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Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 4, 201 - 215, 11.05.2022

Öz

Lower extremity surgery is a type of surgery commonly encountered in anesthesia practice. Generally, the choice of anesthesia is one of the general or neuraxial block methods. However, in recent years, in parallel with the aging of the population, a great increase has been observed in the number of elderly patients who need anesthesia in lower extremity surgery, especially in the hip and knee. The fact that elderly patients have many additional diseases and a fragile physiology cause serious difficulties in the anesthesia method to be applied in these patients. In particular, the use of ultrasound in anesthesia has contributed to the spread of peripheral nerve blocks by increasing the success and safety of the application. It should not be overlooked that peripheral nerve blocks may be an important option to reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality in frail and high-risk patients susceptible to sympathetic blockade. This review provides an updated perspective on existing lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks, which may be an alternative to general or neuraxial anesthesia.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Joshi GP, Schug SA, Kehlet H. Procedure-specific pain management and outcome strategies. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2014; 28: 191-201.
  • 2. Touray ST, de Leeuw MA, Zuurmond WW, Perez RS. Psoas compartment block for lower extremity surgery: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2008; 101: 750-760.
  • 3. Poulsen JL, Brock C, Olesen AE, Nilsson M, Drewes AM. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2015; 8: 360-372.
  • 4. Boland J, Boland E, Brooks D. Importance of the correct diagnosis of opioid-induced respiratory depression in adult cancer patients andtitration of naloxone. Clin Med (Lond). 2013; 13: 149-151.
  • 5. Rodgers J, Cunningham K, Fitzgerald K, Finnerty E. Opioid consumption following outpatient upper extremity surgery. J Hand Surg Am. 2012; 37: 645-650.
  • 6. Chan EY, Fransen M, Sathappan S, Chua NH, Chan YH, Chua N. Comparing the analgesia effects of single-injection and continuous femoral nerve blocks with patient controlled analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2013; 28: 608-613.
  • 7. Chan EY, Fransen M, Parker DA, Assam PN, Chua N. Femoral nerve blocks for acute postoperative pain after knee replacement surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 5: Cd009941
  • 8. Griffioen MA, OʼBrien G. Analgesics Administered for Pain During Hospitalization Following Lower Extremity Fracture: A Review of the Literature. J Trauma Nurs. 2018; 25(6): 360-365.
  • 9. Zhang X, Sun C, Bai X, Zhang Q. Efficacy and safety of lower extremity nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia at free fibular flap donor sites. Head Neck. 2018; 40(12): 2670-2676.
  • 10. Barrington MJ,Olive D, Low K, Scott DA, Brittain J, Choong P. Continuous femoral nerve blockade or epidural analgesia after total knee replacement: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2005; 101: 1824-1829.
  • 11. Farny J, Drolet P, Girard M. Anatomy of the posterior approach to the lumbar plexus block. Can J Anaesth. 1994; 41: 480-485.
  • 12. Lu S, Chang S, Zhang Y-zhi, Ding Z-hai, Xu XM, Xu Y-ging. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011; 12: 76.
  • 13. Ty Muhly W, Orebaugh SL. Ultrasound evaluation of the anatomy of the vessels in relation to the femoral nerve at the femoral crease. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011; 33: 491-494.
  • 14. Kirchmair L, Lirk P, Colvin J, Mitterschiffthaler G, Moriggl B. Lumbar plexus and psoas major muscle: not always as expected. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008; 33: 109-114.
  • 15. Sladjana UZ, Ivan JD, Bratislav SD. Microanatomical structure of the human sciatic nerve. Surg Radiol Anat. 2008; 30: 619-626.
  • 16. Ugrenovic S, Topalovic M, Jonanovic I. Morphological and morphometric analysis of fascicular structure of tibial and common peroneal nerves. Medicine and Biology. 2014; 16: 18-22.
  • 17. Currin SS, Mirjalili SA, Meikle G, Stringer MD. Revisiting the surface anatomy of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region. Clin Anat. 2015; 28: 144-149.
  • 18. Bruhn J, van Geffen GJ, Gielen MJ, Scheffer G J. Visualization of the course of the sciatic nerve in adult volunteers by ultrasonography. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008; 52: 1298-1302.
  • 19. Williams A, Newell RLM, Davies MS, et al. Pelvic girdle and lower limb. In: Standring S, Ellis H, Healy JC, et al, eds. Gray’s anatomy—the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 39th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005.
  • 20. Vloka JD, Hadzic A, April E, Thys DM. The division of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa: anatomical implications for popliteal nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 2001; 92: 215-217.
  • 21. Gadsden JC, Lindenmuth DM, Hadzic A, Xu D, Somasundarum L, Flisinski KA. Lumbar plexus block using highpressure injection leads to contralateral and epidural spread. Anesthesiology. 2008; 109: 683-688.
  • 22. Arnuntasupakul V, Chalachewa T, Leurcharusmee P, Tiyaprasertkul W, Finlayson RJ, Tran DQ. Ultrasound with neurostimulation compared with ultrasound guidance alone for lumbar plexus block. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018; 35: 224-230.
  • 23. Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z. The inguinal paravascular technic of lumbar plexus anesthesia: the "3-in-1 block". Anesth Analg. 1973; 52: 989-996.
  • 24. Mouzopoulos G, Vasiliadis G, Lasanianos N, Nikolaras G, Morakis E, Kaminaris M. Fascia iliaca block prophylaxis for hip fracture patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Orthop Traumatol. 2009; 10: 127-133.
  • 25. Marhofer P, Našel C, Sitzwohl C, Kapral S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the distribution of local anesthetic during the three-in-one block. Anesth Analg. 2000; 90: 119-124.
  • 26. Spillane WF. 3-in-1 blocks and continuous 3-in-1 blocks. Reg Anesth. 1992; 17: 175-176.
  • 27. Gani̇daǧli S, Cengiz M, Baysal Z, Baktiroglu L, Sarban S. The comparison of two lower extremity block techniques combined with sciatic block: 3-in-1 femoral block vs. psoas compartment block. Int J Clin Pract 2005; 59: 771-776.
  • 28. Cappelleri G, Aldegheri G, Ruggieri F, Carnelli F, Fanelli A, Casati A. Effects of using the posterior or anterior approaches to the lumbar plexus on the minimum effective anesthetic concentration (MEAC) of mepivacaine required to block the femoral nerve: a prospective, randomized, up-and-down study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008; 33: 10-16.
  • 29. Morin AM, Kratz CD, Eberhart LH, Dinges G, Heider E, et al. Postoperative analgesia and functional recovery after total-knee replacement: comparison of a continuous posterior lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block, a continuous femoral nerve block, and the combination of a continuous femoral and sciatic nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 434-445.
  • 30. Capdevila X, Biboulet P, Bouregba M, Barthelet Y, Rubenovitch J, d'Athis F. Comparison of the three-in-one and fascia iliaca compartment blocks in adults: clinical and radiographic analysis. Anesth Analg. 1998; 86: 1039-1044.
  • 31. Dauri M, Sidiropoulou T, Fabbi E, Giannelli M, Faria S, Mariani P, Sabato AF. Efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block with stimulating catheters versus nonstimulating catheters for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007; 32: 282-287.
  • 32. Mariano ER, Loland VJ, Sandhu NS, Bellars RH, Bishop ML, et al. Ultrasound guidance versus electrical stimulation for femoral perineural catheter insertion. J Ultrasound Med. 2009; 28: 1453-1460.
  • 33. Farag E, Atim A, Ghosh R, Bauer M, Sreennivasalu T, et al. Comparison of three techniques for ultrasoundguided femoral nerve catheter insertion. Anesthesiology 2014;121:239-48.
  • 34. Fujiwara Y, Sato Y, Kitayama M, Shibata Y, Komatsu T, Hirota K. Obturator nerve block using ultrasound guidance. Anesth Analg. 2007; 105: 888-889.
  • 35. Jenstrup MT, Jaeger P, Lund J, Fomsgaard JS, Bache S, et al. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012; 56: 357-364.
  • 36. Amin WA, Abou Seada MO, Saeed MF, Mohammad SF, Abdel-Haleem TM, Shabaan EA. Continuous sciatic nerve block: compartive study between the parasacral, lateral, and anterior approaches for lower limb surgery. M E J Anesth. 2010; 20: 695-702.
  • 37. Taboada M, Alvarez J, Cortes J, Rodríguez J, Rabanal S, et al. The Effects of Three Different Approaches on the Onset Time of Sciatic Nerve Blocks with 0.75% Ropivacaine. Anesth Analg. 2004; 98: 242-247.
  • 38. Hagon BS, Itani O, Bidgoli JH, Van der Linden PJ. Parasacral sciatic nerve block: does the elicited motor response predict the success rate? Anesth Analg. 2007; 105: 263-266.
  • 39. Bailey SL, Parkinson SK, Little WL, Simmerman SR. Sciatic nerve block. A comparison of single versus double injection technique. Reg Anesth. 1994; 19: 9-13.
  • 40. Nader A, Kendall MC, Candido KD, Benzon H, McCarthy RJ. A randomized comparison of a modified intertendinous and classic posterior approach to popliteal sciatic nerve block. Anesth Analg. 2009; 108: 359-363.
  • 41. Fuzier R, Hoffreumont P, Bringuier-Branchereau S, Capdevila X, Singelyn F. Does the sciatic nerve approach influence thigh tourniquet tolerance during below-knee surgery? Anesth Analg. 2005; 100: 1511-1514.
  • 42. Taboada M, Rodriguez J, Valino C, Carceller J, Bascuas B, et al. What is the minimum effective volume of local anesthetic required for sciatic nerve blockade? A prospective, randomized comparison between a popliteal and a subgluteal approach. Anesth Analg. 2006; 102: 593-597.
  • 43. Danelli G, Fanelli A, Ghisi D, Moschini E, Rossi M, et al. Ultrasound vs nerve stimulation multiple injection technique for posterior popliteal sciatic nerve block. Anaesthesia. 2009; 64: 638-642.
  • 44. Prasad A, Perlas A, Ramlogan R, Brull R, Chan V. Ultrasound-guided popliteal block distal to sciatic nerve bifurcation shortens onset time. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010; 35: 267-271.
  • 45. Benzon HT, Sekhadia M, Benzon HA, Yaghmour ET. Ultrasound assisted and evoked motor response after stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve. Anesth Analg. 2009; 109: 2022-2024.
  • 46. Antonakakis JG, Scalzo DC, Jorgenson AS, Figg KK, Ting P, et al. Ultrasound does not improve the success rate of a deep peroneal nerve block at the ankle. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010; 35: 217-221.
  • 47. Fanelli G, Casati A, Beccaria P, Aldegheri G, Berti M, et al. A double-blind comparison of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and mepivacaine during sciatic and femoral nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 1998; 87: 597-600.
  • 48. Neal JM. Effects of epinephrine in local anesthetics on the central and peripheral nervous systems: neurotoxicity and neural blood flow. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003; 28: 124-134.
  • 49. Enneking FK, Chan V, Greger J, Hadzic A, Lang SA, Horlocker T. Lower-extremity peripheral nerve blockade: essentials of our current understanding. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 4-35.
  • 50. Packiasabapathy S, Kashyap L, Arora M, Batra RK, Mohan VK, et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing total knee replacement arthroplasty: a dose–response study. Saudi J Anaesth. 2017; 11: 293-298.
  • 51. Neal JM, Gerancher JC, Hebl JR, Ilfeld BM, McCartney CJL, et al. Upper extremity regional anesthesia: essentials of our current understanding, 2008. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009; 34: 134-170.
  • 52. Barrington MJ, Watts SA, Gledhill SR, Thomas RD, Said SA. Preliminary results of the Australasian Regional Anaesthesia Collaboration: a prospective audit of more than 7000 peripheral nerve and plexus blocks for neurologic and other complications. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009; 34: 534-541.
  • 53. Orebaugh SL, Kentor ML, Williams BA. Adverse outcomes associated with nervestimulator-guided and ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks: update of a single database by supervised trainees. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012; 37: 577-582.
  • 54. Barrington MJ, Kluger R. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity following peripheral nerve blockade. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013; 38: 289-297.
  • 55. Benzon HT, Avram MJ, Green D, et al. New oral anticoagulants and regional anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2013; 111(1): 96-113.
  • 56. Awad IT, Duggan EM. Posterior lumbar plexus block: anatomy, approaches, and techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 143-149.
  • 57. Fischer ID, Krauss MJ, Dunagan WC, Birge S, Hitcho E,et al. Patterns and predictors of inpatient falls and fall-related injuries in a large academic hospital, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005; 26: 822-827.
  • 58. Memtsoudis SG, Danninger T, Rasul R, Poeran J, Gerner P, et al. Inpatient falls after total knee arthroplasty: the role of anesthesia type and peripheral nerve blocks. Anesthesiology. 2014; 120: 551-563.
  • 59. Turbitt LR, McHardy PG, Casanova M, Shapiro J, Li L, Choi S. Analysis of inpatient falls after total knee arthroplasty in patients with continuous femoral nerve block. Anesth Analg. 2018; 127: 224-227.

Alt Ekstremite Periferik Sinir Blokları Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 4, 201 - 215, 11.05.2022

Öz

Özet Alt ekstremite cerrahisi anestezi pratiğinde yaygın olarak karşılaşılan bir cerrahi türüdür. Genellikle anestezi tercihi genel ya da nöroaksiyel blok yöntemlerinden biri olmaktadır. Ancak, son yıllarda nüfus yaşlanmasına paralel olarak başta kalça ve diz olmak üzere alt ekstremite cerrahisinde anestezi uygulanması gereken yaşlı hasta sayısında büyük bir artış gözlenmektedir. Yaşlı hastaların beraberinde pek çok ek hastalık ve kırılgan bir fizyolojiye sahip olmaları, bu hastalarda uygulanacak anestezi yönteminde ciddi zorluklara yol açmaktadır. Özellikle ultrasonun anestezide kullanımı, periferik sinir bloklarının uygulanmasında başarı ve güvenlikte artış sağlayarak bu blokların yaygınlaşmasına katkı sağlamıştır. Sempatik blokaja duyarlı kırılgan ve yüksek riskli hastalarda periferik sinir bloklarının perioperatif morbidite ve mortaliteyi azaltmak için önemli bir seçenek olabileceği göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu derleme genel ya da nöroaksiyel anesteziye bir alternatif olabilecek mevcut alt ekstremite periferik sinir bloklarına güncel bir bakış açısı sunmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Joshi GP, Schug SA, Kehlet H. Procedure-specific pain management and outcome strategies. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2014; 28: 191-201.
  • 2. Touray ST, de Leeuw MA, Zuurmond WW, Perez RS. Psoas compartment block for lower extremity surgery: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2008; 101: 750-760.
  • 3. Poulsen JL, Brock C, Olesen AE, Nilsson M, Drewes AM. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2015; 8: 360-372.
  • 4. Boland J, Boland E, Brooks D. Importance of the correct diagnosis of opioid-induced respiratory depression in adult cancer patients andtitration of naloxone. Clin Med (Lond). 2013; 13: 149-151.
  • 5. Rodgers J, Cunningham K, Fitzgerald K, Finnerty E. Opioid consumption following outpatient upper extremity surgery. J Hand Surg Am. 2012; 37: 645-650.
  • 6. Chan EY, Fransen M, Sathappan S, Chua NH, Chan YH, Chua N. Comparing the analgesia effects of single-injection and continuous femoral nerve blocks with patient controlled analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2013; 28: 608-613.
  • 7. Chan EY, Fransen M, Parker DA, Assam PN, Chua N. Femoral nerve blocks for acute postoperative pain after knee replacement surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 5: Cd009941
  • 8. Griffioen MA, OʼBrien G. Analgesics Administered for Pain During Hospitalization Following Lower Extremity Fracture: A Review of the Literature. J Trauma Nurs. 2018; 25(6): 360-365.
  • 9. Zhang X, Sun C, Bai X, Zhang Q. Efficacy and safety of lower extremity nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia at free fibular flap donor sites. Head Neck. 2018; 40(12): 2670-2676.
  • 10. Barrington MJ,Olive D, Low K, Scott DA, Brittain J, Choong P. Continuous femoral nerve blockade or epidural analgesia after total knee replacement: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2005; 101: 1824-1829.
  • 11. Farny J, Drolet P, Girard M. Anatomy of the posterior approach to the lumbar plexus block. Can J Anaesth. 1994; 41: 480-485.
  • 12. Lu S, Chang S, Zhang Y-zhi, Ding Z-hai, Xu XM, Xu Y-ging. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011; 12: 76.
  • 13. Ty Muhly W, Orebaugh SL. Ultrasound evaluation of the anatomy of the vessels in relation to the femoral nerve at the femoral crease. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011; 33: 491-494.
  • 14. Kirchmair L, Lirk P, Colvin J, Mitterschiffthaler G, Moriggl B. Lumbar plexus and psoas major muscle: not always as expected. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008; 33: 109-114.
  • 15. Sladjana UZ, Ivan JD, Bratislav SD. Microanatomical structure of the human sciatic nerve. Surg Radiol Anat. 2008; 30: 619-626.
  • 16. Ugrenovic S, Topalovic M, Jonanovic I. Morphological and morphometric analysis of fascicular structure of tibial and common peroneal nerves. Medicine and Biology. 2014; 16: 18-22.
  • 17. Currin SS, Mirjalili SA, Meikle G, Stringer MD. Revisiting the surface anatomy of the sciatic nerve in the gluteal region. Clin Anat. 2015; 28: 144-149.
  • 18. Bruhn J, van Geffen GJ, Gielen MJ, Scheffer G J. Visualization of the course of the sciatic nerve in adult volunteers by ultrasonography. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008; 52: 1298-1302.
  • 19. Williams A, Newell RLM, Davies MS, et al. Pelvic girdle and lower limb. In: Standring S, Ellis H, Healy JC, et al, eds. Gray’s anatomy—the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 39th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005.
  • 20. Vloka JD, Hadzic A, April E, Thys DM. The division of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa: anatomical implications for popliteal nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 2001; 92: 215-217.
  • 21. Gadsden JC, Lindenmuth DM, Hadzic A, Xu D, Somasundarum L, Flisinski KA. Lumbar plexus block using highpressure injection leads to contralateral and epidural spread. Anesthesiology. 2008; 109: 683-688.
  • 22. Arnuntasupakul V, Chalachewa T, Leurcharusmee P, Tiyaprasertkul W, Finlayson RJ, Tran DQ. Ultrasound with neurostimulation compared with ultrasound guidance alone for lumbar plexus block. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018; 35: 224-230.
  • 23. Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z. The inguinal paravascular technic of lumbar plexus anesthesia: the "3-in-1 block". Anesth Analg. 1973; 52: 989-996.
  • 24. Mouzopoulos G, Vasiliadis G, Lasanianos N, Nikolaras G, Morakis E, Kaminaris M. Fascia iliaca block prophylaxis for hip fracture patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Orthop Traumatol. 2009; 10: 127-133.
  • 25. Marhofer P, Našel C, Sitzwohl C, Kapral S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the distribution of local anesthetic during the three-in-one block. Anesth Analg. 2000; 90: 119-124.
  • 26. Spillane WF. 3-in-1 blocks and continuous 3-in-1 blocks. Reg Anesth. 1992; 17: 175-176.
  • 27. Gani̇daǧli S, Cengiz M, Baysal Z, Baktiroglu L, Sarban S. The comparison of two lower extremity block techniques combined with sciatic block: 3-in-1 femoral block vs. psoas compartment block. Int J Clin Pract 2005; 59: 771-776.
  • 28. Cappelleri G, Aldegheri G, Ruggieri F, Carnelli F, Fanelli A, Casati A. Effects of using the posterior or anterior approaches to the lumbar plexus on the minimum effective anesthetic concentration (MEAC) of mepivacaine required to block the femoral nerve: a prospective, randomized, up-and-down study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008; 33: 10-16.
  • 29. Morin AM, Kratz CD, Eberhart LH, Dinges G, Heider E, et al. Postoperative analgesia and functional recovery after total-knee replacement: comparison of a continuous posterior lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block, a continuous femoral nerve block, and the combination of a continuous femoral and sciatic nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 434-445.
  • 30. Capdevila X, Biboulet P, Bouregba M, Barthelet Y, Rubenovitch J, d'Athis F. Comparison of the three-in-one and fascia iliaca compartment blocks in adults: clinical and radiographic analysis. Anesth Analg. 1998; 86: 1039-1044.
  • 31. Dauri M, Sidiropoulou T, Fabbi E, Giannelli M, Faria S, Mariani P, Sabato AF. Efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block with stimulating catheters versus nonstimulating catheters for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007; 32: 282-287.
  • 32. Mariano ER, Loland VJ, Sandhu NS, Bellars RH, Bishop ML, et al. Ultrasound guidance versus electrical stimulation for femoral perineural catheter insertion. J Ultrasound Med. 2009; 28: 1453-1460.
  • 33. Farag E, Atim A, Ghosh R, Bauer M, Sreennivasalu T, et al. Comparison of three techniques for ultrasoundguided femoral nerve catheter insertion. Anesthesiology 2014;121:239-48.
  • 34. Fujiwara Y, Sato Y, Kitayama M, Shibata Y, Komatsu T, Hirota K. Obturator nerve block using ultrasound guidance. Anesth Analg. 2007; 105: 888-889.
  • 35. Jenstrup MT, Jaeger P, Lund J, Fomsgaard JS, Bache S, et al. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012; 56: 357-364.
  • 36. Amin WA, Abou Seada MO, Saeed MF, Mohammad SF, Abdel-Haleem TM, Shabaan EA. Continuous sciatic nerve block: compartive study between the parasacral, lateral, and anterior approaches for lower limb surgery. M E J Anesth. 2010; 20: 695-702.
  • 37. Taboada M, Alvarez J, Cortes J, Rodríguez J, Rabanal S, et al. The Effects of Three Different Approaches on the Onset Time of Sciatic Nerve Blocks with 0.75% Ropivacaine. Anesth Analg. 2004; 98: 242-247.
  • 38. Hagon BS, Itani O, Bidgoli JH, Van der Linden PJ. Parasacral sciatic nerve block: does the elicited motor response predict the success rate? Anesth Analg. 2007; 105: 263-266.
  • 39. Bailey SL, Parkinson SK, Little WL, Simmerman SR. Sciatic nerve block. A comparison of single versus double injection technique. Reg Anesth. 1994; 19: 9-13.
  • 40. Nader A, Kendall MC, Candido KD, Benzon H, McCarthy RJ. A randomized comparison of a modified intertendinous and classic posterior approach to popliteal sciatic nerve block. Anesth Analg. 2009; 108: 359-363.
  • 41. Fuzier R, Hoffreumont P, Bringuier-Branchereau S, Capdevila X, Singelyn F. Does the sciatic nerve approach influence thigh tourniquet tolerance during below-knee surgery? Anesth Analg. 2005; 100: 1511-1514.
  • 42. Taboada M, Rodriguez J, Valino C, Carceller J, Bascuas B, et al. What is the minimum effective volume of local anesthetic required for sciatic nerve blockade? A prospective, randomized comparison between a popliteal and a subgluteal approach. Anesth Analg. 2006; 102: 593-597.
  • 43. Danelli G, Fanelli A, Ghisi D, Moschini E, Rossi M, et al. Ultrasound vs nerve stimulation multiple injection technique for posterior popliteal sciatic nerve block. Anaesthesia. 2009; 64: 638-642.
  • 44. Prasad A, Perlas A, Ramlogan R, Brull R, Chan V. Ultrasound-guided popliteal block distal to sciatic nerve bifurcation shortens onset time. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010; 35: 267-271.
  • 45. Benzon HT, Sekhadia M, Benzon HA, Yaghmour ET. Ultrasound assisted and evoked motor response after stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve. Anesth Analg. 2009; 109: 2022-2024.
  • 46. Antonakakis JG, Scalzo DC, Jorgenson AS, Figg KK, Ting P, et al. Ultrasound does not improve the success rate of a deep peroneal nerve block at the ankle. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010; 35: 217-221.
  • 47. Fanelli G, Casati A, Beccaria P, Aldegheri G, Berti M, et al. A double-blind comparison of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and mepivacaine during sciatic and femoral nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 1998; 87: 597-600.
  • 48. Neal JM. Effects of epinephrine in local anesthetics on the central and peripheral nervous systems: neurotoxicity and neural blood flow. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003; 28: 124-134.
  • 49. Enneking FK, Chan V, Greger J, Hadzic A, Lang SA, Horlocker T. Lower-extremity peripheral nerve blockade: essentials of our current understanding. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 4-35.
  • 50. Packiasabapathy S, Kashyap L, Arora M, Batra RK, Mohan VK, et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing total knee replacement arthroplasty: a dose–response study. Saudi J Anaesth. 2017; 11: 293-298.
  • 51. Neal JM, Gerancher JC, Hebl JR, Ilfeld BM, McCartney CJL, et al. Upper extremity regional anesthesia: essentials of our current understanding, 2008. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009; 34: 134-170.
  • 52. Barrington MJ, Watts SA, Gledhill SR, Thomas RD, Said SA. Preliminary results of the Australasian Regional Anaesthesia Collaboration: a prospective audit of more than 7000 peripheral nerve and plexus blocks for neurologic and other complications. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009; 34: 534-541.
  • 53. Orebaugh SL, Kentor ML, Williams BA. Adverse outcomes associated with nervestimulator-guided and ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks: update of a single database by supervised trainees. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012; 37: 577-582.
  • 54. Barrington MJ, Kluger R. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity following peripheral nerve blockade. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013; 38: 289-297.
  • 55. Benzon HT, Avram MJ, Green D, et al. New oral anticoagulants and regional anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2013; 111(1): 96-113.
  • 56. Awad IT, Duggan EM. Posterior lumbar plexus block: anatomy, approaches, and techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005; 30: 143-149.
  • 57. Fischer ID, Krauss MJ, Dunagan WC, Birge S, Hitcho E,et al. Patterns and predictors of inpatient falls and fall-related injuries in a large academic hospital, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005; 26: 822-827.
  • 58. Memtsoudis SG, Danninger T, Rasul R, Poeran J, Gerner P, et al. Inpatient falls after total knee arthroplasty: the role of anesthesia type and peripheral nerve blocks. Anesthesiology. 2014; 120: 551-563.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Tıp
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Ali GENÇ Bu kişi benim
Turhal Devlet Hastanesi
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 11 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gutfd1115586, journal = {Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1309-3320}, address = {Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dekanlığı , Semerkant Mahallesi, Muhittin Füsünoğlu Caddesi, Tokat}, publisher = {Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {201 - 215}, title = {Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks}, key = {cite}, author = {Genç, Ali} }
APA Genç, A. (2022). Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks . Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi , 13 (4) , 201-215 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gutfd/issue/69863/1115586
MLA Genç, A. "Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks" . Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 13 (2022 ): 201-215 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gutfd/issue/69863/1115586>
Chicago Genç, A. "Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks". Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 13 (2022 ): 201-215
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks AU - Ali Genç Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 201 EP - 215 VL - 13 IS - 4 SN - 1309-3320- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks %A Ali Genç %T Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks %D 2022 %J Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1309-3320- %V 13 %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Genç, Ali . "Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks". Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 13 / 4 (Mayıs 2022): 201-215 .
AMA Genç A. Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks. Gaziosmanpaşa Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 13(4): 201-215.
Vancouver Genç A. Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks. Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2022; 13(4): 201-215.
IEEE A. Genç , "Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blocks", Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 13, sayı. 4, ss. 201-215, May. 2022

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