Studies on early Islam have become very important for Muslims because of their referential and emotional value. The reliability of this information is tried to be tested on the basis of the Qur'an. The fact that the Qur'an is the source of the reliable information has come to the prominence again in the context of the Qur'an-Sîrah-Tafsîr in the studies of both Westerners and Muslims. The efforts to establish the Qur’anic chronology in the West over the last hundred and fifty years are the infrastructure works to use the Qur'anic text as a source of history. Although Muslims were influenced by Westerners, chronology information for them was only a part of the religious efforts to understand the Qur'an. Muslims have not been able to adopt it as an additional paradigmatic stance on their basic perspective. In particular, a neo-tafsir perspective, which was put by the literalist modernism and historicist approach in the place of all the classical Islamic sciences, influenced all kinds of studies in the same direction, especially the studies of the sîrah and history. Therefore, we do not see a basic innovation in the paradigmatic stance of Muslims. In order to reveal the historical source value of the Qur'an and to produce healthy information, we need to convert the history of the Qur'an and the Qur’anic chronology to a seperate historical study area instead of an exegetical one. The benefits of these studies to the classical Islamic sciences such as sîrah, tafsir and fiqh should be considered as a secondary issue. This is the only way to get healthy information which is not distorted by the personal and social expectations.
On the Tafsir, Sirah, History and the Source Value of the Qur’an
Surpassing their cultural environment they grow in, scholarly developments show their influence on neighboring cultures. However, it seems difficult to say that they have always been transferred by preserving their nature. In such periods, it can be said that the scientific studies put forward in the secondary geographies give a chaotic image and cannot create any accumulation. Although Muslims moved the tools and results of the scientific and historical view developed in the west to Islamic sciences, they did not consider that there was a fundamental difference between them and the view of Islamic sciences. One of the issues directly reflecting this is the matter of the source value of the Qur'an.
Studies on the early period of Islam have been very important for Muslims because of their reference value and emotional meaning. We can say that the Qur'an is undoubtedly the main source to get information about the early period. In addition, the issue of controlling the credibility of the reports other than Qur'an through Quran has been an important topic of discussion. It is already a known fact that it is frequently applied to the Qur’an in Sirah literature. However, in the context of history studies, we cannot say that this has evolved into a special approach and a suitable method for the Muslims. The issue of the source value of the Qur'an in the contemporary period has been highlighted again in the context of the Quran-tafsir-sirah in the studies conducted by both Westerners and Muslims. The basic question is whether the approach of these two different circles to this issue is the same.
A number of studies to establish the chronology of the Quran have taken place in the West for almost two centuries. In this framework, the dates and even the passages were dated and put in order by taking into account the lists in the early sources of tafsir and sirah as well as related direct and indirect reports. Western chronology studies have emerged as infrastructure studies to benefit from the Qur’anic text as a source of history; for even if the Qur’an is an authentic source, it did not provide direct historical datum. The biggest obstacle was the fact that the Qur'an revealed in pieces was not collected chronologically. Modern approaches, which have emerged in Islamic sciences with the impact of the developments in the west, have brought up the discussion of the old issues again. Chronology studies have appeared as a significant one. But instead of serving the Qur'an as a source of history, this has only been possible as a part of religious understandings of the Qur’an.
As a result of the effect of the developments in the West on understanding the Qur'an, two approaches have come to the agenda: at first literalist modernism and then historicist approach that criticize the former. They put forward a neo-tafsir perspective, a claim to understand the Quran that would replace all classical Islamic sciences. The neo-tafsir has influenced all the work of Muslims in the same direction. In the framework of the modernist movement and following works, the Qur’an translations, concise tafsirs, mawdûî tafsirs and Qur'anic encyclopedias have emerged. Besides, the chronology studies by Muslim scholars have functioned in Qur’an translations, chronological tafsirs, and partly sirah studies. It would not be wrong to say that all these types of work serve the basic neo-commentary perspective. We can include the studies on purpose of Sirah and history to this category. For example the works of Derveze in the field of Sirah has rather the character of tafsir than a history work since the Qur'an's role in these works means something other than an authentic source of history. In other respects, although the neo-tafsir perspective seems to be a revolt against classical Islamic sciences, we can say that the basic paradigmatic stance has not changed. What has emerged is a critical view that is supposed to be an alternative to all Islamic sciences but its basic legislative character have not changed.
As a result, we can say that the act of Muslims in
the context of the basic religious/normative need of course cannot be
condemned. However, whether this turns into a disadvantage is directly related
to the fact that Muslim scholars can consider the Qur'an from another plane.
Muslims have not been able to make a fundamental innovation in their scholarly
works and to realize a paradigmatic awakening. Muslims could not adopt a new perspective
in addition to the basic religious perspective of the Qur'an. Muslims could not
adopt a new perspective in addition to the basic legislative perspective of the
Qur'an. Because they could not do this, they could not provide a new cultural
and scholarly expansion. We should transform the studies of Qur'anic chronology
as a distinct field not with intent to tafsir but to history in order to reveal
the the source value of the Qur'an and to produce valuable datum. The benefit
of these studies to the classical Islamic sciences such as sirah, tafsir and
fiqh should be seen as a next step that we will not consider at first stage.
This is the only way to ensure a healthy historical knowledge not affected by
personal and social expectations.
İslam’ın erken dönemine ilişkin çalışmalar, hem referans değeri hem de duygusal anlamı nedeniyle Müslümanlar için çok önemli olagelmiştir. Bu bilgilerin güvenilirliği ise bugün de Kur’an’a arz edilerek sağlanmaya çalışılmaktadır. Kur’an’ın kaynaklığı hem batılıların hem de Müslümanların yaptığı çalışmalarda Kur’an-siyer-tefsir ilişkisi bağlamında yeniden öne çıkmıştır. Batıda son yüz elli yıllık tarih boyunca Kur’an kronolojisini tespite ilişkin gayretler, Kur’an metninden bir tarih kaynağı olarak yararlanmaya yönelik altyapı çalışmalarıdır. Batılılardan etkilenseler de Müslümanlar için kronoloji bilgileri, Kur’an’ı anlama gayretlerinin ancak teşriî amaçlı bir parçası olmuştur. Müslümanlar bu temel perspektife ek paradigmatik bir duruşu hâlâ benimseyememiştir. Özellikle literalist modernizmin ve onu takip eden tarihselci yaklaşımın tüm klasik İslamî ilimlerin yerine geçirdiği bir neo-tefsir perspektifi de Müslümanların yaptığı her türlü çalışmayı aynı teşriî doğrultuda etkisi altına almıştır. Buna siyer ve tarih çalışmaları da dâhildir. Dolayısıyla temel bir yenilikten söz edilemez. Bizim Kur’an’ın tarihî kaynaklık değerini ortaya çıkarmak ve sağlıklı bilgiler üretmek için Kur’an nüzul tarihini ve Kur’an kronolojisini tefsir amaçlı değil, tarih amaçlı müstakil mesai alanlarına dönüştürmemiz gerekmektedir. Bunların siyer, tefsir, fıkıh gibi klasik İslamî ilimlere faydası ise öncelikle dikkate almayacağımız sonraki bir adım olarak görülmelidir. Kişisel ve toplumsal beklentilerin dönüştürmediği kendisi için üretilmiş sağlıklı bilgi birikimi ancak böyle sağlanır.
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Aralık 2019
|ISNAD||TÜRCAN, Selim . "Tefsir, Siyer, Tarih ve Kur'ân'ın Kaynaklığı Üzerine". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 36 (Aralık 2020): 609-636 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.568957|