Exposure To Environmental Toxins, and Five-Year Health Surveillance of New York Police Department Working Dogs Following The September 11, 2001, World Trade Center terrorist attack”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233 (1), 48-59.
  • 33. Wismer, T. A. (2003). “Management and Prevention Of Toxicoses In Search-And-Rescue Dogs Responding To Urban Disasters”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 222 (3), 305-310.
  • 34. .Jones, K. E., Dashfield, K., Downend, AB. and Otto, CM. (2004). “Search-And-Rescue Dogs: An Overview For Veterinarians”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225 (6), 854–860.
  • 35. Venable, E., Discepolo, D., Powell, E. and Liang, SY. (2017). “An Evaluation of Current Working Canine Decontamination Procedures and Methods For İmprovement”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 21, 53-58.
  • 36. Leroy, E. M., Ar Gouilh, M. and Brugère-Picoux, J. (2020). “The Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission To Pets And Other Wild And Domestic Animals Strongly Mandates A One-Health Strategy To Control The Covıd-19 Pandemic”. One Health, 10, 100-133.
  • 37. Gordon, LE. (2018). “Hurricane Florence Search Canine Illness and Injury Data”. IST Veterinary Specialist September 2018.
  • 38. Shi, J., Wen, Z., Zhong, G., Yang, H., Wang, C., Huang, B., Liu, R., He, X., Shuai, L., Sun, Z., Zhao, Y., Liu, P., Liang, L., Cui, P., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Guan, Y., Tan, W., Wu, G. and Chen, H. (2020). “Susceptibility Of Ferrets, Cats, Dogs, And Other Domesticated Animals to SARS–Coronavirus 2”. Science, 368 (6494), 1016–1020.
  • 39. Chen, J. (2020). “Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A Quick Overview and Comparison With Other Emerging Viruses”. Microbes and Infection, 22 (2), 69–71.
  • 40. Wojtaś, J., Karpiński, M. and Zieliński, D. (2021). “Salivary Cortisol Levels in Search and Rescue (SAR) Dogs Under Rescue Examination Conditions”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 42, 11–15.

Arama ve Kurtarma (SAR) Köpeklerinin KBRN Olaylarında Karşılaşabilecekleri Olası Tehlike ve Riskler

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 300 - 307, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880

Öz

Sıkı eğitimlerle yüksek duyu organlarının yardımıyla kentsel arama kurtarma ekiplerinin üyesi olan profesyonel arama kurtarma (SAR) köpekleri afetlerde gömülü veya kayıp kişilerin bulunmasında oldukça yardımcı olmaktadır. Kargaşa ve düzensizliğin hüküm sürdüğü bu ortamlarda oldukça tehlikeli ve riskli durumlarla karşı karşıya kalmaları kaçınılmaz hale gelmektedir. Kimyasal, biyolojik, radyolojik ve nükleer (KBRN) kazalar sonucu oluşan bir afet sonucunda ortamda kimyasal sızıntılar, patojenik mikroorganizmalar, toksinler, vektörler ve radyoaktif ve nükleer maddeler gibi tehlikeler insanlığı etkilediği gibi SAR köpeklerinin de etkilemesi unutulan veya ihmal edilen gerçeklerdendir. Arama kurtarma müdahaleleri sırasında az ya da hiç bulunmayan kişisel koruyucu ekipmanlarla çalışmaları bu tehliklere karşı tamamen korunmasız hale getirir. Afet bölgesinde çalışan arama kurtarma köpeklerinin karşılaşabileceği KBRN risk ve tehlikeleri ile ilgili literatürde sınırlı kaynaklarda SAR köpeklerinin bu çalışmalar sırasında birçok kimyasal madde ve toksik ajanlara maruz kalmasının yanısıra protozoal veya koliform bakteriyel organizmalar gibi biyolojik, radyoaktif madde yutma ve toz soluma riski gibi radyolojik tehlikelere karşı karşıya geldikleri belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışma ile SAR köpeklerinin karşılaştığı tehlikeler vurgulanarak olası risklerin azaltılması için neler yapıldığı, yapılması gerektiğinin vurgulamsı amaçlandı. Sonuç olarak SAR köpeklerinin olası bu maruziyetlerinin önlenmesi ve/veya azaltılması için gerekli önlemler alınmalı, uygun rehabilitasyon ve dekontaminasyon için uygun standart prosedürler için ileri çalışmalar yapılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Kadıoğlu, M. and Özdamar, E. (2008). “Afet Zararlarını Azaltmanın Temel İlkeleri”. JICA Türkiye Ofisi, Ankara, 1. Baskı, s. 302.
  • 2. Firdhous, M. F. M. and Karuratane, P. M. (2018). “A Model for Enhancing the Role of Information and Communication Technologies for Improving the Resilience of Rural Communities to Disasters”. Procedia Engineering, 212, 707-714.
  • 3. Kaszeta, D. (2013). “CBRN and Hazmat Incidents At Major Public Events: Planning and Response”. John Wiley and Sons, Cop, Hoboken, N.J. doi:10.1002/9781118529713.
  • 4. Sezigen, S. (2009. “Sağlık Kurumlarında Kitlesel NBC (KBRN) Yaralanmalarına Yönelik Davranış Modelinin Oluşturulması”. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi Komutanlığı Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • 5. Greenawald, L A., Karwacki, C. J., Palya, F., Browe, M. A., Bradley, D. and Szalajda, J. V. (2020). “Conducting An Evaluation Of CBRN Canister Protection Capabilities Against Emerging Chemical And Radiological Hazards”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 17 (10), 480–494. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2020.1798452.
  • 6. 6.Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2018). “Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments”. Joint Publication, 3-11, United States.
  • 7. 7.Renni, E., Krausmann, E. and Cozzani, V. (2010), “Industrial Accidents Triggered By Lightning”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184 (1-3), 42–48.
  • 8. WHO. (2018). “Chemical Releases Caused By Natural Hazard Events and Disasters”, Information For Public Health Authorities, Geneva: World Health Organization. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  • 9. UNISDR. (2017). ”Words into Action Guidelines: National Disaster Risk Assessment Hazard Specific Risk Assessment, Biological Hazards Risk Assessment” https://www. preventionweb.net/files/52828_05biologicalhazardsriskassessment.pdf.
  • 10. 10.Shi, P. (2019). “Hazards, Disasters, and Risks”, Disaster Risk Science, 1, 1-48. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6689-5-1.
  • 11. EPR-FIRST Responders. (2006). Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency, Incident and Emergency Centre, Austria.
  • 12. Lemyre, L., Corneil, W., Johnson, C. and Boutette, P. (2010). “Psychosocial Considerations About Children And Radiological Events”. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 142 (1), 70–76.
  • 13. Bulanda, S. (1994), “Ready! The Training Of The Search And Rescue Dog”. Wilsonville, Ore: Doral Publishing Inc, vi, 1–14.
  • 14. Case, L. P. (2005), “The Dog: Its Behavior, Nutrition, and Health”. Second edition, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN: 0-8138-1254- 2. 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK.
  • 15. Sergei, A. K and Barnes, P. J. (2006). “Exhaled Biomarkers” Chest, 130 (24), 1541-1546.
  • 16. Shivik, J. A. (2002). “Odor-adsorptive Clothing, Environmental Factors, And Search-Dog Ability”. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30 (3), 721-727.
  • 17. O” Connor, MB., O “Connor, C. and Walsh, C. H. (2008). “A Dog’s Detection Of Low Blood Sugar: A Case Report”. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 177 (2), 155–157.
  • 18. Curry, E., Skogen, M. and Roth, T. (2021). “Evaluation Of An Odour Detection Dog For Non-İnvasive Pregnancy Diagnosis In Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus): Considerations For Training Sniffer Dogs For Biomedical İnvestigations İn Wildlife Species”. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 9 (1), 1–7.
  • 19. Sharun, K., Jose, B., Tiwari, R., Natesan, S. and Dhama, K. (2021). “Bio-Detection Dogs For Covıd-19: An Alternative Diagnostic Screening Strategy”. Public Health, 197, 10-12.
  • 20. Dalziel, D., Uthman, B., Mcgorray, S. and Reep, Rl. (2003). “Seizure-alert Dogs: A Review And Preliminary Study”. Seizure. 12 (2), 115–120.
  • 21. Sanders, C. R. (2000). “The Impact of Guide Dogs on the Identity of People with Visual Impairments”. Anthrozoös, 13 (3), 131-139.
  • 22. Wells, D. L. (2007). “Domestic Dogs And Human Health: An Overview”. British Journal of Health Psychology. 12 (1), 145–156.
  • 23. Miller, P. E. and Murphy, C. J. (1995).“Vision In Dogs”.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 207 (12), 1623-1634.
  • 24. 24.Szetei, V., Miklósi, Á., Topál, J. and Csányi, V. (2003). “When Dogs Seem To Lose Their Nose: An Investigation on The Use of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Communicative Context Between Dog and Owner”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 83 (2), 141–152.
  • 25. Lorenzo, N., Wan, T., Harper, R. J., Hsu, Y-L., Chow, M., Rose, S. and Furton, K. G. (2003). “Laboratory And Field Experiments Used To Identify canis lupus var. Familiaris Active Odor Signature Chemicals From Drugs, Explosives, and Humans”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 376 (8), 1212–1224.
  • 26. Atasoy, F. and Erdem, E. (2014). “Köpek Duyuları”. Lalahan Hay. Araşt. Enst. Dergisi, 54 (1), 33-38.
  • 27. Pickel, D., Manucy, G. P., Walker, D. B., Hall, S. B. and Walker, J. C. (2004). “Evidence for canine olfactory detection of melanoma”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 89 (1-2), 107–116.
  • 28. Altom, EK., Davenport, GM., Myers, LJ. and Cummins, KA. (2003). “Effect of Dietary Fat Source And Exercise on Odorant-Detecting Ability of Canine Athletes”. Research in Veterinary Science, 75 (2), 149–155.
  • 29. Stepień, I., Stepień, L. and Lubińska, E. (1990). “Function of Dog”s Auditory Cortex In Tests Involving Auditory Location Cues And Directional Instrumental Response”, Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 50 (1-2), 1-12.
  • 30. Wyatt, T. H., Wilkerson, H., Gordon, L. E., Cole, G., Henderson, A., Millis, D, (2016). “Training and Common Injuries of Urban Search and Rescue Dogs”. J Vet Sci Res., 1 (2), 000112.
  • 31. Wojtaś, J., Karpiński, M. and Czyżowski, P. (2020). “Salivary Cortisol Interactions in Search and Rescue Dogs and Their Handlers”. Animals, 10 (4), 595.
  • 32. Fox, P. R., Puschner, B. and Ebel, J. G. (2008). “Assessment of Acute Injuries, Exposure To Environmental Toxins, and Five-Year Health Surveillance of New York Police Department Working Dogs Following The September 11, 2001, World Trade Center terrorist attack”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233 (1), 48-59.
  • 33. Wismer, T. A. (2003). “Management and Prevention Of Toxicoses In Search-And-Rescue Dogs Responding To Urban Disasters”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 222 (3), 305-310.
  • 34. .Jones, K. E., Dashfield, K., Downend, AB. and Otto, CM. (2004). “Search-And-Rescue Dogs: An Overview For Veterinarians”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225 (6), 854–860.
  • 35. Venable, E., Discepolo, D., Powell, E. and Liang, SY. (2017). “An Evaluation of Current Working Canine Decontamination Procedures and Methods For İmprovement”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 21, 53-58.
  • 36. Leroy, E. M., Ar Gouilh, M. and Brugère-Picoux, J. (2020). “The Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission To Pets And Other Wild And Domestic Animals Strongly Mandates A One-Health Strategy To Control The Covıd-19 Pandemic”. One Health, 10, 100-133.
  • 37. Gordon, LE. (2018). “Hurricane Florence Search Canine Illness and Injury Data”. IST Veterinary Specialist September 2018.
  • 38. Shi, J., Wen, Z., Zhong, G., Yang, H., Wang, C., Huang, B., Liu, R., He, X., Shuai, L., Sun, Z., Zhao, Y., Liu, P., Liang, L., Cui, P., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Guan, Y., Tan, W., Wu, G. and Chen, H. (2020). “Susceptibility Of Ferrets, Cats, Dogs, And Other Domesticated Animals to SARS–Coronavirus 2”. Science, 368 (6494), 1016–1020.
  • 39. Chen, J. (2020). “Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A Quick Overview and Comparison With Other Emerging Viruses”. Microbes and Infection, 22 (2), 69–71.
  • 40. Wojtaś, J., Karpiński, M. and Zieliński, D. (2021). “Salivary Cortisol Levels in Search and Rescue (SAR) Dogs Under Rescue Examination Conditions”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 42, 11–15.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Sevil CENGİZ (Sorumlu Yazar)
GUMUSHANE UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
0000-0002-3562-1793
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gumussagbil1003880, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {300 - 307}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880}, title = {Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents}, key = {cite}, author = {Cengiz, Sevil} }
APA Cengiz, S. (2022). Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 11 (1) , 300-307 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880
MLA Cengiz, S. "Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 300-307 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/68960/1003880>
Chicago Cengiz, S. "Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 300-307
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents AU - Sevil Cengiz Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 300 EP - 307 VL - 11 IS - 1 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents %A Sevil Cengiz %T Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents %D 2022 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 11 %N 1 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880
ISNAD Cengiz, Sevil . "Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 / 1 (Mart 2022): 300-307 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880
AMA Cengiz S. Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 300-307.
Vancouver Cengiz S. Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 300-307.
IEEE S. Cengiz , "Possible Hazards And Risks That Search And Rescue (SAR) Dogs May Face In CBRN Incidents", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 1, ss. 300-307, Mar. 2022, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.1003880