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Nursing Approach in Stress Incontinence: Stress Incontinence Care Protocol

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 308 - 318, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.797192

Öz

Stress incontinence is the most common type of incontinence in women and negatively impacts the life of the individual. Conservative treatments are recommended as the first choice in the treatment of stress incontinence. The goal of stress incontinence treatment should be to relieve the symptoms without harming the patient and to increase the quality of life. Nurses should have evidence-based information about the effects of conservative methods. However, since the nurses do not have sufficient information about these evidences, they cannot reflect the evidence to the care. One of the approaches used to reflect evidence-based information in care is care protocols. In the constitution and implementation of care protocols; evidence-based practice models act as bridges between evidence-based information and clinical practice. One of the evidence-based practice models, the Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation is an evidence-based practice model that enables evidence-based nursing research to be conducted within a specific systematic. In this review, the preparation process of the Stress Incontinence Care Protocol, which was created by using the Star Model and its stages, is explained.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abrams, P, Cardozo, L, Fall, M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, Kerrebroeck, Victor, A. and Wein, A. (2003). “The Standardisation of Terminology of Lower Urinary Tract Function: Report From The Standardisation Sub-Committee of The International Continence Society”. Urology, 187 (1), 116–26.
  • 2. Lim, R, Liong, ML, Leong, W. S, Khan, NAK. and Yuen, K. H. (2017). “Effect of Stress Urinary Incontinence on The Sexual Function of Couples And The Quality of Life of Patients”. Journal of Urology, 166 (1), 153-158.
  • 3. Milsom, I, Altman, D, Cartwright, R, Lapitan, M. C, Nelson, R, Sillen, U. and Tikkinen, K. (2013). “Epidmiology of Urinary Incontinence and Other Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Anal Incontinence”. In: Incontinence. 5 th edition, European association of urology. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, Editors. ICUD-EAU. https://www.ics.org/Publications/ICI_5/INCONTINENCE.pdf
  • 4. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2013). “Urinary Incontinence: The Managment of Urinary Incontinence in Women”. Erişim adresi: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg171 (Erişim tarihi: 06.07.2020).
  • 5. Engberg, S. (2016). “Urinary Incontinence/Voiding Dysfunction in The Female”. In: Wound, Ostomy and Continence Society Core Curriculum, Continence Managment. Doughty B.D, Moore K.N, (Eds.). Wolters Kluwer.
  • 6. Bø, K, Taseth, T. and Vinsnes, A. (2000). “Randomized Controlled Trial on The Effect of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Quality of Life And Sexual Problems in Genuine Stress İncontinent Women”. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 79, 598-603.
  • 7. Broome, A.S.B. (2003). “The Impact Of Urinary Incontinence on Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life”. Health Qual Life Out, 1-35.
  • 8. Lins, S, Hayder-Beichel, D, Kunath, F, Cartwright, R, Motschall, E, Antes, G. and Rücker, G. (2014). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Versus Other Active Treatments For Urinary Incontinence in Women”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6, 1-10.
  • 9. DuMoulin, C, Hay-Smith, E. J. C. and Mac Habee-Seguin, C. (2014). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Versus No Treatment, or Inactive Control Treatments, For Urinary Incontinence in Women.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 5, 1-96.
  • 10. Borrie, M.J, Bawden, M, Speechley, M. and Kloseck, M. (2002). “Interventions Led By Nurse Continence Advisers in The Management of Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 166 (10), 1267-1273.
  • 11. Başgöl, Ş. ve Beji, N. K. (2015). “Kontinans Hemşirelerinin Gelişen Rollerinin Uluslararası Düzeyde İrdelenmesi”. Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing , 23(3), 224-230.
  • 12. Melnyk, B. M, Fineout-Overholt, E, Feinstein, N. F, Li, H, Small, L, Wilcox, L. and Kraus, R. (2004). “Nurses’ Perceived Knowledge, Beliefs, Skills, and Needs Regarding Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Accelerating the Paradigm Shift”. Worldviews Evidence-Based Nursing, 1 (3),185–193.
  • 13. Çalışkan, N, Gülnar, E, Aydoğan, S, Bıyık Bayram, S. and Yağcı, N. (2019). “Obstacles to Providing Urinary Incontinence Care Among Nursing in Turkey: A Descriptive Study”. Ostomy Wound Managment, 65 (9), 36-47.
  • 14. Yuan, H. and Williams, B.A. (2010). “Knowledge Of Urinary Incontinence Among Chinese Community Nurses and Community‐Dwelling Older People”. Health & Social Care in Community, 18(1),82-90.
  • 15. Schaffer, M. A, Sandau, K. E. and Diedrick, L. (2013). “Evidence-Based Practice Models for Organizational Change: Overview and Practice Applications”. Journal of Advance Nursing, 69 (5),1197-1209.
  • 16. Keogh, S.J. and Courtney, M. (2001). “Developing and Implementing Clinical Practice Tools: The Legal and Ethical Implications”. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19 (2), 14-19.
  • 17. Stevens, K.R. (2013). “The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and the Next Big Ideas”. Online J Issues Nurs,18 (2), 4.
  • 18. Gülnar, E. (2018). Bakım Protokolü ve Telefonla İzlemin Stres İnkontinanslı Hastalarda Bakım Sonuçlarına Etkisi. Doktora Tezi. Gazi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Doktora tezi, Ankara.
  • 19. Stevens, K.R. (2015). Stevens Star Model of EBP: Knowledge Transformation. San Antonio Academic Center for Evidence Based Practice (ACE), University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX. Retrieved from http://nursing.uthscsa.edu/onrs/ starmodel/star-model.asp
  • 20. Koch, K. A, Woodcock, M. W, Harris, M. R. (2010). “Representation of Clinical Nursing Protocols Using GEM II & GEM Cutter”. American Medical Informatics Association, 397-401.
  • 21. Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2004). “Clinical Guidelines and Care Protocols”. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 20, 45-52.
  • 22. Newman, K.D. (2006). “The Roles of The Continence Nurse Specialist-Global Perspective”. In: Textbook of female urology and urogynecology. L. Cardozo, and D. Staskin. (Eds.), Second edition. Informa Healthcare.
  • 23. Thüroff, J. W, Abrams, P, Andersson, K. E, Artibani, W, Chapple, C. R, Drake, M. J, Hampel, C, Neisius, A, Schröder, A. and Tubaro, A. (2011). “EAU Guidlines on Urinary Incontinence”. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, 35 (7), 373-388.
  • 24. Akıncı, N.A, Elbaş, N.Ö. ve Akıncı, S. (2017). “Stres Üriner İnkontinans Tanısı Alan Kadınlara Verilen Eğitimin Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisinin İncelenmesi”. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Nursing Sciences, 9 (2), 122-32.
  • 25. Beji, K.N. (2009). “Üriner Günlük Ve Mesane Eğitimi”. In: Temel Ürojinekoloji. Ö. Yalçın (Ed.). Nobel Tıp kıtabevi.
  • 26. Bright, E, Drake, M. J. and Abrams, P. (2011). “Urinary Diaries: Evidence for The Development and Validation Of Diary Content, Format, and Duration”. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 30, 348-352.
  • 27. Choi, H, Palmer, M.H. and Park, J. (2007). “Meta-Analysis of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Randomized Controlled Trials in Incontinent Women”. Nursing Research, 56 (4), 226–234.
  • 28. Imamura, M, Abrams, P, Bain, C, Buckley, B, Cardozo, L, Cody, J, Cook, J, Eustice, S, Glazener, C, Grant, A, Hay-Smith, J, Hislop, J, Jenkinson, D, Kilonzo, M, Nabi, G, N’Dow, J, Pickard, R, Ternet, L, Wallace, S, Wardle, J, Zhu, S. and Vale, L. (2010). “Systematic Review and Economic Modeling of The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Non-Surgical Treatments For Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence”. Health Technology Assessment, 14 (40), 1-555.
  • 29. Bettez, M, Tu, L.M, Carlson, K, Corcos, J, Gajewski, J, Jolivet, M. and Bailly, G. (2012). “Update: Guidelines for Adult Urinary Incontinence Collaborative Consensus Document for The Canadian Urological Association”. Canadian Urological Association Journal. 6 (5), 354-363.
  • 30. Bø, K. and Hilde, G. (2013). “Does It Work in the Long Term?-A Systematic Review on Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence”. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 32, 215–223.
  • 31. Park, S. H. and Kang, C. B. (2014). “Effect of Kegel Exercises on The Managment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Adv Nurs, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/640262.
  • 32. Lucas, M. G, Bedretdinova, D, Berghmans, L. C, Bosch, J.L.H.R, Burkhard, F.C, Cruz, F. (2015). “Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence”. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/ 20-Urinary-Incontinence_LR1.pdf.
  • 33. McIntosh, L, Andersen, E. and Reekie, M. (2015). “Conservative Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence In Women: A 10-Year (2004-2013) Scoping Review of The Literature”. Urologic Nursing Journal, 35 (4), 179-186.
  • 34. Syan, R. and Brucker, B. M. (2015). “Guideline of Guidelines: Urinary Incontinence.” BJUI, 117, 20-33.
  • 35. Bourcier, A. P. (2008). “Behavioral Modification and Conservative Managment of Overactive Bladder”. In: Female Urology, Urogynecology, and Voiding Dysfunction. Sandip P, Vasavada AR, Appell KP, Sand P, Raz S, (Eds). Marcel Dekker.
  • 36. Karan, A. (2009). “Üriner İnkontinansta Konservatif Tedavi Rehabilitasyon Programları”. In: Temel Ürojinekoloji. Yalçın Ö, (Ed.) Nobel Tıp Kitabevi.
  • 37. Nethercliffe, J. M. (2012). “Urinary Incontinence.” In: ABC of Urology. Dawson C, Nethercliffe JM (Eds.) Third Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
  • 38. Moore, K. H. (2006). “Urogynecology: Evidence- Based Clinical Practice”. Springer, USA.
  • 39. Moore, K, Dumoulin, C, Bradley, C, Burgio, K, Chambers, T, Hagen, S, Hunter, K, Imamura, M, Thakar, R, Williams, K. and Vale, L. (2013). “Adult Conservative Management”. ICS Incontinence, 1, 1104-1228.
  • 40. Bø, K. and Morkved, S. (2007). “Pelvic floor and exercise science. In: Evidence Base Physical Theraphy For Pelvic Floor“. Bø K, Berghmans B, Morkved S, Kampen M.V, (Eds.) First Edition, Elsevier.
  • 41. Neumann, P. B, Grimmer, K. A. and Deenadayalan, Y. (2006). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training and Adjunctive Therapies for The Treatment of Stres Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review”. BMC Women Health, 6 (11), 1-28.

Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 308 - 318, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.797192

Öz

Stres inkontinans kadınlarda en sık görülen inkontinans türü olup bireyin yaşamını olumsuz etkilemektedir. Stres inkontinansın tedavisinde konservatif tedaviler ilk seçenek olarak önerilmektedir. Stres inkontinans tedavisinde amaç, hastaya zarar vermeden semptomlarını hafifletmek ve yaşam kalitesini arttırmak olmalıdır. Hemşirelerin, konservatif yöntemleri hakkında kanıt temelli bilgiye sahip olmaları gerekmektedir. Ancak hemşireler bu kanıtlar hakkında yeterli bilgi sahibi olmadığı için kanıtları bakıma yansıtamamaktadır. Kanıta dayalı bilgiyi bakıma yansıtmada kullanılan yaklaşımlardan biri bakım protokolleridir. Bakım protokollerinin oluşturulması ve uygulanmasında; kanıta dayalı uyulama modelleri, kanıta dayalı bilgi ile klinik uygulamalar arasında köprü kurma görevi üstlenirler. Kanıta dayalı uygulama modellerinden biri olan Stevens Yıldız Modeli Bilginin Dönüşümü (Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation) kanıta dayalı hemşirelik araştırmalarının belirli bir sistematik içerisinde yürütülmesini sağlayan bir kanıta dayalı uygulama modelidir. Bu derlemede, stres inkontinans hemşirelik yaklaşımı ve Yıldız Modeli ile aşamaları kullanılarak oluşturulmuş olan Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü anlatılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abrams, P, Cardozo, L, Fall, M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, Kerrebroeck, Victor, A. and Wein, A. (2003). “The Standardisation of Terminology of Lower Urinary Tract Function: Report From The Standardisation Sub-Committee of The International Continence Society”. Urology, 187 (1), 116–26.
  • 2. Lim, R, Liong, ML, Leong, W. S, Khan, NAK. and Yuen, K. H. (2017). “Effect of Stress Urinary Incontinence on The Sexual Function of Couples And The Quality of Life of Patients”. Journal of Urology, 166 (1), 153-158.
  • 3. Milsom, I, Altman, D, Cartwright, R, Lapitan, M. C, Nelson, R, Sillen, U. and Tikkinen, K. (2013). “Epidmiology of Urinary Incontinence and Other Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Anal Incontinence”. In: Incontinence. 5 th edition, European association of urology. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, Editors. ICUD-EAU. https://www.ics.org/Publications/ICI_5/INCONTINENCE.pdf
  • 4. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2013). “Urinary Incontinence: The Managment of Urinary Incontinence in Women”. Erişim adresi: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg171 (Erişim tarihi: 06.07.2020).
  • 5. Engberg, S. (2016). “Urinary Incontinence/Voiding Dysfunction in The Female”. In: Wound, Ostomy and Continence Society Core Curriculum, Continence Managment. Doughty B.D, Moore K.N, (Eds.). Wolters Kluwer.
  • 6. Bø, K, Taseth, T. and Vinsnes, A. (2000). “Randomized Controlled Trial on The Effect of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Quality of Life And Sexual Problems in Genuine Stress İncontinent Women”. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 79, 598-603.
  • 7. Broome, A.S.B. (2003). “The Impact Of Urinary Incontinence on Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life”. Health Qual Life Out, 1-35.
  • 8. Lins, S, Hayder-Beichel, D, Kunath, F, Cartwright, R, Motschall, E, Antes, G. and Rücker, G. (2014). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Versus Other Active Treatments For Urinary Incontinence in Women”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6, 1-10.
  • 9. DuMoulin, C, Hay-Smith, E. J. C. and Mac Habee-Seguin, C. (2014). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Versus No Treatment, or Inactive Control Treatments, For Urinary Incontinence in Women.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 5, 1-96.
  • 10. Borrie, M.J, Bawden, M, Speechley, M. and Kloseck, M. (2002). “Interventions Led By Nurse Continence Advisers in The Management of Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 166 (10), 1267-1273.
  • 11. Başgöl, Ş. ve Beji, N. K. (2015). “Kontinans Hemşirelerinin Gelişen Rollerinin Uluslararası Düzeyde İrdelenmesi”. Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing , 23(3), 224-230.
  • 12. Melnyk, B. M, Fineout-Overholt, E, Feinstein, N. F, Li, H, Small, L, Wilcox, L. and Kraus, R. (2004). “Nurses’ Perceived Knowledge, Beliefs, Skills, and Needs Regarding Evidence-Based Practice: Implications for Accelerating the Paradigm Shift”. Worldviews Evidence-Based Nursing, 1 (3),185–193.
  • 13. Çalışkan, N, Gülnar, E, Aydoğan, S, Bıyık Bayram, S. and Yağcı, N. (2019). “Obstacles to Providing Urinary Incontinence Care Among Nursing in Turkey: A Descriptive Study”. Ostomy Wound Managment, 65 (9), 36-47.
  • 14. Yuan, H. and Williams, B.A. (2010). “Knowledge Of Urinary Incontinence Among Chinese Community Nurses and Community‐Dwelling Older People”. Health & Social Care in Community, 18(1),82-90.
  • 15. Schaffer, M. A, Sandau, K. E. and Diedrick, L. (2013). “Evidence-Based Practice Models for Organizational Change: Overview and Practice Applications”. Journal of Advance Nursing, 69 (5),1197-1209.
  • 16. Keogh, S.J. and Courtney, M. (2001). “Developing and Implementing Clinical Practice Tools: The Legal and Ethical Implications”. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19 (2), 14-19.
  • 17. Stevens, K.R. (2013). “The Impact of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and the Next Big Ideas”. Online J Issues Nurs,18 (2), 4.
  • 18. Gülnar, E. (2018). Bakım Protokolü ve Telefonla İzlemin Stres İnkontinanslı Hastalarda Bakım Sonuçlarına Etkisi. Doktora Tezi. Gazi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Doktora tezi, Ankara.
  • 19. Stevens, K.R. (2015). Stevens Star Model of EBP: Knowledge Transformation. San Antonio Academic Center for Evidence Based Practice (ACE), University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX. Retrieved from http://nursing.uthscsa.edu/onrs/ starmodel/star-model.asp
  • 20. Koch, K. A, Woodcock, M. W, Harris, M. R. (2010). “Representation of Clinical Nursing Protocols Using GEM II & GEM Cutter”. American Medical Informatics Association, 397-401.
  • 21. Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2004). “Clinical Guidelines and Care Protocols”. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 20, 45-52.
  • 22. Newman, K.D. (2006). “The Roles of The Continence Nurse Specialist-Global Perspective”. In: Textbook of female urology and urogynecology. L. Cardozo, and D. Staskin. (Eds.), Second edition. Informa Healthcare.
  • 23. Thüroff, J. W, Abrams, P, Andersson, K. E, Artibani, W, Chapple, C. R, Drake, M. J, Hampel, C, Neisius, A, Schröder, A. and Tubaro, A. (2011). “EAU Guidlines on Urinary Incontinence”. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, 35 (7), 373-388.
  • 24. Akıncı, N.A, Elbaş, N.Ö. ve Akıncı, S. (2017). “Stres Üriner İnkontinans Tanısı Alan Kadınlara Verilen Eğitimin Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisinin İncelenmesi”. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Nursing Sciences, 9 (2), 122-32.
  • 25. Beji, K.N. (2009). “Üriner Günlük Ve Mesane Eğitimi”. In: Temel Ürojinekoloji. Ö. Yalçın (Ed.). Nobel Tıp kıtabevi.
  • 26. Bright, E, Drake, M. J. and Abrams, P. (2011). “Urinary Diaries: Evidence for The Development and Validation Of Diary Content, Format, and Duration”. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 30, 348-352.
  • 27. Choi, H, Palmer, M.H. and Park, J. (2007). “Meta-Analysis of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Randomized Controlled Trials in Incontinent Women”. Nursing Research, 56 (4), 226–234.
  • 28. Imamura, M, Abrams, P, Bain, C, Buckley, B, Cardozo, L, Cody, J, Cook, J, Eustice, S, Glazener, C, Grant, A, Hay-Smith, J, Hislop, J, Jenkinson, D, Kilonzo, M, Nabi, G, N’Dow, J, Pickard, R, Ternet, L, Wallace, S, Wardle, J, Zhu, S. and Vale, L. (2010). “Systematic Review and Economic Modeling of The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Non-Surgical Treatments For Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence”. Health Technology Assessment, 14 (40), 1-555.
  • 29. Bettez, M, Tu, L.M, Carlson, K, Corcos, J, Gajewski, J, Jolivet, M. and Bailly, G. (2012). “Update: Guidelines for Adult Urinary Incontinence Collaborative Consensus Document for The Canadian Urological Association”. Canadian Urological Association Journal. 6 (5), 354-363.
  • 30. Bø, K. and Hilde, G. (2013). “Does It Work in the Long Term?-A Systematic Review on Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence”. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 32, 215–223.
  • 31. Park, S. H. and Kang, C. B. (2014). “Effect of Kegel Exercises on The Managment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Adv Nurs, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/640262.
  • 32. Lucas, M. G, Bedretdinova, D, Berghmans, L. C, Bosch, J.L.H.R, Burkhard, F.C, Cruz, F. (2015). “Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence”. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/ 20-Urinary-Incontinence_LR1.pdf.
  • 33. McIntosh, L, Andersen, E. and Reekie, M. (2015). “Conservative Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence In Women: A 10-Year (2004-2013) Scoping Review of The Literature”. Urologic Nursing Journal, 35 (4), 179-186.
  • 34. Syan, R. and Brucker, B. M. (2015). “Guideline of Guidelines: Urinary Incontinence.” BJUI, 117, 20-33.
  • 35. Bourcier, A. P. (2008). “Behavioral Modification and Conservative Managment of Overactive Bladder”. In: Female Urology, Urogynecology, and Voiding Dysfunction. Sandip P, Vasavada AR, Appell KP, Sand P, Raz S, (Eds). Marcel Dekker.
  • 36. Karan, A. (2009). “Üriner İnkontinansta Konservatif Tedavi Rehabilitasyon Programları”. In: Temel Ürojinekoloji. Yalçın Ö, (Ed.) Nobel Tıp Kitabevi.
  • 37. Nethercliffe, J. M. (2012). “Urinary Incontinence.” In: ABC of Urology. Dawson C, Nethercliffe JM (Eds.) Third Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
  • 38. Moore, K. H. (2006). “Urogynecology: Evidence- Based Clinical Practice”. Springer, USA.
  • 39. Moore, K, Dumoulin, C, Bradley, C, Burgio, K, Chambers, T, Hagen, S, Hunter, K, Imamura, M, Thakar, R, Williams, K. and Vale, L. (2013). “Adult Conservative Management”. ICS Incontinence, 1, 1104-1228.
  • 40. Bø, K. and Morkved, S. (2007). “Pelvic floor and exercise science. In: Evidence Base Physical Theraphy For Pelvic Floor“. Bø K, Berghmans B, Morkved S, Kampen M.V, (Eds.) First Edition, Elsevier.
  • 41. Neumann, P. B, Grimmer, K. A. and Deenadayalan, Y. (2006). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training and Adjunctive Therapies for The Treatment of Stres Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review”. BMC Women Health, 6 (11), 1-28.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Emel GÜLNAR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Hemşirelik Bölümü
0000-0002-4766-8927
Türkiye


Nurcan ÇALIŞKAN
Gazi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Hemşirelik Bölümü
0000-0002-4611-2230
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gumussagbil797192, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {11}, pages = {308 - 318}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.797192}, title = {Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü}, key = {cite}, author = {Gülnar, Emel and Çalışkan, Nurcan} }
APA Gülnar, E. & Çalışkan, N. (2022). Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 11 (1) , 308-318 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192
MLA Gülnar, E. , Çalışkan, N. "Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 308-318 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/68960/797192>
Chicago Gülnar, E. , Çalışkan, N. "Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 308-318
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü AU - Emel Gülnar , Nurcan Çalışkan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 308 EP - 318 VL - 11 IS - 1 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.797192 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü %A Emel Gülnar , Nurcan Çalışkan %T Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü %D 2022 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 11 %N 1 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.797192
ISNAD Gülnar, Emel , Çalışkan, Nurcan . "Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 / 1 (Mart 2022): 308-318 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.797192
AMA Gülnar E. , Çalışkan N. Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 308-318.
Vancouver Gülnar E. , Çalışkan N. Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 308-318.
IEEE E. Gülnar ve N. Çalışkan , "Stres İnkontinansta Hemşirelik Yaklaşımı: Stres İnkontinans Bakım Protokolü", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 1, ss. 308-318, Mar. 2022, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.797192