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LA QUESTION DE BOKO HARAM AU NIGERIA : UNE RÉINCARNATION DE MAITATSINE ?

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 12, 54 - 70, 30.06.2021

Öz

2002 yılında Muhammed Yusuf tarafından kurulmuş olan Boko Haram, 2009 yılından itibaren Nijerya devleti ile savaşan bir örgüte dönüşmüştür. Bu örgüt, özellikle sivillere karşı gerçekleştirdiği saldırılar nedeniyle, Nijerya’nın ulusal güvenliği için başlıca tehditlerden birisi haline gelmiştir. Bu makalede, Boko Haram sorununun ortaya çıkmasının ardındaki nedenler incelenecektir. Zira söz konusu olgu uluslararası terörizmle bağlantısı çerçevesinde dış kaynaklı bir sorun olarak nitelendirilebilmektedir. Bir diğer açıklamaysa, Boko Haram’ın Nijerya’daki mevcut sorunlardan neşet ettiği, dolayısıyla esas itibariyle iç dinamiklerin bir neticesi olduğudur. Bu perspektiften irdelendiğinde, Boko Haram 1980’li yıllarda Nijerya’da yaşanan ve İslamcı Maitatsine grubunun sebep olduğu krizin bir tekrarı olarak değerlendirilebilmektedir. Bu makalede, Boko Haram örgütünün Maitatsine grubu ile ne ölçüde benzerlikler taşıdığı sorusuna cevap aranacaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, iki grubun ideolojileri, bünyelerinde hangi sosyoekonomik grupları barındırdıkları ve amaçlarını gerçekleştirmek için hangi yollara başvurdukları karşılaştırmalı yöntemle analiz edilecektir.

Kaynakça

  • ADENRELE, A. (2012). “Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as a symptom of poverty and political alienation”, IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 3(5): 21-26.
  • AMAECHI, K. (2013). Political Violence: A Comperative and Social Movement Study of Boko Haram and MEND, Mémoire de master, Norwegian School of Theology, Oslo.
  • AYUA, I. (2004). “La République fédérale du Nigeria”, Un Dialogue mondial sur le fédéralisme, Vol.1.
  • BRINKEL, T. (2012).“Boko Haram and Jihad in Nigeria”, South African Journal of Military Studies, 40(2): 1-21.
  • CLARKE, K. (2005). “Local Practices, Global Controversies: Islam in Sub-Saharan African Contexts”, The MacMillan Center Working Paper Series.
  • DANJIBO, D. (2009). “Islamic Fundamentalism and Sectarian Violence: The Maitatsine and Boko Haram Crises in Northern Nigeria”, http://www.ifra-nigeria.org/IMG/pdf/N-_D-_DANJIBO_Islamic_Fundamentalism_and_Sectarian_Violence_The_Maitatsine_and_Boko_Haram_Crises_in_Northern_Nigeria.pdf, (21.02.2021).
  • DOUKHAN, D. (2013). “Boko Haram: Some Thoughts About Who is Sponsoring Boko Haram”,https://www.ict.org.il/Article/184/Boko%20Haram%20An%20update%20and%20some%20thoughts%20about%20who%20is%20sponsoring%20Boko#gsc.tab=0, (12.01.2021).
  • GOURLEY, S. (2012). “Linkages Between Boko Haram and Al Qaeda: A Potential Deadly Synergy”, Global Security Studies, 3(3): 1-14.
  • IBRAHIM, J. (1991). “Religion and Political Turbulence in Nigeria”, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 29(1): 115-136.
  • INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMICS & PEACE (2020). “Global Terrorism Index 2020: Measuring the Impact of Terrorism”, https://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GTI-2020-web-1.pdf, (14.02.2021).
  • ISA, M. (2010). “Militant Islamist Groups in Northern Nigeria”, (Ed.) OKUMU, W., Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants, Institute for Security Studies, Tshwane.
  • ISICHEI, E. (1987). “The Maitatsine Risings in Nigeria 1980-85: A Revolt of the Disinherited”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 17(3): 194-208.
  • KANE, O. (2008). “Islamism: What is New, What is Not? Lessons from West Africa”, African Journal of International Affairs, 11(2): 157-187.
  • KIRWIN, M. (2009). “Popular Perceptions of Shari’a Law in Nigeria”, Afrobarometer Briefing Paper, 20(2): 137-151.
  • KRIESCH, A. (2014). “Nigeria's Almajiri schools: recruitment ground for terrorists?”, http://www.dw.de/nigerias-almajiri-schools-recruitment-ground-for-terrorists/a-17521389, (29.03.2021).
  • LE MONDE (2020). “Au Nigeria, Boko Haram revendique l’enlèvement de centaines de lycéens”, https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2020/12/15/au-nigeria-boko-haram-revendique-l-enlevement-de-centaines-de-lyceens_6063441_3212.html, (13.03.2021).
  • LE POINT (2015). “Boko Haram rejoint l'État islamique”, https://www.lepoint.fr/monde/boko-haram-rejoint-l-etat-islamique-08-03-2015-1911099_24.php#, (10.04.2021).
  • MAHER, B. (2012). “Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram”, Joint Special Operations University, Report, 12(5).
  • MALO, F. (2011). “Boko Haram: de la secte nigériane au terrorisme international”, http://civirdepa.e-monsite.com/medias/files/boko-haram-de-la-secte-nigeriane-au-terrorisme-international-fleury-de-st-malo-decembre-2011-1.pdf, (26.02.2021).
  • MANTZIKOS, I. (2013). “Boko Haram: Anatomy of a Crisis”, http://www.e-ir.info/wp-content/uploads/Boko-Haram-e-IR.pdf, 2013, (30.03.2021).
  • MAZRUİ, A. (1992). Afrikalılar, İnsan Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • MCCORMACK, D. (2005). “An African Vortex: Islamism in Sub-Saharan”, The Center for Security Policy, No.4: 1-19.
  • MONTCLO, M. (2012). “Boko Haram et le terrorisme islamiste au Nigeria: insurrection religieuse, contestation politique ou protestation sociale?”, Question de Recherche du CERI, No.40.
  • NGOC, L. (2012). “Boko Haram”, Groupe de Recherche et d’Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité.
  • OFTEDAL, E. (2013). Boko Haram: A Transnational Phenomenon?, Mémoire de master, University of Oslo, Oslo.
  • OJO, A. (1985). “The Maitatsine Revolution in Nigeria”, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 2(2): 297-306.
  • PARKER, G. (2012). Gillian, “Nigeria's Abandoned Youth: Are They Potential Recruits for Militants?”, http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2107102,00.html, (14.03.2021).
  • REUTERS (2007). “Nigeria wants secret trial for al Qaeda suspect”, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-qaeda/nigeria-wants-secret-trial-for-al-qaeda-suspect-idUSMAR33910920070223, (23.03.2021).
  • ROBINSON, D. (2004). Muslim Societies in African History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • ROSANDER, E. (1997). “The Islamization of Tradition and Modernity”, (Ed.) WASTERLUND, D., African Islam and Islam in Africa: Encounters between Sufis and Islamists, Hurst Publishers, London.
  • SANDERS, A. (2012). “Al Qaeda and the African Arc of Instability”, https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/medbasin/Holder/Documents/r025%20CFC%20Monthly%20Thematic%20Report%20(03-JAN-13).pdf, (19.03.2021).
  • SKURATOWICZ, K. (2004). Fundamentalist Religious Movements: A Case Study Of The Maitatsine Movement In Nigeria, Mémoire de master, University of Louisville, Louisville.
  • SODIPO, M. (2013). “Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria”,Africa Security Brief, No.26: 1-8.
  • SULAIMAN, I. (1986). A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio, Mansell Publishing, London.
  • TANCHUM, M. (2012). “Al-Qa‘ida’s West African Advance: Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Mali’s Touareg, and the Spread of Salafi Jihadism”, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, No.2: 75-90.
  • THE GUARDIAN (2013). “Boko Haram leader calls for more schools attacks after dorm killings”, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/14/boko-haram-school-attacks-nigeria, (13.03.2021).
  • TSOGO, J. (2011). How Vulnerable is Nigeria to Islam Extremism?, Mémoire de master,, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey.
  • UNICEF (2020). “Children adjust to life outside Nigeria’s Almajiri system”, https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/stories/children-adjust-life-outside-nigerias-almajiri-system#:~:text=Many%20rural%20and%20poor%20families,school%20children%20in%20the%20country, (19.03.2021).
  • UZOECHINA, O. (2011). “Revisiting Boko Haram: Changing the rules of engagement”, Conflict, Security & Development Group, No.10.
  • VILLEMIN, G. (2014). “L’expansion de l’Islam en Afrique”, http://www.mission.catholique.fr/article2560.html, date d’accès, (11.02.2021).
  • VISKY, A. (2014). “Aux origines de la secte Boko Haram”, http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2012/04/VICKY/47604, (17.01.2021).
  • WESTERLUND, D. (1982). “From Socialism to Islam?”, The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, No.61: 584-585.
  • YUSEF, T. (2012). “The Rise of Islamism in Nigeria: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Religious Violence”, The University of Alabama McNair Journal, No.9: 157-183.

LA QUESTION DE BOKO HARAM AU NIGERIA : UNE RÉINCARNATION DE MAITATSINE ?

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 12, 54 - 70, 30.06.2021

Öz

En 2009, Boko Haram, qui a été fondé par Mohammed Yusuf en 2002, s’est transformé en une organisation qui mène une guerre contre le gouvernement nigérian. Surtout en raison des attaques qu’elle a perpétrées contre les civils, cette organisation est devenue l’une des principales menaces pour la sécurité nationale du Nigeria. Cet article vise à comprendre les causes qui sont à l’origine de Boko Haram. Car, il est possible de retracer les origines de Boko Haram à l’extérieur du Nigeria, en raison de ses liens avec le terrorisme international. Mais d’autre part, on peut soutenir que Boko Haram est le résultat des problèmes existant au Nigeria, en d’autres termes une question découlant des dynamiques internes du pays. Dans cette perspective, Boko Haram peut être conçu comme une réincarnation de la crise causée par le groupe islamiste Maitatsine au Nigeria dans les années 1980. Dans cet article, on examinera dans quelle mesure Boko Haram et Maitatsine se ressemblent. À cette fin, les idéologies, les compositions socio-économiques et les moyens utilisés par ces deux groupes en vue d’atteindre leurs objectifs seront analysés de manière comparative.

Kaynakça

  • ADENRELE, A. (2012). “Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as a symptom of poverty and political alienation”, IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 3(5): 21-26.
  • AMAECHI, K. (2013). Political Violence: A Comperative and Social Movement Study of Boko Haram and MEND, Mémoire de master, Norwegian School of Theology, Oslo.
  • AYUA, I. (2004). “La République fédérale du Nigeria”, Un Dialogue mondial sur le fédéralisme, Vol.1.
  • BRINKEL, T. (2012).“Boko Haram and Jihad in Nigeria”, South African Journal of Military Studies, 40(2): 1-21.
  • CLARKE, K. (2005). “Local Practices, Global Controversies: Islam in Sub-Saharan African Contexts”, The MacMillan Center Working Paper Series.
  • DANJIBO, D. (2009). “Islamic Fundamentalism and Sectarian Violence: The Maitatsine and Boko Haram Crises in Northern Nigeria”, http://www.ifra-nigeria.org/IMG/pdf/N-_D-_DANJIBO_Islamic_Fundamentalism_and_Sectarian_Violence_The_Maitatsine_and_Boko_Haram_Crises_in_Northern_Nigeria.pdf, (21.02.2021).
  • DOUKHAN, D. (2013). “Boko Haram: Some Thoughts About Who is Sponsoring Boko Haram”,https://www.ict.org.il/Article/184/Boko%20Haram%20An%20update%20and%20some%20thoughts%20about%20who%20is%20sponsoring%20Boko#gsc.tab=0, (12.01.2021).
  • GOURLEY, S. (2012). “Linkages Between Boko Haram and Al Qaeda: A Potential Deadly Synergy”, Global Security Studies, 3(3): 1-14.
  • IBRAHIM, J. (1991). “Religion and Political Turbulence in Nigeria”, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 29(1): 115-136.
  • INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMICS & PEACE (2020). “Global Terrorism Index 2020: Measuring the Impact of Terrorism”, https://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GTI-2020-web-1.pdf, (14.02.2021).
  • ISA, M. (2010). “Militant Islamist Groups in Northern Nigeria”, (Ed.) OKUMU, W., Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants, Institute for Security Studies, Tshwane.
  • ISICHEI, E. (1987). “The Maitatsine Risings in Nigeria 1980-85: A Revolt of the Disinherited”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 17(3): 194-208.
  • KANE, O. (2008). “Islamism: What is New, What is Not? Lessons from West Africa”, African Journal of International Affairs, 11(2): 157-187.
  • KIRWIN, M. (2009). “Popular Perceptions of Shari’a Law in Nigeria”, Afrobarometer Briefing Paper, 20(2): 137-151.
  • KRIESCH, A. (2014). “Nigeria's Almajiri schools: recruitment ground for terrorists?”, http://www.dw.de/nigerias-almajiri-schools-recruitment-ground-for-terrorists/a-17521389, (29.03.2021).
  • LE MONDE (2020). “Au Nigeria, Boko Haram revendique l’enlèvement de centaines de lycéens”, https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2020/12/15/au-nigeria-boko-haram-revendique-l-enlevement-de-centaines-de-lyceens_6063441_3212.html, (13.03.2021).
  • LE POINT (2015). “Boko Haram rejoint l'État islamique”, https://www.lepoint.fr/monde/boko-haram-rejoint-l-etat-islamique-08-03-2015-1911099_24.php#, (10.04.2021).
  • MAHER, B. (2012). “Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram”, Joint Special Operations University, Report, 12(5).
  • MALO, F. (2011). “Boko Haram: de la secte nigériane au terrorisme international”, http://civirdepa.e-monsite.com/medias/files/boko-haram-de-la-secte-nigeriane-au-terrorisme-international-fleury-de-st-malo-decembre-2011-1.pdf, (26.02.2021).
  • MANTZIKOS, I. (2013). “Boko Haram: Anatomy of a Crisis”, http://www.e-ir.info/wp-content/uploads/Boko-Haram-e-IR.pdf, 2013, (30.03.2021).
  • MAZRUİ, A. (1992). Afrikalılar, İnsan Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • MCCORMACK, D. (2005). “An African Vortex: Islamism in Sub-Saharan”, The Center for Security Policy, No.4: 1-19.
  • MONTCLO, M. (2012). “Boko Haram et le terrorisme islamiste au Nigeria: insurrection religieuse, contestation politique ou protestation sociale?”, Question de Recherche du CERI, No.40.
  • NGOC, L. (2012). “Boko Haram”, Groupe de Recherche et d’Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité.
  • OFTEDAL, E. (2013). Boko Haram: A Transnational Phenomenon?, Mémoire de master, University of Oslo, Oslo.
  • OJO, A. (1985). “The Maitatsine Revolution in Nigeria”, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 2(2): 297-306.
  • PARKER, G. (2012). Gillian, “Nigeria's Abandoned Youth: Are They Potential Recruits for Militants?”, http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2107102,00.html, (14.03.2021).
  • REUTERS (2007). “Nigeria wants secret trial for al Qaeda suspect”, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-qaeda/nigeria-wants-secret-trial-for-al-qaeda-suspect-idUSMAR33910920070223, (23.03.2021).
  • ROBINSON, D. (2004). Muslim Societies in African History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • ROSANDER, E. (1997). “The Islamization of Tradition and Modernity”, (Ed.) WASTERLUND, D., African Islam and Islam in Africa: Encounters between Sufis and Islamists, Hurst Publishers, London.
  • SANDERS, A. (2012). “Al Qaeda and the African Arc of Instability”, https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/medbasin/Holder/Documents/r025%20CFC%20Monthly%20Thematic%20Report%20(03-JAN-13).pdf, (19.03.2021).
  • SKURATOWICZ, K. (2004). Fundamentalist Religious Movements: A Case Study Of The Maitatsine Movement In Nigeria, Mémoire de master, University of Louisville, Louisville.
  • SODIPO, M. (2013). “Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria”,Africa Security Brief, No.26: 1-8.
  • SULAIMAN, I. (1986). A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio, Mansell Publishing, London.
  • TANCHUM, M. (2012). “Al-Qa‘ida’s West African Advance: Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Mali’s Touareg, and the Spread of Salafi Jihadism”, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, No.2: 75-90.
  • THE GUARDIAN (2013). “Boko Haram leader calls for more schools attacks after dorm killings”, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/14/boko-haram-school-attacks-nigeria, (13.03.2021).
  • TSOGO, J. (2011). How Vulnerable is Nigeria to Islam Extremism?, Mémoire de master,, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey.
  • UNICEF (2020). “Children adjust to life outside Nigeria’s Almajiri system”, https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/stories/children-adjust-life-outside-nigerias-almajiri-system#:~:text=Many%20rural%20and%20poor%20families,school%20children%20in%20the%20country, (19.03.2021).
  • UZOECHINA, O. (2011). “Revisiting Boko Haram: Changing the rules of engagement”, Conflict, Security & Development Group, No.10.
  • VILLEMIN, G. (2014). “L’expansion de l’Islam en Afrique”, http://www.mission.catholique.fr/article2560.html, date d’accès, (11.02.2021).
  • VISKY, A. (2014). “Aux origines de la secte Boko Haram”, http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2012/04/VICKY/47604, (17.01.2021).
  • WESTERLUND, D. (1982). “From Socialism to Islam?”, The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, No.61: 584-585.
  • YUSEF, T. (2012). “The Rise of Islamism in Nigeria: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Religious Violence”, The University of Alabama McNair Journal, No.9: 157-183.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yusuf Gökhan ATAK (Sorumlu Yazar)
GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8070-8230
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 12

Kaynak Göster

APA Atak, Y. G. (2021). LA QUESTION DE BOKO HARAM AU NIGERIA : UNE RÉINCARNATION DE MAITATSINE ? . Uluslararası Afro-Avrasya Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (12) , 54-70 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijar/issue/64457/927303

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