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COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 371 - 378, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.927918

Öz

Çocuk istismarı, bir çocuğa yetişkin tarafından fiziksel veya psikolojik olarak kötü muamele uygulanması şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır. Kısa ve uzun dönemde çok çeşitli fiziksel, ruhsal ve sosyal sonuçlara yol açan çocuk istismarı dünya çapında yaygın önemli bir sorundur. Çocukların hayatında geri dönülmez yaralar açan ve yaşamları boyunca etkileri devam eden bir süreçtir. Çocuk istismarının biyopsikososyal risk ve koruyucu faktörleri; çocuğa ilişkin, ailesel, sosyal ve toplumsal boyutlarda ele alınmaktadır. COVID-19 salgını çocukları istismar için yüksek risk altına sokan sayısız sosyo-ekonomik stres faktörünü ve eşitsizliği gündeme getirmiştir. COVID-19’un yayılımını önlemek amacıyla yüz yüze eğitime ara verilmesi ve çocukların sosyal ve ev dışı faaliyetlerine kısıtlamalar getirilmesi ile yaşanan sosyal izolasyon çocuk istismarı için önemli bir risk faktörünü oluşturmaktadır. Bu süreçte çocuğun bakım yükü ve evde geçirilen sürenin artması, yaşanan ekonomik güvensizlik, yoksulluk, gelecekle ilgili belirsizlik, ebeveyn stresi ise çocuk istismarını artırabilecek diğer risk faktörlerindendir. Pandemi sürecinin çocuk istismarına yönelik risk faktörleri üzerindeki etkisi değerlendirilerek etkin bir şekilde yönetilmelidir. Bu derlemede; pandemi sürecinde çocuk istismarı açısından risk oluşturabilecek durumlar değerlendirilmiş ve bu durumlara çözüm önerileri sunulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • 1. DSÖa. (2021). “Çocuk İstismarı”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/child-maltreatment (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 2. TÜİK. (2019). “Güvenlik Birimine Gelen veya Getirilen Çocuk İstatistikleri, 2015-2019” Erişim Adresi: https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33632 (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 3. Norman, R. E, Byambaa, M, De, R, Butchart, A, Scott, J, and Vos, T. (2012). “The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. PLoS med, 9 (11), e1001349.
  • 4. Jaffee, S. R, Ambler, A, Merrick, M, Goldman-Mellor, S, Odgers, C. L, Fisher, H. L, and Arseneault, L. (2018). “Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Poor Economic and Educational Outcomes in The Transition to Adulthood”. American Journal of Public Health, 108 (9), 1142-1147.
  • 5. Carson, S. M. (2018). “Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to İmprove Child Physical Abuse Screening and Detection in the Emergency Department”. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 44 (6), 576-581.
  • 6. DSÖb. (2020). Erişim Adresi: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1 (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 7. Abedi, V, Olulana, O, Avula, V, Chaudhary, D, Khan, A, Shahjouei, S, and Zand, R. (2020). “Racial, Economic, and Health İnequality and COVID-19 İnfection in The United States”. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 1-11.
  • 8. Abramson, A. (2020). “How COVID-19 May İncrease Domestic Violence And Child Abuse”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.apa.org/topics/covid-19/domestic-violence-child-abuse (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 9. Agrawal, N, and Kelley, M. (2020). “Child Abuse in Times of Crises: Lessons Learned”. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 21 (3), 100801.
  • 10. Aslan, F, Timur, S, and Pakiş, I. (2020). “Evaluation of Child Abuse Cases Affected by COVID-19 Pandemic”. The Bulletin of Legal Medicine, 25 (COVID-19 Sp. I.), 40-47.
  • 11. Barboza, G. E, Schiamberg, L. B, and Pachl, L. (2020). “A Spatiotemporal Analysis of the İmpact of COVID-19 on Child Abuse and Neglect in the City of Los Angeles, California”. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104740.
  • 12. Brooks, S. K, Webster, R. K, Smith, L. E, Woodland, L, Wessely, S, Greenberg, N, and Rubin, G. J. (2020). “The Psychological Impact of Quarantine and How to Reduce İt: Rapid Review of the Evidence”. The lancet, 395 (10227), 912-920.
  • 13. Honda, C, Yoshioka‐Maeda, K, and Iwasaki‐Motegi, R. (2020). “Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention By Public Health Nurses During The COVID‐19 Pandemic in Japan”. J Adv Nurs, 76, 2792–2793. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14526
  • 14. Fayaz, I. (2019). “Child Abuse: Effects and Preventive Measures”. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 7(2), 871-884.
  • 15. Leeb, R. T, Lewis, T, and Zolotor, A. J. (2011). “A Review of Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect and İmplications for Practice”. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5 (5), 454-468.
  • 16. Sofuoğlu, Z, Oral, R, Aydın, F, Cankardeş, S, Kandemirci, B, Koç, F. ve Akşit, S. (2014). “Türkiye’nin Üç İlinde Olumsuz Çocukluk Çağı Deneyimleri Epidemiyolojik Çalışması”. Türk Pediatri Arşivi, 49 (1), 47-56.
  • 17. Mathews, B, and Collin-Vézina, D. (2019). “Child Sexual Abuse: Toward a Conceptual Model and Definition”. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20 (2), 131-148.
  • 18. Nemeroff, C. B. (2016). “Paradise Lost: The Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect”. Neuron, 89 (5), 892-909.
  • 19. Ergönen, A. T, Biçen, E. ve Ersoy, G. (2020). COVID-19 Salgınında Ev İçi Şiddet. The Bulletin of Legal Medicine, 25 (COVID-19 Sp. I.), 48-57.
  • 20. Acehan, S, Bilen, A, Ay, M. O, Gülen, M, Avcı, A. ve İçme, F. (2013). “Çocuk İstismarı ve İhmalinin Değerlendirilmesi”. Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi, 22 (4), 591-614.
  • 21. H. H. S. (2016). “Child Maltreatment”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/data-research/child-maltreatment (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 22. Herendeen, P. A, Blevins, R, Anson, E, and Smith, J. (2014). “Barriers to and Consequences of Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse by Nurse Practitioners”. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 28 (1), e1-e7.
  • 23. Stirling, J, and Amaya-Jackson, L. (2008). “Understanding the Behavioral and Emotional Consequences of Child Abuse”. Pediatrics, 122 (3), 667-673.
  • 24. Kaufman, J, and Torbey, S. (2019). “Child Maltreatment and Psychosis”. Neurobiology of disease, 131, 104378.
  • 25. CDC. (2021). “Child Abuse & Neglect”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/riskprotectivefactors.html (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 26. UNESCO. (2020). “Global Monitoring of School Closures Caused by COVID-19”. Erişim Adresi: www. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 27. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2020). “Koronavirüse Karşı Alınan Tedbirler”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.meb.gov.tr/bakan-selcuk-koronaviruse-karsi-egitim-alaninda-alinan-tedbirleri-acikladi/haber/20497/tr (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 28. İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2020). “Şehir Giriş/Çıkış Tedbirleri ve Yaş Sınırlaması Kararı”. Erişim Adresi: https:// www.icisleri.gov.tr/sehir-giriscikis-tebirleri-ve-yas-sinirlamasi (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 29. Di Giuseppe, M, Gemignani, A, and Conversano, C. (2020). “Psychological Resources Against the Traumatic Experience of COVID-19”. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 17 (2), 85-87.
  • 30. Tar, E, and Atik, D. (2020). “Pandemi Döneminde Çocuklarda Obezite Riski”. Hemşirelik Forumu Dergisi. 12 (2), 37-41.
  • 31. Svensson, L, and Bergman, A. K. (2020). Sweden, Country Context: Key Facts and Figures. COVID-19 and socıal work: a collectıon of country reports, (Ed. Dominelli, L., vd.) , COVID-19 Social Work Research Forum: July.
  • 32. UNICEF. (2020). “Technical Note: Protection of Children during the Coronavirus Pandemic”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/media/65991/file/Technical%20note:%20Protection%20of%20children%20during%20the%20coronavirus%20disease%202019%20(COVID-19)%20pandemi c.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 33. The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, End Violence Against Children, UNICEF, WHO. (2020). “COVID-19: Protecting Children from Violence, Abuse and Neglect in the Home”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/media/68711/file/COVID-19-Protec ting-children-from-violence-abuse-and-neglect (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 34. Kovler, M. L, Ziegfeld, S, Ryan, L. M, Goldstein, M. A, Gardner, R, Garcia, A. V, and Nasr, I. W. (2020). “Increased Proportion of Physical Child Abuse İnjuries at a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center During the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104756. 35. Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé. (2020). “Enfance en Danger: le Gouvernement Mobilisé” Erişim Adresi: https://solidarites-sante.gouv.fr/actualites/presse/communi ques-de-presse/article/enfance-en-danger-le-gouvernement-mobilise (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 36. Sserwanja, Q, Kawuki, J, and Kim, J. H. (2021). “Increased Child Abuse in Uganda Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic”. Journal Of Paediatrics And Child Health, 57 (2), 188-191.
  • 37. Muzungu H. E. (2020). “A Matter of Life and Death: A Case of the Uganda Child Helpline. Kampala: UNICEF Uganda; 2020”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/uganda/stories/ matter-life-and-death-case-uganda-child helpline (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 38. London, U.K: Save the Children International. (2020). “Save the Children. Protection Assessment on the Impact of COVID‐19 in Uganda”. Erişim Adresi: https://resourcec entre.savethechildren.net/node/17885/pdf/Save%20the%20Children%20Child%20Protection%20Survey%20Report%20-%20June%202020%20Final_web.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 39. Emre, R, Cantürk, K. M, Komur, I, and Doğan, M. (2015). “Evaluation of İncest Cases of Turkey in Terms of DNA Profiling Difficulties”. J Forensic Legal Med, 36, 16-21.
  • 40. Caron, F, Plancq, M. C, Tourneux, P, Gouron, R, and Klein, C. (2020). “Was Child Abuse Underdetected during the COVID-19 Lockdown?”. Archives de Pédiatrie, 27 (7), 399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2020.07.010

Child Abuse During COVID-19 Pandemia

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1, 371 - 378, 19.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.927918

Öz

Child abuse is defined as physical or psychological maltreatment implementation of a child by an adult. Child abuse is an important problem worldwide, which has a leading wide range of physical, mental and social consequences in the short and long term. It is a process that causes irreversible wounds in the lives of children and whose effects continue throughout their lives. Biopsychosocial risk and protective factors of child abuse; child related, familial, social and legal dimensions. The COVID-19 pandemic brought up the numerous socio-economic stressors and inequalities that put children at high risk for abuse. Social isolation experienced by interrupting face-to-face education and imposing restrictions on children's social and out-of-home activities in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19 constitute an important risk factor for child abuse. In this process, the burden of care of the child and the increase in the duration of being at home, living economic insecurity, poverty, uncertainty about the future, parental stress are the other risk factors that can increase child abuse. The pandemic process should be managed effectively by assessing its impact on risk factors for child abuse. In this review; during the pandemic process, situations that could pose a risk in terms of child abuse there were evaluated and solutions were offered for these situations.

Kaynakça

  • 1. DSÖa. (2021). “Çocuk İstismarı”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/child-maltreatment (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 2. TÜİK. (2019). “Güvenlik Birimine Gelen veya Getirilen Çocuk İstatistikleri, 2015-2019” Erişim Adresi: https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33632 (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 3. Norman, R. E, Byambaa, M, De, R, Butchart, A, Scott, J, and Vos, T. (2012). “The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. PLoS med, 9 (11), e1001349.
  • 4. Jaffee, S. R, Ambler, A, Merrick, M, Goldman-Mellor, S, Odgers, C. L, Fisher, H. L, and Arseneault, L. (2018). “Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Poor Economic and Educational Outcomes in The Transition to Adulthood”. American Journal of Public Health, 108 (9), 1142-1147.
  • 5. Carson, S. M. (2018). “Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to İmprove Child Physical Abuse Screening and Detection in the Emergency Department”. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 44 (6), 576-581.
  • 6. DSÖb. (2020). Erişim Adresi: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1 (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 7. Abedi, V, Olulana, O, Avula, V, Chaudhary, D, Khan, A, Shahjouei, S, and Zand, R. (2020). “Racial, Economic, and Health İnequality and COVID-19 İnfection in The United States”. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 1-11.
  • 8. Abramson, A. (2020). “How COVID-19 May İncrease Domestic Violence And Child Abuse”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.apa.org/topics/covid-19/domestic-violence-child-abuse (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 9. Agrawal, N, and Kelley, M. (2020). “Child Abuse in Times of Crises: Lessons Learned”. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 21 (3), 100801.
  • 10. Aslan, F, Timur, S, and Pakiş, I. (2020). “Evaluation of Child Abuse Cases Affected by COVID-19 Pandemic”. The Bulletin of Legal Medicine, 25 (COVID-19 Sp. I.), 40-47.
  • 11. Barboza, G. E, Schiamberg, L. B, and Pachl, L. (2020). “A Spatiotemporal Analysis of the İmpact of COVID-19 on Child Abuse and Neglect in the City of Los Angeles, California”. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104740.
  • 12. Brooks, S. K, Webster, R. K, Smith, L. E, Woodland, L, Wessely, S, Greenberg, N, and Rubin, G. J. (2020). “The Psychological Impact of Quarantine and How to Reduce İt: Rapid Review of the Evidence”. The lancet, 395 (10227), 912-920.
  • 13. Honda, C, Yoshioka‐Maeda, K, and Iwasaki‐Motegi, R. (2020). “Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention By Public Health Nurses During The COVID‐19 Pandemic in Japan”. J Adv Nurs, 76, 2792–2793. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14526
  • 14. Fayaz, I. (2019). “Child Abuse: Effects and Preventive Measures”. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 7(2), 871-884.
  • 15. Leeb, R. T, Lewis, T, and Zolotor, A. J. (2011). “A Review of Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect and İmplications for Practice”. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5 (5), 454-468.
  • 16. Sofuoğlu, Z, Oral, R, Aydın, F, Cankardeş, S, Kandemirci, B, Koç, F. ve Akşit, S. (2014). “Türkiye’nin Üç İlinde Olumsuz Çocukluk Çağı Deneyimleri Epidemiyolojik Çalışması”. Türk Pediatri Arşivi, 49 (1), 47-56.
  • 17. Mathews, B, and Collin-Vézina, D. (2019). “Child Sexual Abuse: Toward a Conceptual Model and Definition”. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 20 (2), 131-148.
  • 18. Nemeroff, C. B. (2016). “Paradise Lost: The Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect”. Neuron, 89 (5), 892-909.
  • 19. Ergönen, A. T, Biçen, E. ve Ersoy, G. (2020). COVID-19 Salgınında Ev İçi Şiddet. The Bulletin of Legal Medicine, 25 (COVID-19 Sp. I.), 48-57.
  • 20. Acehan, S, Bilen, A, Ay, M. O, Gülen, M, Avcı, A. ve İçme, F. (2013). “Çocuk İstismarı ve İhmalinin Değerlendirilmesi”. Arşiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi, 22 (4), 591-614.
  • 21. H. H. S. (2016). “Child Maltreatment”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/data-research/child-maltreatment (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 22. Herendeen, P. A, Blevins, R, Anson, E, and Smith, J. (2014). “Barriers to and Consequences of Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse by Nurse Practitioners”. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 28 (1), e1-e7.
  • 23. Stirling, J, and Amaya-Jackson, L. (2008). “Understanding the Behavioral and Emotional Consequences of Child Abuse”. Pediatrics, 122 (3), 667-673.
  • 24. Kaufman, J, and Torbey, S. (2019). “Child Maltreatment and Psychosis”. Neurobiology of disease, 131, 104378.
  • 25. CDC. (2021). “Child Abuse & Neglect”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/riskprotectivefactors.html (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 26. UNESCO. (2020). “Global Monitoring of School Closures Caused by COVID-19”. Erişim Adresi: www. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021)
  • 27. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2020). “Koronavirüse Karşı Alınan Tedbirler”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.meb.gov.tr/bakan-selcuk-koronaviruse-karsi-egitim-alaninda-alinan-tedbirleri-acikladi/haber/20497/tr (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 28. İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2020). “Şehir Giriş/Çıkış Tedbirleri ve Yaş Sınırlaması Kararı”. Erişim Adresi: https:// www.icisleri.gov.tr/sehir-giriscikis-tebirleri-ve-yas-sinirlamasi (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 29. Di Giuseppe, M, Gemignani, A, and Conversano, C. (2020). “Psychological Resources Against the Traumatic Experience of COVID-19”. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 17 (2), 85-87.
  • 30. Tar, E, and Atik, D. (2020). “Pandemi Döneminde Çocuklarda Obezite Riski”. Hemşirelik Forumu Dergisi. 12 (2), 37-41.
  • 31. Svensson, L, and Bergman, A. K. (2020). Sweden, Country Context: Key Facts and Figures. COVID-19 and socıal work: a collectıon of country reports, (Ed. Dominelli, L., vd.) , COVID-19 Social Work Research Forum: July.
  • 32. UNICEF. (2020). “Technical Note: Protection of Children during the Coronavirus Pandemic”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/media/65991/file/Technical%20note:%20Protection%20of%20children%20during%20the%20coronavirus%20disease%202019%20(COVID-19)%20pandemi c.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 33. The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, End Violence Against Children, UNICEF, WHO. (2020). “COVID-19: Protecting Children from Violence, Abuse and Neglect in the Home”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/media/68711/file/COVID-19-Protec ting-children-from-violence-abuse-and-neglect (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 34. Kovler, M. L, Ziegfeld, S, Ryan, L. M, Goldstein, M. A, Gardner, R, Garcia, A. V, and Nasr, I. W. (2020). “Increased Proportion of Physical Child Abuse İnjuries at a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center During the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104756. 35. Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé. (2020). “Enfance en Danger: le Gouvernement Mobilisé” Erişim Adresi: https://solidarites-sante.gouv.fr/actualites/presse/communi ques-de-presse/article/enfance-en-danger-le-gouvernement-mobilise (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 36. Sserwanja, Q, Kawuki, J, and Kim, J. H. (2021). “Increased Child Abuse in Uganda Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic”. Journal Of Paediatrics And Child Health, 57 (2), 188-191.
  • 37. Muzungu H. E. (2020). “A Matter of Life and Death: A Case of the Uganda Child Helpline. Kampala: UNICEF Uganda; 2020”. Erişim Adresi: https://www.unicef.org/uganda/stories/ matter-life-and-death-case-uganda-child helpline (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 38. London, U.K: Save the Children International. (2020). “Save the Children. Protection Assessment on the Impact of COVID‐19 in Uganda”. Erişim Adresi: https://resourcec entre.savethechildren.net/node/17885/pdf/Save%20the%20Children%20Child%20Protection%20Survey%20Report%20-%20June%202020%20Final_web.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 07.04.2021).
  • 39. Emre, R, Cantürk, K. M, Komur, I, and Doğan, M. (2015). “Evaluation of İncest Cases of Turkey in Terms of DNA Profiling Difficulties”. J Forensic Legal Med, 36, 16-21.
  • 40. Caron, F, Plancq, M. C, Tourneux, P, Gouron, R, and Klein, C. (2020). “Was Child Abuse Underdetected during the COVID-19 Lockdown?”. Archives de Pédiatrie, 27 (7), 399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2020.07.010

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Edanur TAR (Sorumlu Yazar)
OSMANIYE KORKUT ATA UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8821-8554
Türkiye


Betül ÇETİNTAŞ
0000-0003-0022-5990
Türkiye


Derya ATİK
Osmaniye Korkut Ata Üniversitesi
0000-0002-8497-0105
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 19 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gumussagbil927918, journal = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-9954}, address = {}, publisher = {Gümüşhane Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {371 - 378}, doi = {10.37989/gumussagbil.927918}, title = {COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı}, key = {cite}, author = {Tar, Edanur and Çetintaş, Betül and Atik, Derya} }
APA Tar, E. , Çetintaş, B. & Atik, D. (2022). COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 11 (1) , 371-378 . DOI: 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918
MLA Tar, E. , Çetintaş, B. , Atik, D. "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı" . Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 371-378 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gumussagbil/issue/68960/927918>
Chicago Tar, E. , Çetintaş, B. , Atik, D. "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 (2022 ): 371-378
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı AU - Edanur Tar , Betül Çetintaş , Derya Atik Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918 DO - 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918 T2 - Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 371 EP - 378 VL - 11 IS - 1 SN - -2146-9954 M3 - doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918 UR - https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.927918 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı %A Edanur Tar , Betül Çetintaş , Derya Atik %T COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı %D 2022 %J Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-9954 %V 11 %N 1 %R doi: 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918 %U 10.37989/gumussagbil.927918
ISNAD Tar, Edanur , Çetintaş, Betül , Atik, Derya . "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı". Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 11 / 1 (Mart 2022): 371-378 . https://doi.org/10.37989/gumussagbil.927918
AMA Tar E. , Çetintaş B. , Atik D. COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 371-378.
Vancouver Tar E. , Çetintaş B. , Atik D. COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 11(1): 371-378.
IEEE E. Tar , B. Çetintaş ve D. Atik , "COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Çocuk İstismarı", Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 11, sayı. 1, ss. 371-378, Mar. 2022, doi:10.37989/gumussagbil.927918