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Investigating the Impact of Rater Training on Rater Errors in the Process of Assessing Writing Skill

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 492 - 514, 26.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.21449/ijate.877035

Öz

In the process of measuring and assessing high-level cognitive skills, interference of rater errors in measurements brings about a constant concern and low objectivity. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rater training on rater errors in the process of assessing individual performance. The study was conducted with a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design. In this research, 45 raters were employed, 23 from the control group and 22 from the experimental group. As data collection tools, a writing task that was developed by IELTS and an analytical rubric that was developed to assess academic writing skills were used. As part of the experimental procedure, rater training was provided and this training was implemented by combining rater error training and frame of reference training. When the findings of the study were examined, it was found that the control and experimental groups were similar to each other before the experiment, however, after the experimental process, the study group made more valid and reliable measurements. As a result, it was investigated that the rater training given had an impact on rater errors such as rater severity, rater leniency, central tendency, and Halo effect. Based on the obtained findings, some suggestions were offered for researchers and future studies.

Kaynakça

  • Abu Kassim, N.L. (2011). Judging behaviour and rater errors: an application of the many-facet Rasch model. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 11(3), 179-197.
  • Abu Kassim, N.L. (2007). Exploring rater judging behaviour using the many-facet Rasch model. Paper Presented in the Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia: Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2), Universiti Utara, Malaysia.
  • Aguinis, H., Mazurkiewicz, M.D., & Heggestad, E.D. (2009). Using web‐based frame‐of‐reference training to decrease biases in personality‐based job analysis: An experimental field study. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 405-438. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2009.01144.x
  • Athey, T.R., & McIntyre, R.M. (1987). Effect of rater training on rater accuracy: Levels–of–processing theory and social facilitation theory perspectives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 567–572. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.567
  • Attali, Y., Bridgeman, B., & Trapani, C. (2010). Performance of a generic approach in automated essay scoring. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 10(3), 1-16.
  • Baird, J.A., Hayes, M., Johnson, R., Johnson, S., & Lamprianou, I. (2013). Marker effects and examination reliability. A Comparative exploration from the perspectives of generalisability theory, Rash model and multilevel modelling. Oxford: University of Oxford for Educational Assessment.
  • Bennet, J. (1998). Human resources management. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
  • Bernardin, H.J. (1978). Effects of rater training on leniency and halo errors in student ratings of instructors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(3), 301 308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.3.301
  • Bernardin, H.J., & Buckley, M.R. (1981). Strategies in rater training. Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 205-212.
  • Bernardin, H.J. & Pence, E.C. (1980). Effects of rater training: New response sets and decreasing accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 60 66. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.60
  • Bijani, H. (2018). Investigating the validity of oral assessment rater training program: A mixed-methods study of raters’ perceptions and attitudes before and after training. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2018.1460901
  • Bond, T., & Fox, C.M. (2015). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315814698
  • Borman, W.C. (1975). Effects of instructions to avoid halo error on reliability and validity of performance evaluation ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(5), 556-560. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.60.5.556
  • Brennan, R.L., Gao, X., & Colton, D.A. (1995). Generalizability analyses of work key listening and writing tests. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(2), 157-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164495055002001
  • Brijmohan, A. (2016). A many-facet RASCH measurement analysis to explore rater effects and rater training in medical school admissions [Doctoral dissertation]. https://hdl.handle.net/1807/74534
  • Brookhart, S.M. (2013). How to create and use rubrics for formative assessment and grading. ASCD.
  • Brown, H.D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, J.D., & Hudson, T. (1998). The alternatives in language assessment. TESOL quarterly, 32(4), 653-675. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587999
  • Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Lu, C., Chodorow, M., Braden-Harder, L., & Harris, M.D. (1998). Automated scoring using a hybrid feature identification technique. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.3115/980845.980879
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Deneysel desenler- öntest-sontest kontrol grubu desen ve veri analizi [Experimental designs-pretest-posttest control group design and data analysis]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Chen, W.H., & Thissen, D. (1997). Local dependence indexes for item pairs using item response theory. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22(3), 265-289. https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986022003265
  • Congdon, P., & McQueen, J. (2000). The stability of rater severity in large-scale assessment programs. Journal of Educational Measurement, 37(2), 163 178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.2000.tb01081.x
  • Cronbach, L.I. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing. Harper and Row.
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Davis, L. (2016). The influence of training and experience on rater performance in scoring spoken language. Language Testing, 33(1), 117 135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532215582282
  • Dunbar, N.E., Brooks, C.F., & Miller, T.K. (2006). Oral communication skills in higher education: Using a performance-based evaluation rubric to assess communication skills. Innovative Higher Education, 31(2), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-006-9012-x
  • Ebel, R.L. (1965). Measuring educational achievement. Prentice- Hall Press.
  • Ebel, R.L., & Frisbie, D.A. (1991). Essentials of educational measurement. Prentice Hall Press.
  • Eckes, T. (2008). Rater types in writing performance assessments: A classification approach to rater variability. Language Testing, 25(2), 155 185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532207086780
  • Eckes, T. (2015). Introduction to many-facet Rasch measurement: Analyzing and evaluating rater-mediated assessments. Peter Lang.
  • Ellis, R.O.D., Johnson, K.E., & Papajohn, D. (2002). Concept mapping for rater training. TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 219-233. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588333
  • Engelhard, G. (1994). Examining rater errors in the assessment of written composition with a many‐faceted Rasch model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 31(2), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.1994.tb00436.x
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Investigating the Impact of Rater Training on Rater Errors in the Process of Assessing Writing Skill

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 492 - 514, 26.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.21449/ijate.877035

Öz

In the process of measuring and assessing high-level cognitive skills, interference of rater errors in measurements brings about a constant concern and low objectivity. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rater training on rater errors in the process of assessing individual performance. The study was conducted with a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design. In this research, 45 raters were employed, 23 from the control group and 22 from the experimental group. As data collection tools, a writing task that was developed by IELTS and an analytical rubric that was developed to assess academic writing skills were used. As part of the experimental procedure, rater training was provided and this training was implemented by combining rater error training and frame of reference training. When the findings of the study were examined, it was found that the control and experimental groups were similar to each other before the experiment, however, after the experimental process, the study group made more valid and reliable measurements. As a result, it was investigated that the rater training given had an impact on rater errors such as rater severity, rater leniency, central tendency, and Halo effect. Based on the obtained findings, some suggestions were offered for researchers and future studies.

Kaynakça

  • Abu Kassim, N.L. (2011). Judging behaviour and rater errors: an application of the many-facet Rasch model. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 11(3), 179-197.
  • Abu Kassim, N.L. (2007). Exploring rater judging behaviour using the many-facet Rasch model. Paper Presented in the Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia: Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2), Universiti Utara, Malaysia.
  • Aguinis, H., Mazurkiewicz, M.D., & Heggestad, E.D. (2009). Using web‐based frame‐of‐reference training to decrease biases in personality‐based job analysis: An experimental field study. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 405-438. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2009.01144.x
  • Athey, T.R., & McIntyre, R.M. (1987). Effect of rater training on rater accuracy: Levels–of–processing theory and social facilitation theory perspectives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 567–572. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.567
  • Attali, Y., Bridgeman, B., & Trapani, C. (2010). Performance of a generic approach in automated essay scoring. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 10(3), 1-16.
  • Baird, J.A., Hayes, M., Johnson, R., Johnson, S., & Lamprianou, I. (2013). Marker effects and examination reliability. A Comparative exploration from the perspectives of generalisability theory, Rash model and multilevel modelling. Oxford: University of Oxford for Educational Assessment.
  • Bennet, J. (1998). Human resources management. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
  • Bernardin, H.J. (1978). Effects of rater training on leniency and halo errors in student ratings of instructors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(3), 301 308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.3.301
  • Bernardin, H.J., & Buckley, M.R. (1981). Strategies in rater training. Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 205-212.
  • Bernardin, H.J. & Pence, E.C. (1980). Effects of rater training: New response sets and decreasing accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 60 66. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.60
  • Bijani, H. (2018). Investigating the validity of oral assessment rater training program: A mixed-methods study of raters’ perceptions and attitudes before and after training. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2018.1460901
  • Bond, T., & Fox, C.M. (2015). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315814698
  • Borman, W.C. (1975). Effects of instructions to avoid halo error on reliability and validity of performance evaluation ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(5), 556-560. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.60.5.556
  • Brennan, R.L., Gao, X., & Colton, D.A. (1995). Generalizability analyses of work key listening and writing tests. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(2), 157-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164495055002001
  • Brijmohan, A. (2016). A many-facet RASCH measurement analysis to explore rater effects and rater training in medical school admissions [Doctoral dissertation]. https://hdl.handle.net/1807/74534
  • Brookhart, S.M. (2013). How to create and use rubrics for formative assessment and grading. ASCD.
  • Brown, H.D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, J.D., & Hudson, T. (1998). The alternatives in language assessment. TESOL quarterly, 32(4), 653-675. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587999
  • Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Lu, C., Chodorow, M., Braden-Harder, L., & Harris, M.D. (1998). Automated scoring using a hybrid feature identification technique. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.3115/980845.980879
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Deneysel desenler- öntest-sontest kontrol grubu desen ve veri analizi [Experimental designs-pretest-posttest control group design and data analysis]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Chen, W.H., & Thissen, D. (1997). Local dependence indexes for item pairs using item response theory. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22(3), 265-289. https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986022003265
  • Congdon, P., & McQueen, J. (2000). The stability of rater severity in large-scale assessment programs. Journal of Educational Measurement, 37(2), 163 178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.2000.tb01081.x
  • Cronbach, L.I. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing. Harper and Row.
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Davis, L. (2016). The influence of training and experience on rater performance in scoring spoken language. Language Testing, 33(1), 117 135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532215582282
  • Dunbar, N.E., Brooks, C.F., & Miller, T.K. (2006). Oral communication skills in higher education: Using a performance-based evaluation rubric to assess communication skills. Innovative Higher Education, 31(2), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-006-9012-x
  • Ebel, R.L. (1965). Measuring educational achievement. Prentice- Hall Press.
  • Ebel, R.L., & Frisbie, D.A. (1991). Essentials of educational measurement. Prentice Hall Press.
  • Eckes, T. (2008). Rater types in writing performance assessments: A classification approach to rater variability. Language Testing, 25(2), 155 185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532207086780
  • Eckes, T. (2015). Introduction to many-facet Rasch measurement: Analyzing and evaluating rater-mediated assessments. Peter Lang.
  • Ellis, R.O.D., Johnson, K.E., & Papajohn, D. (2002). Concept mapping for rater training. TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 219-233. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588333
  • Engelhard, G. (1994). Examining rater errors in the assessment of written composition with a many‐faceted Rasch model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 31(2), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.1994.tb00436.x
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Yayınlanma Tarihi June
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mehmet ŞATA> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Agri Ibrahim Cecen University
0000-0003-2683-4997
Türkiye


İsmail KARAKAYA>
Gazı University
0000-0003-4308-6919
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 28 Nisan 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Şata, M. & Karakaya, İ. (2022). Investigating the Impact of Rater Training on Rater Errors in the Process of Assessing Writing Skill . International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education , 9 (2) , 492-514 . DOI: 10.21449/ijate.877035

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