Araştırma Makalesi
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North Caucasia Analysis: Shaded Wars

Yıl 2017, Sayı 2, 1 - 20, 31.12.2017

Öz

The ethnically and linguistically divided North Caucasus is one of the significant potential crisis areas. The region, which has rich natural resources, good climate and fertile lands, was the habitat of the primarily Muslim Caucasian peoples until the 18th and 19th centuries. With the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, ethnic identity became dominant over Muslim identity, and ethnic conflicts increased. Behind the problems and disputes is the legacy of divide and rule policies implemented in the Russian and Soviet periods. The wars of independence that started with the Chechens then spread to the entire Caucasus. However, the former warriors, whom the Russians took to their side with the strategies implemented, first turned their resistance struggle into a war within itself. The arrival of radical Islam in the region and the transformation of the nationalist character of the resistance into an Islamist aspect led to the change of the wars of independence once again, and the stealing of the owners of the wars and they are being included in the framework of the fight against terrorism. This article aims first to explain the little-known North Caucasus and then describe the transformations of the wars and the point reached today.

Kaynakça

  • Batchelor, J. (2014). Chechens Lead Way in ISIL War for Dominance. America.Al jazeera.
  • Brown, A. (2014). The Caucasus Emirate: Russia’s Homegrown Terrorists. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, Spring 2014.
  • Campana, A. ve Ratelle, J. F. (2014). A Political Sociology Approach to the Diffusion of Conflict from Chechnya to Dagestan and Ingushetia, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 37 (2), 115–134.
  • Chanturiya, K. (2017). A third Chechen War is Inevitable. The Only Question is When, 0c-media.org.
  • Chenciner, R. (1997). Daghestan: Tradition & Survival. Richmond: Curzon Press.
  • Euronews. (2017). Moscow Targets Chechen fighters in Syria.
  • Friedman, G. (2014). Amerika’nın Gizli Savaş. İstanbul: Pegasus Yayınları.
  • Fuller, L. (2014). Avar Theologian Named To Succeed Umarov As Insurgency Leader, Web Log Post, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty - Caucasus Report.
  • Gammer, M. (2008). Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus. London: Routledge.
  • Guillory, S. (2014). Why the Terrorists Chose Volgograd, nextcity.org.
  • Hahn, G. M. (2012). The Caucasus Emirate Jihadists: The Security and Strategic Implications, Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency, Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College.
  • Henkin, Y. (2006). From Tactical Terrorism to Holy War: The Evolution of Chechen Terrorism, 1995-2004, Central Asian Survey, 25.1-2
  • ICG: International Crisis Group. (2016). The North Caucasus Insurgency and Syria: An Exported Jihad? Brussels: International Crisis Group, Europe Report No. 238.
  • Kantarcı, H. (2006). Kıskaçtaki Bölge Kafkasya. İstanbul: IQ Yayınları.
  • Karny, Y. (2000). Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Kashin, O. (2016). Russia's Intervention in Syria Could Have Been Stopped 20 Years Ago. The Guardian.
  • Korb, L. J. Ve Priya M. (2016). Russia's Avoiding Its ISIS Problems, Not Solving Them. National Interest.
  • Lawrence, A. F. (2014). Dagestan: New Epicenter of Muslim Terrorism in Russia. Gatestone Institution.
  • Malashenko, A. (2011). What the North Caucasus Means to Russia, ifri Russia/NIS Center.
  • Margus, K. (2001). The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. Tallinn: NGO Red Book.
  • Markedonov, S. (2012a). Russia in the Islamic World, CSIS.
  • Markedonov, S. (2012b). A New Terrorist Battleground, CSIS.
  • Molayev, A. (2015). Vladimir Isachenkov, Islamic State on Recruitment Spree in Russia’s North Caucasus. Associated Press
  • Önder, A. T. (2007). Türkiye’nin Etnik Yapısı, 15. Baskı. Fark Yayınları.
  • Pape, R. A. ve Feldman, J. K. (2012).Cutting the Fuse: The Explosion of Global Suicide Terrorism and How to Stop It, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Rabil, R. G. (2017). The Syria Crisis Has Evolved into an International Power Struggle. National Interest.
  • Ratelle, J. F. (2017). The North Caucasus Insurgency: a Potential Spillover into the Russian Federation? in Michael Cecire, Caucasus Analytical Digest, No.93, Washington D.C.
  • Saunders, P. (2017). Sergey Lavrov, The Interview. National Interest.
  • Saydam, A. (1997). Kırım ve Kafkas Göçleri (1856-1876). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.
  • Souleimanov, E. (2007). An Endless War: The Russian-Chechen Conflict in Perspective. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Souleimanov, E. ve Slavomir, H. (2007). Islam, Islamism, and Terrorism in the Caucasus and Central Asia: A Critical Assessment, in Ursel Schlichting (Hrsg), OSCE Yearbook 2006, (Hamburg, 2007), 271-287.
  • Stewart, S. (2017). Dirty Work of Russian Assasins. Stratfor.
  • Swift, C. (2010). Fragmentation in the North Caucasus Insurgency, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point RSS, http://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/fragmentation-in-the-northcaucasus-insurgency
  • Taştekin, F. (2017). Suriye’deki Kafkasya Lejyonu: Kadirov’dan Ötesi. Duvar Gazetesi.
  • Ter, M. (2015). The Caucasus Emirate, The Other Russian Front, CIDOB.
  • Toft, M. D. Ve Zhukov, Y. M. (2013). Islamists and Nationalists: Rebel Motivation and Counterinsurgency in Russia’s North Caucasus, Harvard University.
  • Torbakov, I. (1970). War on Terrorism in the Causcaus: Russia Breeds Jihadists, North Caucasus Weekly. Volume: 6, Issue: 42.
  • University of Maryland. (2014). University of Maryland’s Global Terrorism Index-2014.
  • Weiss, C. (2017). Causasus Emirate Branch Highlights Fighters in Syria, Long War Journal.org.
  • Williams, B. G. (2008). Allah’s Foot Soldiers. An Assessment of the Role of Foreign Fighters and Al-Qaeda in the Chechen Insurgency. in M. Gammer (ed) Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus: Post-Soviet Disorder. London: Routledge.
  • Wixman, R. (1980). "Language Aspects of Ethnic Patterns and Processes in the North Caucasus". Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 191. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  • Yıldız, M. (2006). Dünden Bugüne Kafkasya. İstanbul: Yitik Hazine Yayınları.
  • Yıldız, Y. G. (1998). "Kafkas Toplumlarının Siyasi ve Ekonomik Yapıları". Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Kafkaslar, Orta Doğu ve Avrasya Perspektifinde Türkiye’nin Önemi Sempozyumu. İstanbul, 28-29 Nisan 1998.
  • Youngman, M. (2016). Between Caucasus and Caliphate: the Splintering of the North Caucasus Insurgency. Caucasus Survey, 4(3), 194–217.
  • Zürcher, C. (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus. New York: New York University Press.

Kuzey Kafkasya Analizi: Gölgelenen Savaşlar

Yıl 2017, Sayı 2, 1 - 20, 31.12.2017

Öz

Etnik ve dilsel bölünmüşlük içindeki Kuzey Kafkasya, önemli potansiyel kriz bölgelerinden biridir. Zengin doğal kaynaklara, iyi bir iklime ve verimli topraklara sahip bölge, 18. ve 19. yüzyıla kadar çoğunluğu Müslüman olan Kafkas halklarının yaşam alanıydı. Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyetler Birliği ile birlikte etnik kimlik, Müslüman kimliğinin önüne geçmeye başlamış ve etnik kökenli çatışmalar artmıştır. Sorunların ve çatışmaların arkasında Rus ve Sovyet dönemlerinde uygulanan böl ve yönet politikalarının mirası bulunmaktadır. Çeçenler ile başlayan bağımsızlık savaşları, sonrasında tüm Kafkasya’ya yayılmıştır. Bununla beraber, Rusların uyguladığı stratejiler ile kendi yanına çektikleri eski savaşçılar, direniş mücadelelerini önce kendi içinde bir savaşa dönüştürmüştür. Bölgeye radikal İslam’ın ulaşması ve direnişin milliyetçi karakterinin İslamcı bir çehreye dönüşmesi bağımsızlık savaşlarının bir kere daha dönüşmesine ve yapılan savaşların sahiplerinin bir kez daha çalınmasına ve terörle mücadele çerçevesine sokulmasına yol açmıştır. Bu makalenin birincil amacı, az bilinen Kuzey Kafkasya’yı anlatmaktır. İkincil olarak ise, bu bölgede verilen savaşların geçirdiği dönüşümlerin ve bugün gelinen noktanın betimlemesini yapmak amaçlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Batchelor, J. (2014). Chechens Lead Way in ISIL War for Dominance. America.Al jazeera.
  • Brown, A. (2014). The Caucasus Emirate: Russia’s Homegrown Terrorists. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, Spring 2014.
  • Campana, A. ve Ratelle, J. F. (2014). A Political Sociology Approach to the Diffusion of Conflict from Chechnya to Dagestan and Ingushetia, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 37 (2), 115–134.
  • Chanturiya, K. (2017). A third Chechen War is Inevitable. The Only Question is When, 0c-media.org.
  • Chenciner, R. (1997). Daghestan: Tradition & Survival. Richmond: Curzon Press.
  • Euronews. (2017). Moscow Targets Chechen fighters in Syria.
  • Friedman, G. (2014). Amerika’nın Gizli Savaş. İstanbul: Pegasus Yayınları.
  • Fuller, L. (2014). Avar Theologian Named To Succeed Umarov As Insurgency Leader, Web Log Post, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty - Caucasus Report.
  • Gammer, M. (2008). Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus. London: Routledge.
  • Guillory, S. (2014). Why the Terrorists Chose Volgograd, nextcity.org.
  • Hahn, G. M. (2012). The Caucasus Emirate Jihadists: The Security and Strategic Implications, Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency, Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College.
  • Henkin, Y. (2006). From Tactical Terrorism to Holy War: The Evolution of Chechen Terrorism, 1995-2004, Central Asian Survey, 25.1-2
  • ICG: International Crisis Group. (2016). The North Caucasus Insurgency and Syria: An Exported Jihad? Brussels: International Crisis Group, Europe Report No. 238.
  • Kantarcı, H. (2006). Kıskaçtaki Bölge Kafkasya. İstanbul: IQ Yayınları.
  • Karny, Y. (2000). Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Kashin, O. (2016). Russia's Intervention in Syria Could Have Been Stopped 20 Years Ago. The Guardian.
  • Korb, L. J. Ve Priya M. (2016). Russia's Avoiding Its ISIS Problems, Not Solving Them. National Interest.
  • Lawrence, A. F. (2014). Dagestan: New Epicenter of Muslim Terrorism in Russia. Gatestone Institution.
  • Malashenko, A. (2011). What the North Caucasus Means to Russia, ifri Russia/NIS Center.
  • Margus, K. (2001). The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire. Tallinn: NGO Red Book.
  • Markedonov, S. (2012a). Russia in the Islamic World, CSIS.
  • Markedonov, S. (2012b). A New Terrorist Battleground, CSIS.
  • Molayev, A. (2015). Vladimir Isachenkov, Islamic State on Recruitment Spree in Russia’s North Caucasus. Associated Press
  • Önder, A. T. (2007). Türkiye’nin Etnik Yapısı, 15. Baskı. Fark Yayınları.
  • Pape, R. A. ve Feldman, J. K. (2012).Cutting the Fuse: The Explosion of Global Suicide Terrorism and How to Stop It, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Rabil, R. G. (2017). The Syria Crisis Has Evolved into an International Power Struggle. National Interest.
  • Ratelle, J. F. (2017). The North Caucasus Insurgency: a Potential Spillover into the Russian Federation? in Michael Cecire, Caucasus Analytical Digest, No.93, Washington D.C.
  • Saunders, P. (2017). Sergey Lavrov, The Interview. National Interest.
  • Saydam, A. (1997). Kırım ve Kafkas Göçleri (1856-1876). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.
  • Souleimanov, E. (2007). An Endless War: The Russian-Chechen Conflict in Perspective. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Souleimanov, E. ve Slavomir, H. (2007). Islam, Islamism, and Terrorism in the Caucasus and Central Asia: A Critical Assessment, in Ursel Schlichting (Hrsg), OSCE Yearbook 2006, (Hamburg, 2007), 271-287.
  • Stewart, S. (2017). Dirty Work of Russian Assasins. Stratfor.
  • Swift, C. (2010). Fragmentation in the North Caucasus Insurgency, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point RSS, http://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/fragmentation-in-the-northcaucasus-insurgency
  • Taştekin, F. (2017). Suriye’deki Kafkasya Lejyonu: Kadirov’dan Ötesi. Duvar Gazetesi.
  • Ter, M. (2015). The Caucasus Emirate, The Other Russian Front, CIDOB.
  • Toft, M. D. Ve Zhukov, Y. M. (2013). Islamists and Nationalists: Rebel Motivation and Counterinsurgency in Russia’s North Caucasus, Harvard University.
  • Torbakov, I. (1970). War on Terrorism in the Causcaus: Russia Breeds Jihadists, North Caucasus Weekly. Volume: 6, Issue: 42.
  • University of Maryland. (2014). University of Maryland’s Global Terrorism Index-2014.
  • Weiss, C. (2017). Causasus Emirate Branch Highlights Fighters in Syria, Long War Journal.org.
  • Williams, B. G. (2008). Allah’s Foot Soldiers. An Assessment of the Role of Foreign Fighters and Al-Qaeda in the Chechen Insurgency. in M. Gammer (ed) Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus: Post-Soviet Disorder. London: Routledge.
  • Wixman, R. (1980). "Language Aspects of Ethnic Patterns and Processes in the North Caucasus". Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 191. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  • Yıldız, M. (2006). Dünden Bugüne Kafkasya. İstanbul: Yitik Hazine Yayınları.
  • Yıldız, Y. G. (1998). "Kafkas Toplumlarının Siyasi ve Ekonomik Yapıları". Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Kafkaslar, Orta Doğu ve Avrasya Perspektifinde Türkiye’nin Önemi Sempozyumu. İstanbul, 28-29 Nisan 1998.
  • Youngman, M. (2016). Between Caucasus and Caliphate: the Splintering of the North Caucasus Insurgency. Caucasus Survey, 4(3), 194–217.
  • Zürcher, C. (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus. New York: New York University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Sait YILMAZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ESENYURT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7443-1856
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 3 Kasım 2017
Kabul Tarihi 15 Aralık 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt , Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Yılmaz, S. (2017). Kuzey Kafkasya Analizi: Gölgelenen Savaşlar . Igdir University Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences , (2) , 1-20 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/igdiriibf/issue/65867/1022831

Derginin Türkçe Tam Adı: Iğdır Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi

Derginin İngilizce Tam Adı: Iğdır University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences

Derginin Kısaltılmış Adı: Iğdır İİBF Dergisi

T.C. Iğdır Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi  (Iğdır İİBF Dergisi) yılda iki kez (haziran ve aralık aylarında), Türkçe ve İngilizce yayınlanan uluslararası, hakemli ve süreli bir dergidir. Dergide yer alan yazılar kaynak gösterilmeksizin alıntılanamaz. Dergide yer alan yazıların sorumluluğu yazarlarına aittir.