Araştırma Makalesi
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Türkiye’nin Afrika’da Yumuşak Gücünün Yükselişi: Sebepler, Dinamikler ve Engeller

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 1 - 14, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.25272/1icps.1117810

Öz

2005 yılından itibaren Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AK Parti) hükümetleri ile birlikte Afrika kıtası Türk Dış Politikasında önem kazanmaya başlamıştır. Türkiye'nin yumuşak güç politikası, Afrika ile çok taraflı ilişkilerin geliştirilmesinde en önemli araçlardan biridir. Türkiye son yıllarda Afrika ülkeleriyle askeri ve savunma alanlarında önemli işbirlikleri yapmaktadır. Örneğin Türkiye'nin yurtdışındaki en büyük askeri üssü 2017 yılında Somali'de açıldı. Ancak Türkiye'nin yumuşak gücü, kıta ile siyasi, ekonomik, sosyal ve güvenlik alanlarında ilişkileri derinleştirmek için çok önemli bir stratejik zemin hazırlamaktadır. AK Parti hükümetleri Türkiye’nin Afrika ile ilişkilerini ideolojik bir boyuttan stratejik bir boyuta taşıyarak Afrika kıtasının Türkiye için stratejik bir anlamı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Araştırma, Türkiye'nin Afrika'ya yönelik yumuşak güç stratejisinin tarihi, coğrafi, siyasi ve ekonomik dahil olmak üzere bir dizi faktör ve dinamikten etkilendiğini savunuyor. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'nin Afrika'daki yumuşak güç politikasını kavramsal bir çerçevede ve bütüncül bir yaklaşımla analiz ederek literatüre katkı sağlamayı amaçlamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Anadolu Agency. (2019a). “Turkey Inaugurates Largest Mosque in Djibouti”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/turkey-inaugurates-largest-mosque-in-djibouti/1659573, 10 February 2020.
  • Anadolu Agency. “Yurtdisi Yapilanmasi”, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/p/yurt-disi-burolar, 12 March 2021.
  • Anadolu Agency. (2019b). “Journalist from Africa Visit Turkey’s Anadolu Agency”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/corporate-news/journalists-from-africa-visit-turkeys-anadolu-agency/1642126, 11 May 2021.
  • Aras, B. (2009). “Davutoğlu Era in Turkish Foreign Policy”, SETA Policy Brief, No. 32, pp. 1-16.
  • Bhutto, F. (2019). “How Turkish TV is Taking over the World”, The Guardian, 13 Sep. 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2019/sep/13/turkish-tv-magnificent-century-dizi-taking-over-world, 13 February 2021.
  • Çevik, S. B. (2019). “Reassessing Turkey’s Soft Power: The rules of Attraction,” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 44(1), 50-71.
  • DailySabah. (2018a). “THY to Launch New Flights to Africa”, https://www.dailysabah.com/business/2018/11/20/thy-to-launch-new-flights-to-africa-reach-55-cities-in-continent, (Accessed:11 February 2021).
  • DailySabah. (2018b). “More THY Destinations in Africa Means More Business with Continent”, https://www.dailysabah.com/business/2018/12/15/more-thy-destinations-in-africa-means-more-business-with-continent, 06 February 2021.
  • Davutoğlu, A. (2001). “Stratejik Derinlik: Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Konumu”, İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • DEİK. “African Business Councils”, https://www.deik.org.tr/african-business-councils, 21 May 2021.
  • Directorate of Communications of Turkey. (2019). “III. African Muslim Religious Summit”, https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/haberler/detay/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-afrikada-kapisi-calinmadik-dost-yarasi-sarilmadik-gonul-is-birligi-yapilmadik-devlet-birakmiyoruz, 28 December 2020.
  • Diyanet Haber. (2019). “Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Afrika’da”, https://www.diyanethaber.com.tr/diyanet-haber/turkiye-diyanet-vakfindan-afrika-ulkelerine-44-yilda-1116-milyon-h7821.html, 18 December 2019.
  • Dunyabulteni. (2020). “TRT Swahili Dilinde Yayinlara Basladi”, https://www.dunyabulteni.net/t-genel/trt-afrika-kitasinin-swahili-dilinde-yayinlara-basladi-h457881.html, 12 March 2021.
  • France 24. (2021). “Turkey Pledges 15 Million Covid Vaccine Doses for Africa in Goodwill Gesture”, https://www.france24.com/en/middle-east/20211218-turkey-pledges-15-million-covid-19-vaccine-doses-for-africa-in-bid-to-strengthen-ties, 08 July 2022.
  • Haugom, L. (2019). “Turkish Foreign Policy under Erdogan: a Change in International Orientation?” Comparative Strategy, 38(3), 206-223.
  • Hazar, N. (2016), Türkiye-Afrika İlişkileri: Türkiye’nin Dost Kıtaya Açılım Stratejisi, Ankara: Akçağ Yayınları.
  • Hürriyet. (2016). “Turk Universitelerinde 135 Afrikali Akademisyen Var,” https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/egitim/turk-universitelerinde-135-afrikali-akademisyen-var-40108891, 20 February 2022.
  • İncesu, S. (2020), “Afrika Açılım Politikası”, Cumhuriyet, 30 Ocak 2020, https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/olaylar-ve-gorusler/afrika-acilim-politikasi-1717211, 25 January 2022.
  • Kalın, İ. (2011). “Soft Power and Public Diplomacy in Turkey,” Perceptions, XVI (3), 5-23.
  • Kalin, I. (2012). “Turkish Foreign Policy: Frameworks, Values, and Mechanisms”, International Journal, 67(1), 7-21.
  • Nye, J. S. (2004). “Soft Power and American Foreign Policy”, Political Science Quarterly,” Vol. 119, Issue: 2, pp. 255-270.
  • Nye, J. S. (2004). “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics,” New York: Public Affairs.
  • MUSIAD. (2018). “MUSIAD Afrika Agini Genisletiyor”, http://web.musiad.org.tr/tr-tr/dis-iliskiler/musiad-afrika-agini-genisletiyor, 27 January 2021.
  • Oğuzlu, T. (2007). “Soft Power in Turkish Foreign Policy”, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 61(1), 81-97.
  • Öner, S. (2013). “Soft Power in Turkish Foreign Policy: New Instruments and Challenges”, Euxeinos, 10, 7-15.
  • Öniş, Z. (2011). “Multiple Faces of the “New” Turkish Foreign Policy: Underlying Dynamics and Critique”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 47-65.
  • Özkan, M. (2010). “Turkey’s Rising Role in Africa”, Turkish Policy Quarterly, 9(4), 93-105.
  • Özkan, M. (2014). “A Post-2014 Vision for Turkey-Africa Relations”, Insight Turkey, 16(4), 23-31.
  • Sıradağ, A. (2016). “Turkish-Somali Relations: Changing State Identity and Foreign Policy”, Inquiry-Sarajevo Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 89-106.
  • Sıradağ, A. (2020). “Turkey’s Engagement with the African Organizations: Partner or Competitor?” India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 1(16), 1-16.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey1, “Turkey-Africa Relations”, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey-africa-relations.en.mfa, 12 March 2020.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey2, “Relations between Turkey and Somalia”, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-somalia.en.mfa, 15 April 2021.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey3, “Turkey Emergency Humanitarian Assistance”, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/humanitarian-assistance-by-turkey.en.mfa, 12 March 2021.
  • T.C. İletişim Başkanlığı. (2022). “Türkiye-Afrika Medya Zirvesi Başladı”, https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/haberler/detay/turkiye-afrika-medya-zirvesi-basladi#:~:text=T%C3%BCrk%20ve%20Afrikal%C4%B1%20medya%20mensuplar%C4%B1,kamu%20kurumlar%C4%B1n%C4%B1n%20y%C3%B6neticileri%2C%20medya%20temsilcileri%2C, 04 July 2022.
  • TIKA. “Overseas Offices”, https://www.tika.gov.tr/en/overseasoffices, 11 March 2021.
  • TRT Haber. (2016). “TRT World’den Gorkemli Acilis”, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/yasam/trt-worldden-gorkemli-acilis-284284.html, 21 October 2020.
  • TRT Haber. (2018). “Etiyopya’da Turkce Egitim Donemi Basliyor”, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/dunya/etiyopyada-turkce-egitim-donemi-basliyor-347938.html, 15 November 2019.
  • Turkiye Diyanet Foundation. (2019). “Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Burslarina Yogun Ilgi”, https://tdv.org/tr-TR/uluslararasi-ogrenciler-turkiyede-egitim-gormek-icin-burs-programlarina-akin-etti/, 10 December 2019.
  • Turkiye Maarif Vakfi. “Dunyada Turkiye Maarif Vakfi”, https://turkiyemaarif.org/page/42-dunyada-tmv-16, 11 May 2021.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2022). “Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri”, https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Dis-Ticaret-Istatistikleri-Ocak-2022-45536, 29 June 2022.
  • Jung, D. (2012). “Domestic Context of New Activism of Turkish Foreign Policy: Does Religion Matter?” International Journal, 67(1), 23-38.
  • Turan, Y. and Karafil, A. (2017). “Soft Power Fact in Turkish Foreign Policy: the Case of Prime Ministry’s Office of Public Diplomacy”, 3(1), 18-32.
  • Usluer, A. S. (2016). “The July 15 Failed Coup Attempt and its Implications for Turkish Foreign Policy”, Bilig, 79, 23-44.
  • Vuving, L. A. (2019). “How Soft Power Works”, American Political Science Association, pp. 8-11, https://apcss.org/Publications/Vuving%20How%20soft%20power%20works%20APSA%202009.pdf, 13 May 2021.
  • Yukaruç, U. (2017). “A Critical Approach to Soft Power”, Journal of Bitlis Eran University, 6(2), 491-02.
  • Yunus Emre Institute. (2020). “Dakar Yunus Emre Enstitusu icin Calismalar Suruyor,”, https://www.yee.org.tr/tr/haber/dakar-yunus-emre-enstitusu-icin-calismalar-suruyor, 27 March 2020.
  • Yurtdışı Türkler Başkanlığı. (2020). Turkiye-Afrika Isbirligine YTB’nin Turkiye Burslari Damgasini Vurdu, https://www.ytb.gov.tr/haberler/turkiye-afrika-is-birligine-ytbnin-turkiye-burslari-damgasini-vurdu, 23 June 2021.

The Rise of Turkey’s Soft Power in Africa: Reasons, Dynamics, and Constraints

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 1 - 14, 31.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.25272/1icps.1117810

Öz

Since 2005, with the ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party) governments, the African continent has gained a great importance in Turkish Foreign Policy. Turkey's soft power policy is one of the most important tools in the development of multilateral relations with Africa. Turkey has been making significant cooperation with African countries in the fields of military and defense in recent years. For example, Turkey's largest overseas military base was opened in Somalia in 2017. However, Turkey's soft power prepares a very important strategic ground for deepening relations with the continent in the political, economic, social, and security fields. The ruling AK Party governments have moved Turkey's relations with Africa from an ideological dimension to a strategic one, revealing that the African continent has a strategic meaning for Turkey. The research argues that Turkey’s soft power strategy toward Africa has been influenced by several factors and dynamics including historical, geographical, political, and economic. This study aims to contribute to the literature by analyzing Turkey’s soft power policy in Africa in a conceptual framework and holistic approach.

Kaynakça

  • Anadolu Agency. (2019a). “Turkey Inaugurates Largest Mosque in Djibouti”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/turkey-inaugurates-largest-mosque-in-djibouti/1659573, 10 February 2020.
  • Anadolu Agency. “Yurtdisi Yapilanmasi”, https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/p/yurt-disi-burolar, 12 March 2021.
  • Anadolu Agency. (2019b). “Journalist from Africa Visit Turkey’s Anadolu Agency”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/corporate-news/journalists-from-africa-visit-turkeys-anadolu-agency/1642126, 11 May 2021.
  • Aras, B. (2009). “Davutoğlu Era in Turkish Foreign Policy”, SETA Policy Brief, No. 32, pp. 1-16.
  • Bhutto, F. (2019). “How Turkish TV is Taking over the World”, The Guardian, 13 Sep. 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2019/sep/13/turkish-tv-magnificent-century-dizi-taking-over-world, 13 February 2021.
  • Çevik, S. B. (2019). “Reassessing Turkey’s Soft Power: The rules of Attraction,” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 44(1), 50-71.
  • DailySabah. (2018a). “THY to Launch New Flights to Africa”, https://www.dailysabah.com/business/2018/11/20/thy-to-launch-new-flights-to-africa-reach-55-cities-in-continent, (Accessed:11 February 2021).
  • DailySabah. (2018b). “More THY Destinations in Africa Means More Business with Continent”, https://www.dailysabah.com/business/2018/12/15/more-thy-destinations-in-africa-means-more-business-with-continent, 06 February 2021.
  • Davutoğlu, A. (2001). “Stratejik Derinlik: Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Konumu”, İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • DEİK. “African Business Councils”, https://www.deik.org.tr/african-business-councils, 21 May 2021.
  • Directorate of Communications of Turkey. (2019). “III. African Muslim Religious Summit”, https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/haberler/detay/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-afrikada-kapisi-calinmadik-dost-yarasi-sarilmadik-gonul-is-birligi-yapilmadik-devlet-birakmiyoruz, 28 December 2020.
  • Diyanet Haber. (2019). “Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Afrika’da”, https://www.diyanethaber.com.tr/diyanet-haber/turkiye-diyanet-vakfindan-afrika-ulkelerine-44-yilda-1116-milyon-h7821.html, 18 December 2019.
  • Dunyabulteni. (2020). “TRT Swahili Dilinde Yayinlara Basladi”, https://www.dunyabulteni.net/t-genel/trt-afrika-kitasinin-swahili-dilinde-yayinlara-basladi-h457881.html, 12 March 2021.
  • France 24. (2021). “Turkey Pledges 15 Million Covid Vaccine Doses for Africa in Goodwill Gesture”, https://www.france24.com/en/middle-east/20211218-turkey-pledges-15-million-covid-19-vaccine-doses-for-africa-in-bid-to-strengthen-ties, 08 July 2022.
  • Haugom, L. (2019). “Turkish Foreign Policy under Erdogan: a Change in International Orientation?” Comparative Strategy, 38(3), 206-223.
  • Hazar, N. (2016), Türkiye-Afrika İlişkileri: Türkiye’nin Dost Kıtaya Açılım Stratejisi, Ankara: Akçağ Yayınları.
  • Hürriyet. (2016). “Turk Universitelerinde 135 Afrikali Akademisyen Var,” https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/egitim/turk-universitelerinde-135-afrikali-akademisyen-var-40108891, 20 February 2022.
  • İncesu, S. (2020), “Afrika Açılım Politikası”, Cumhuriyet, 30 Ocak 2020, https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/olaylar-ve-gorusler/afrika-acilim-politikasi-1717211, 25 January 2022.
  • Kalın, İ. (2011). “Soft Power and Public Diplomacy in Turkey,” Perceptions, XVI (3), 5-23.
  • Kalin, I. (2012). “Turkish Foreign Policy: Frameworks, Values, and Mechanisms”, International Journal, 67(1), 7-21.
  • Nye, J. S. (2004). “Soft Power and American Foreign Policy”, Political Science Quarterly,” Vol. 119, Issue: 2, pp. 255-270.
  • Nye, J. S. (2004). “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics,” New York: Public Affairs.
  • MUSIAD. (2018). “MUSIAD Afrika Agini Genisletiyor”, http://web.musiad.org.tr/tr-tr/dis-iliskiler/musiad-afrika-agini-genisletiyor, 27 January 2021.
  • Oğuzlu, T. (2007). “Soft Power in Turkish Foreign Policy”, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 61(1), 81-97.
  • Öner, S. (2013). “Soft Power in Turkish Foreign Policy: New Instruments and Challenges”, Euxeinos, 10, 7-15.
  • Öniş, Z. (2011). “Multiple Faces of the “New” Turkish Foreign Policy: Underlying Dynamics and Critique”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 47-65.
  • Özkan, M. (2010). “Turkey’s Rising Role in Africa”, Turkish Policy Quarterly, 9(4), 93-105.
  • Özkan, M. (2014). “A Post-2014 Vision for Turkey-Africa Relations”, Insight Turkey, 16(4), 23-31.
  • Sıradağ, A. (2016). “Turkish-Somali Relations: Changing State Identity and Foreign Policy”, Inquiry-Sarajevo Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 89-106.
  • Sıradağ, A. (2020). “Turkey’s Engagement with the African Organizations: Partner or Competitor?” India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 1(16), 1-16.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey1, “Turkey-Africa Relations”, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey-africa-relations.en.mfa, 12 March 2020.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey2, “Relations between Turkey and Somalia”, https://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-somalia.en.mfa, 15 April 2021.
  • T.C. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey3, “Turkey Emergency Humanitarian Assistance”, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/humanitarian-assistance-by-turkey.en.mfa, 12 March 2021.
  • T.C. İletişim Başkanlığı. (2022). “Türkiye-Afrika Medya Zirvesi Başladı”, https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/haberler/detay/turkiye-afrika-medya-zirvesi-basladi#:~:text=T%C3%BCrk%20ve%20Afrikal%C4%B1%20medya%20mensuplar%C4%B1,kamu%20kurumlar%C4%B1n%C4%B1n%20y%C3%B6neticileri%2C%20medya%20temsilcileri%2C, 04 July 2022.
  • TIKA. “Overseas Offices”, https://www.tika.gov.tr/en/overseasoffices, 11 March 2021.
  • TRT Haber. (2016). “TRT World’den Gorkemli Acilis”, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/yasam/trt-worldden-gorkemli-acilis-284284.html, 21 October 2020.
  • TRT Haber. (2018). “Etiyopya’da Turkce Egitim Donemi Basliyor”, https://www.trthaber.com/haber/dunya/etiyopyada-turkce-egitim-donemi-basliyor-347938.html, 15 November 2019.
  • Turkiye Diyanet Foundation. (2019). “Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Burslarina Yogun Ilgi”, https://tdv.org/tr-TR/uluslararasi-ogrenciler-turkiyede-egitim-gormek-icin-burs-programlarina-akin-etti/, 10 December 2019.
  • Turkiye Maarif Vakfi. “Dunyada Turkiye Maarif Vakfi”, https://turkiyemaarif.org/page/42-dunyada-tmv-16, 11 May 2021.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2022). “Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri”, https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Dis-Ticaret-Istatistikleri-Ocak-2022-45536, 29 June 2022.
  • Jung, D. (2012). “Domestic Context of New Activism of Turkish Foreign Policy: Does Religion Matter?” International Journal, 67(1), 23-38.
  • Turan, Y. and Karafil, A. (2017). “Soft Power Fact in Turkish Foreign Policy: the Case of Prime Ministry’s Office of Public Diplomacy”, 3(1), 18-32.
  • Usluer, A. S. (2016). “The July 15 Failed Coup Attempt and its Implications for Turkish Foreign Policy”, Bilig, 79, 23-44.
  • Vuving, L. A. (2019). “How Soft Power Works”, American Political Science Association, pp. 8-11, https://apcss.org/Publications/Vuving%20How%20soft%20power%20works%20APSA%202009.pdf, 13 May 2021.
  • Yukaruç, U. (2017). “A Critical Approach to Soft Power”, Journal of Bitlis Eran University, 6(2), 491-02.
  • Yunus Emre Institute. (2020). “Dakar Yunus Emre Enstitusu icin Calismalar Suruyor,”, https://www.yee.org.tr/tr/haber/dakar-yunus-emre-enstitusu-icin-calismalar-suruyor, 27 March 2020.
  • Yurtdışı Türkler Başkanlığı. (2020). Turkiye-Afrika Isbirligine YTB’nin Turkiye Burslari Damgasini Vurdu, https://www.ytb.gov.tr/haberler/turkiye-afrika-is-birligine-ytbnin-turkiye-burslari-damgasini-vurdu, 23 June 2021.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Abdurrahim SİRADAG> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf Üniversitesi
0000-0003-0778-9211
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Siradag, A. (2022). The Rise of Turkey’s Soft Power in Africa: Reasons, Dynamics, and Constraints . Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi , 8 (2) , 1-14 . DOI: 10.25272/1icps.1117810

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