The fact that the power attributed to God in the theologies which have faith in Him is defined as the authority has resulted in an idea that this area of power is infinite. This thought, which is dealt with from the point of view of God's absoluteness, has made the problem of evil, which is the most basic argument of atheists, an inconvenient issue before the theists in terms of functionality of God’s power attribute. All people who have faith in God would answer such question “God wishes to prevent evil, but isn’t He powerful enough?” like this “God has absolute attributes in every aspect. So He is omnipotent.” The question “Then, why doesn’t He intervene with the evil?” becomes a fundamental problem for both believers and non-believers.
Within the framework of the evil problem, still up-to-date today, this study seeks answers to the discussion of Allah's intervention to the Human verbs within the scope of early kalam scholars’ thoughts like Mu’tazila, Ashari and Mâturîdi. Absolute power taken into account the reflection of the absolute power to the universe in the context of the evil problem, it is seen that it acts in the perspective of absolute good God in Mu’tazila’s theory of Aslah. At this point, it appears that the Ash'ari do not develop an absolute good God imagination, and they shaped God's relationship with the universe only by his absolute power. Although the Mâturîdis limit the power of Allah according to the will and desire of human beings within the framework of wise and dependent intervention approach, we can say that they are in a closer line to the Asharis in creating everything.
Summary Today, people who have faith in Allah believe that He is absolute in every aspect. At this point, the will and might attributes are considered attributes that represent absoluteness. However, this issue, which is important in terms of Allah's absoluteness, brings with it some problems for believers when Allah-human relationship is taken into consideration. The most noteworthy of these is the problem of evil, which has not lost its importance today as throughout the historical process. Although it is said that Epicurus (d. 270 / BC), who first presented this problem as a logical evidence, it is known that it was David Hume who explicitly expressed it. Although the problem of evil has been handled by Islamic philosophers, it has not been as systematic as in the West. The Kalam scholars dealt with the problem rather within the framework of power attribute of Allah. In this sense, Allah's attribute of power is shaped in terms of human freedom, responsibility, destiny, good and evil in the context of its relationship with human acts. After the socio-political events in the history of Islam, the formation of Allah-human relationship on the concept of absolute Allah has caused different ideas to emerge in the context of Allah-human relationship, and resulted in the association of all kinds of negativity and human product phenomena with the power of Allah. In this respect, for a true imagination of Allah, it is important to establish the a true relationship between man and the universe with the power of Allah. When they look at the Kalam schools, they all accepted that Allah has power and they try to prove this power in different ways. For example, one of the most important scholars of Mu’tazilah, Qadî Abdulcebâr (d. 415/1025) states that the act which results from Allah signifies that He is Able. In addition, he tried to show that Allah is mighty by stating that the proofs that Allah is the Creator of the world signify that he is Able without any means. The most important point here is that he says that Allah has the potential to be Mighty. We see that Mu’tazilah scholars handled the power of Almighty that Allah refers to Himself in the Holy Quran as a justification. Ash’arî says that it is not possible for the creator of the works that appear regularly around us not to have power. Thus, he declared that created creatures signify that Allah is a mighty being. Mâturîdî considers all that exists from Allah as proof of His might. When we look at the Mâturîdî tradition, it is seen that they used a method similar to the methods of Ash’arism and Mu’tazilah. In general, this sect has based the existence of the universe on the fact that Allah is a mighty entity. As a result, the schools of Kalam have accepted that Allah has power and they have come together at a common point. But the question “is the domain of power an area of inclusiveness?” has led to the emergence of disputes among the theologians. Although the Mu’tazilah scholars accepted the absoluteness of power, they preferred to limit it in the context of the principle of justice and they argued that it is preserved as related to might. Mu’tazilah scholars emphasize that Allah's might encompasses everything, but that this scope is in terms of the possibilities of action. Therefore, they have removed the coverage of infinite power from the point of creation of acts. In this context, they have stated that Allah cannot be qualified for what people are capable of and the might of Allah will not be related to these acts. In this respect, the necessity of the Almighty God's absolute power to the universe has been abolished by the Mu’tazilah scholars. The school of Ash'arism argued that Allah has might and that absolute might has taken the universe. The Ash'arî scholars agree that the absolute power of Allah is the only power that encompasses all creatures in terms of creation. According to the Ash'aris, Allah is the true creator and no one else is a partner in creation. In this respect, Allah's most powerful attribute is His power to create. Therefore, they stated that the voluntary acts of human beings are related to Allah’s power and that no other power had any effect on human actions. In this sense, Ash'arians have evaluated Allah's power through its absoluteness. Unlike Mu’tazilah, they state that the power is related with persecution and it creates persecution. In this respect, the most important difference between Mu’tazilah and them seems to lie in the relationship between the creation of the persecution and the responsibility. Because unlike Mu’tazilahs, Ash’arians emphasize that the creation of the persecution by Allah does not mean that he is persecuting. Maturidism has stated that the power of Allah is both absolute and principled. In this sense, He uses His power in a way that is compatible with His wisdom and His Highness. In the Māturîdî tradition, the relationship between Allah and the universe has been dealt with within the framework of the attribute genesis as well as the power. In this context, Allah has both power and genesis attributes from all eternity. However, the attribute of power is an attribute that makes something possible, whereas the genesis is the attribute that constitutes a certain thing from these possibilities. According to the Mâturidîans, the genesis refers to creation from nothing in terms of everything. In this sense, it can be said that in this tradition, the idea that everything is constantly created by Allah is dominant. However, even if they say that everything that exists in the universe is created by Allah, they go to a point of separation in human actions and they state that human acts are also formed according to the orientation of human might. Therefore, we see that Maturidians also limit the absolute power in the context of the universe.
Tanrı inancına sahip teolojilerde, O’na atfedilen kudretin yetkin olarak nitelendirilmesi, aynı zamanda bu kudretin etki ettiği alanın sınırsız olduğuna yönelik bir düşüncenin oluşmasına sebebiyet vermiştir. Tanrı’nın mutlaklığı açısından ele alınan bu düşünce, ateistlerin en temel argümanı olan kötülük problemini, Tanrı’nın kudret sıfatını, işlevselliği açısından teistlerin önüne müşkil bir mesele haline getirmiştir. Çünkü Tanrı kötülüğü önlemek istiyor da, gücü mü yetmiyor? gibi bir soruya Tanrı inancına sahip bütün insanlar; “Tanrı, her yönüyle mutlak sıfatlara sahiptir. Dolayısıyla O, her şeye gücü yetendir” cevabını vereceklerdir. O halde neden kötülüğe müdahale etmiyor? sorusu, hem inanan hem de inanmayan herkes için temel bir problem haline gelmektedir.
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Aralık 2019
|ISNAD||CAN, Seyithan . "Allah'ın Kudreti'nin İnsan Fiillerine Taalluk Alanı ve İmkânı (Kötülük Problemi Çerçevesinde Bir İnceleme)". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 36 (Aralık 2020): 583-608 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.571534|