Yıl 2019, Cilt 18 , Sayı 36, Sayfalar 525 - 556 2019-12-30

The Early Period Hadith Sources of Ibadiyya Sect
İbâdiyye’nin Erken Dönem Hadis Kaynakları

Ahmet ÖZDEMİR [1]


Abstract

As a result of the hadith and classification activities, especially in the first four centuries of Hijri, the best examples of hadith literature emerged and a significant number of these works have survived to the present day. However, it is necessary to state that other Islamic sects, although not as much as the Sunnis, are interested in the hadith narration and that their own hadith sources are formed. One of this sect is Ibadiyya. Although all the works of Ibadiyya about the hadith have not come to the present day, in the first place, Rabi’ b. Habib's el-Camiu’s- Sahih has survived until today. In principle, Ibadiyya accepts the hadith books of other Islamic sects, but primarily applies to their own hadith sources. In this study, the books of Ibadiyya related to hadith and sunnah which are interested in narration of hadith since early period, will be determined. İn doing so, it will be determined especially with reference to the sources of Ibadiyya. In addition, the books we have identified will be examined in terms of hadith sciences.

Summary

In this study, the sources of hadith belonging to Ibadiyya sect and the sources of the hadith which they see as the sources of application have been detected. Firstly, Ibadids applied to sources of hadiths narrated by their own narrators by Imam Malik, Ahmed b. Other sources of hadith such as Hanbal, Bukhari and Muslim were also accepted as sources of reference.

As far as we have determined, the unique hadith sources of Ibadiyya sect belong to the first three centuries of hijri which can be called as early period. From the beginning of the second hijri century, the Ibadi had engaged in an intensive hadith contract system and created hadith corpus through the channels of the narrators  that were associated with their sects. Ibaddiyah's father of the idea accepted as  Jabir b. Zayd is considered to be one of the first scholars who died in the beginning of the second century in the Hijri and in a book called Divân, which had narrated the hadiths. However, the work in question has not survived until today. Therewithal, Câbir b. The hadiths quoted as a mural by Zayd were identified by a Ibadi scholar Vârcelânî in the sixth century in the Hijri and Rabî’ b. Habib al-Câmiu’s-sahih has added to the end of his work. However, it is not clear how these narrations reached to Vârcelânî.

The most important source of the hadith of Ibadiyyah is undoubtedly Rabi’ b. Habib is a work called Musnad or el-Camiu’s- Sahih. According to Ibadi sources, this work belonging to the second hijri century is accepted as the most authentic source of hadith. There are about seven hundred and fifty rumors in the work. According to Ibadis, although the work was copyrighted in the second hijri century, about four centuries later, Vârcelânî revealed the work and reorganized it. However, it is not clear how the work reached to Vârcelânî and how it pursued this adventure in the long run. Unfortunately, Sadra healing information (something which sets one's mind at ease) is not available in Ibadi sources on this subject. There is no original copy showing the first state of the work. However, the majority of the narratives in the work took place in different hadith chains and other hadith sources. We call it different chains of scripts, because the muhaddis ( narrators of Muhammed's all sayings, deeds and approvals),  did not use the deeds that Rabî used in al-Câmiu’s-sahih.  Although they cannot determine the reason for this, it is possible that they were seen as competent bidat by the other muhaddis as these ravishes belong to Ibadiyya sect. Therefore, it is especially important to compare the texts in the work with other hadith sources rather than the notes in al-Câmiu’s-sahih.

It is also important that Rabî’ b. Habîb used hijri in the second century to provide superiority to its opponents in scientific and intellectual matters. Vârcelânî added these narrations under certain headings as al-Câmiu’s-sahih as the third volume.  It is not also clear how these narrations reached Vârcelânî. When we look at the content in the narratives, it can be said that the majority is about the issues of faith among the fracas, and the narrations are generally in support of the creed of the Ibadiyya sect. The other works of Rabî, which are related to the scientific debates in the period in question and where academic studies have been carried out, are also important as Asâr and Futyâ.

Jabir b. Zayd, Abu Ubeyde and Rabî’ b. Who are in the İbadiyya sect continued the scientific tradition and continued with Habib, Abu Sufyan Mahbûb b. Rahîl and Imam Eflah continued with the third hijri century. The narrations narrated from Imam Eflah and Mahbûb b. narrated from the teachers of Rahîl took place in the fourth volume of al-Câmiu’s-sahih without any classification. One of the important scholars of Ibadiyye who passed away in the third century in the Hijri was Bişr b. Ganim is al-Khorâsâni. He is the narrator of the previous Ibid scholars. Especially in the second century, Ibid al-Hijri he narrated many narrations in the field of fiqh and hadith. Although his work is mostly composed of fiqh, many hadith narrations are included in the work.

As a result, it is possible that we can say the followings.  Although there are some allegations about the fact that the Hadiths fabricate hadiths or are distant from the hadith and sunnah, we see that they are interested in the narrative of hadith from the early period and that they are interested in the hadith narration from the early period. As a result of the activities of codification, some hadith journals such as al-Câmiu’s-sahih were created and these works have survived until today. It is problematic to see how a narrator chain follows the majority of these hadith sources from the time of royalty to the present day.Therewithal , Ibadis see the narrators reliable and  the narratives  narrating the hadiths in these sources, worked with hadiths, faith , worship and adoption of the said rumors as evidence in the matter.

 In particular, they considered Rabî’s al-Câmiu’s-sahih as the most authentic hadith book in terms of health and reliability. In the text of the hadiths in this work, which is the most popular hadith corpus of Ibadiyya, Imam Malik's Muvatta, Ahmed b. It is possible to say that Hanbal had significant similarities with Musnad, Imam Bukhari and Muslim with Sahihayn. Namely, the majority of the narrations in Rabî’s al-Câmiu’s-sahih are included in the hadith works in terms of the text with different ways. In order to eliminate the problems related to historical adventures of hadith sources belonging to Ibadiyya sect, new studies related to the field need to be done. However, in the last period of Uman Sultanate, many manuscripts have started to emerge and for this reason, the Sultanate encourages the researchers who are working on the culture of the region and the sources of the Ibadiyya sect and provides them with the necessary convenience. We hope that our study, which is a kind of literature study, will contribute especially to those who want to study the sources related to the hadith and circumcision of Ibadiyya sect.


Hadis tedvin ve tasnif faaliyeti neticesinde özellikle hicri ilk dört asırda hadis edebiyatının en güzel örnek metinleri ortaya çıkmış ve bu eserlerin önemli bir kısmı günümüze kadar gelebilmiştir. Her ne kadar söz konusu dönemde tam olarak bir mezhepleşme sürecinden söz etmek zor olsa da günümüze kadar gelebilen hadis kaynaklarının ekseriyeti, sünnî mezheplere müntesip âlimlere aittir. Bununla beraber sünnîler kadar olmasa da diğer islamî fırkaların da hadis rivayetiyle ilgilendiğini ve kendilerine ait hadis kaynaklarının oluştuğunu ifade etmek gerekir. Hadis rivayeti faaliyetine katılan ve buna bağlı olarak kendisine ait hadis mecmuaları olan mezheplerden biri de İbâdiyye’dir. Erken dönemden itibaren hadis tedvin ve tasnif faaliyetine katılan İbâdiyye’nin hadisle ilgili bazı eserleri, günümüze kadar gelmemiş veya kaybolmuş olsa Rebî’ b. Habîb’in el-Câmiu’s-sahih adlı eseri günümüze kadar gelebilmiştir. İbâdiyye prensip olarak diğer islamî fırkaların hadis kitaplarını kabul etmekle beraber öncelikli olarak kendi hadis kaynaklarına müracaat etmektedirler. Onlara göre kendi mezhep âlimleri tarafından telif edilen hadis mecmuaları daha sahih ve muteberdir. Bu çalışmamızda erken dönemden itibaren hadis rivayeti ile meşgul olan İbâdiyye’nin ulaşabildiğimiz hadis ve sünnetle alakalı kaynaklarının neler olduğu özellikle kendi kaynakları referans alınarak tespit edilecektir. Ayrıca söz konusu kaynaklar imkân nispetinde rivayet ve dirayet açısından tanıtılacak ve zaman zaman hadis eserleri hakkında gerekli değerlendirmelerde bulunulacaktır.

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Orcid: 0000-0001-7281-0916
Yazar: Ahmet ÖZDEMİR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: ŞIRNAK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İLAHİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Aralık 2019

ISNAD ÖZDEMİR, Ahmet . "İbâdiyye’nin Erken Dönem Hadis Kaynakları". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 36 (Aralık 2020): 525-556 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.585887