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Transhumanism and Sport

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 282 - 299, 21.07.2021

Öz

With the addition of today's developing science and technology opportunities to human's efforts in the historical process to live a longer life without disease, Transhumanism has jumped one more dimension and has taken its place in many branches of science today. Since transhumanism is a trend that mainly concerns the mind and body of the human being, its influence in the humanity is great. Sports science is also included in these discussions because it basically involves the human being. In this respect, technological developments and advances in recent years have brought new discussions in the field of sports as they emerge as a factor that helps human life and makes life easier. In this literature review study, the interaction of technology and human beings and its reflections on sports is scanned and it is tried to examine whether Transhumanism is an opportunity or a threat to sports. In this direction, studies in the field of Transhumanism were scanned and was discussed in terms of the advantage, disadvantage, opportunity or threat with the introduction of new technologies into human life. It was concluded that transhumanism studies can move the sport organizations to different dimensions, but can pose a threat to today's sports and athletes if the necessary precautions are not taken in time.

Kaynakça

  • AFP (2019). Elon Musk wants to merge human brains with AI. Retrieved from: https://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/elon-musk-wants-to-merge-human-brains-with-ai-1.4511363
  • Akkaya, M.Ş. (1947). Humanizm'in çıkışı ve yayılışı.[The emergence and spread of Humanism]. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 201-222.
  • Akpek, A. (2019). İnsan kendini tasarlıyor: yapay organlar. İnsanlık 2.0. Biyolojisi değişen insana doğru. [Man designs himself: artificial organs. Humanity 2.0. Towards a person whose biology has changed]. TMMOB Elektrik Mühendisleri Odası, İzmir Şb. Bülteni. 31(349), 1-28.
  • Andjus, R.K. & Lovelock, J.E. (1955). Reanimation of rats from body temperatures between 0° and 1°C by microwave diathermy. The Journal of Physiology, 128(3), 541-546.
  • Anissimov, M.M. (2015) Our accelerating future. How superintelegence, nanotachnology and transhumanizm will transform the planet. California: Berkeley Zenit Books. Aschwanden, C.(2000). Gene cheats. New Scientist. 24–9.
  • Aşkın, M. (2015). Genetik mühendislik: Dost mu düşman mı? [Genetic engineering: Friend or foe?]Türkiye Bioetik Dergisi, 2(2), 160-165.
  • Benabid, A.L., Costecalde, T., Eliseyev, A. et al. (2019). An exoskeleton controlled by an epidural wireless brain–machine interface in a tetraplegic patient: a proof-of-concept demonstration. The Lancet Neurology, 18(12), P1112-1122, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30321-7
  • Bernal, J. D. (1929). The world, the flesh and the devil: An enquiry into the future of the three enemies of the rational soul. Verso Books. Best, B. (2008). Scientific justification of cryonics practice. Rejuvenation research. 11. 493-503. 10.1089/rej.2008.0661.
  • Brown, J. (2019). Genetic doping: WADA we do about the future of ‘cheating’in sport?. The International Sports Law Journal. 1-23.
  • Brumlik, M. (2016) Transhumanism Is Humanism, and Humanism Is Transhumanism. In: Hurlbut J., Tirosh-Samuelson H. (eds) Perfecting Human Futures. Technikzukünfte, Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft / Futures of Technology, (pp 121-140). Science and Society. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-11044-4_6
  • Chemeurope (2021). Exocortex. Retrieved from: https://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Exocortex.html
  • Cryonics (2021). (n.d.) The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cryonics
  • Cyranoski, D.(2018). First CRISPR babies: six questions that remain [news article]. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-07607-3
  • Çınar, V, Yazıcı, G, Şebi̇n, K & Öztürk, M . (2010). Doping ve sporcularda kullanımı. [Dopıng and theır usage on sportsman]. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 7 (4) , 27-31.
  • Dambrot, S. M. (2016). Exocortical Cognition: Heads in the Cloud - A transdisciplinary framework for augmenting human high-level cognitive processes. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), Budapest, Hungary, (pp. 004007-004014), https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2016.7844860.
  • Demir, A. (2013). Etik açıdan insan genom projesi. [The human genomproject-etically]. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 23. 317-327.
  • Demiray, M,. Başer, Ö. & Kilic, E. (2015). Alt uzuv dış iskelet robot eklemlerinde kararlılık için sönümleme katsayıları ve momentlerinin hesaplanması. [Calculation of damping coefficients and moments for stability in lower limb exoskeleton robot joints]. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 18. 35-51. https://doi.org/10.19113/sdufbed.41983.
  • Ertin, H. & Bardakçı, T. (2020). Sporda insanı geliştirme: doping ve dopingle mücadelenin tarihi. [Human development in sport: the history of doping and anti-doping].Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics.28(1):99-109. https://doi.org/10.5336/mdethic.2019-71091
  • Evolution (2021). Transhuman - human evolution. Retrieved from: http://www.dieweltistwasgemachtes.de/transhuman/ Folacci, M.A. & Baudin, L. (2019) Construire aujourd’hui la société de demain. [Building the future society from today]. CEA rapport annuel 2019. p.16. Retrieved from: https://www.cea.fr/multimedia/Lists/StaticFiles/rapports/annuel/pdf/CEARA2019FR.pdf
  • Fratil, P. et. al. (2015). Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology. Current Neuropharmacology, 13, 5-11.
  • Ganier, A. Boudault, A. & Garrec P. (2018). L’exosquelette. Les défis du CEA. [The exoskeleton. The CEA challenges] Retrieved from: https://www.cea.fr/multimedia/documents/infographies/exosquelette.pdf
  • Gardner, M.R., Kattenhorn, L.M., Kondur, H.R., von Schaewen, M., Dorfman, T., Chiang, J. J., Haworth, K.G., Decker, J.M., Alpert, M.D., Bailey, C.C., Neale, E.S., Jr, Fellinger, C.H., Joshi, V.R., Fuchs, S.P., Martinez-Navio, J.M., Quinlan, B.D., Yao, A.Y., Mouquet, H., Gorman, J., Zhang, B., … Farzan, M. (2015). AAV-expressed eCD4-Ig provides durable protection from multiple SHIV challenges. Nature, 519(7541), 87–91. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14264
  • Girişmen, G. & Gürkan, M. (2018). Paralimpik Oyunlar. [Paralimpic Games]. Retrieved from: https://kulturveyasam.com/8-madde-ile-paralimpik-oyunlari-turk-sporcularin-ilk-sampiyonluklari/
  • Greely, H.T. (2019). CRISPR'd babies: human germline genome editing in the 'He Jiankui affair'. Journal of law and the biosciences, 6(1), 111–183. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsz010
  • Hakimi, P., Yang, J., Casadesus, G., Massillon, D., Tolentino-Silva, F., Nye, C. K., Cabrera, M. E., Hagen, D.R., Utter, C.B., Baghdy, Y., Johnson, D.H., Wilson, D.L., Kirwan, J.P., Kalhan, S.C., & Hanson, R.W. (2007). Overexpression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in skeletal muscle repatterns energy metabolism in the mouse. The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(45), 32844–32855. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M706127200
  • Haldane, J.B.S. (1924). Daedalus or Science and the Future. (pp. 63-65). New York: EP Dutton.
  • Huxley, J. (1968). Transhumanism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 8. 73-76. https://doi.org/10.1177/002216786800800107.
  • Jie, S.,Yameng, L. & Xiaoyi, L. (2021). China explores cryopreservation with leading technologies but doubts remain about widespread adoption of technology. Retrieved from: https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202101/1213554.shtml
  • Kadıoğlu, M. (2011). Humanizm. Istanbul Journal of Sociological Studies, 0 (23). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iusoskon/issue/9545/119216
  • Krucoff, M.O., Rahimpour, S., Slutzky, M.W., Edgerton, V.R., & Turner, D.A. (2016). Enhancing nervous system recovery through neurobiologics, neural ınterface training, and neurorehabilitation. Frontiers in neuroscience, 10, 584. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00584
  • Liotta, D. (2012). Michael E. DeBakey and Denton A. Cooley— Mike, the Master Assembler; Denton, the courageous fighter: A personal overview unforgettable past remembrances in the 1960s. Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery. 02. 37-45. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.23010.
  • Mazan, T.(2015). Transcend the Flesh: Transhumanism debate. 10.13140/RG.2.1.3797.6168.
  • McCrory, P. (2003). Super athletes or gene cheats?. British journal of sports medicine. 37. 192-3. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.3.192.
  • More, M. (1990). Transhumanizm. Retrieved from: https://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-faq/
  • More, M. (2010). True transhumanism. Edited by Gregory R. Hansell and William Grassie, Philadelphia: Metanexus USA. 136.
  • More, M., & Vita-More, N. (Eds.). (2013). The transhumanist reader: Classical and contemporary essays on the science, technology, and philosophy of the human future. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Musk, E (2019). An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels. Retrieved from: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703801v4.full.pdf Erişim tarihi: 01.05.2020
  • Ossürs (2021). i-Limb® Quantum. Retrieved from: https://www.ossur.com/en-us/prosthetics/arms/i-limb-quantum
  • Özcan, A. (2020). Yapay Organlar. [Artificial Organs]. Balıkesir Üniversitesi/Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Kimya Bölümü. Retrieved from: http://kimya.balikesir.edu.tr/Seminerler/dokuman/201610105008AleynaOzcan_1.pdf
  • Özcan, A. (2021). Nöron Korunması. [Neuroproteective] Retrieved from: https://www.todnet.org/glokom/noron-koruma.htm#:~:text=Retina%20ganglion%20hücrelerinin%20tam%20olarak,verilmektedir%20(1%2C2).
  • Pepperell, R. (2003). The posthuman condition. Consciousness beyond the brain. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 100.
  • Perry M. (2017). A year of jubilees: Some important cryonics anniversaries. Cryonics. 38(3). 1-48
  • Regalado, A. (2018). Chinese scientists are creating CRISPR babies. MIT Technology Review. Availiable online at https://www .technologyreview.com/s/612458/exclusive-chinese-scientists-arecreating-crispr-babies/
  • Sandberg, A., & Bostrom, N. (2008). Whole brain emulation: a roadmap. Technical Report #2008-3, Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford, UK: Oxford University. Retrieved from https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/brain-emulation-roadmap-report.pdf
  • Sandel, M.J. (2007). The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering. Cambridge: Harvard University Press;. p.25.
  • Singh, S. (2019). Lulu and Nana open Pandora’s box far beyond Louise Brown. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 191. E642-E643. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.71979.
  • Sotala, J., & Valpola, H. (2012). Coalescing minds: brain uploading-related group mind scenarios. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 4(1), 293–312.
  • Theoharides, T., Tsilioni, I., Patel, A. et al. (2016) Atopic diseases and inflammation of the brain in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. Transl Psychiatry 6, e84. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.77
  • Treillet J. (2021). Photo-exosquelette. Retrieved from: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/exosquelette.html
  • Unal, M. & Unal-Ozer, D. (2003). Sporda doping kullanımı. [Doping use in sports]. İst. Tıp Fak. Mecmuası 66 (3), 189-198.
  • Vidal, J.J. (1973). Toward Direct Brain-Computer Communication. Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering. 2(1), 157-180.
  • Wordsense. (2021). “Exocortex" – WordSense online dictionary (28th February, 2021). Retrieved from: https://www.wordsense.eu/exocortex/

Transhumanizm ve Spor

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 282 - 299, 21.07.2021

Öz

Tarihsel süreç içerisinde insanoğlunun daha uzun ve hastalıklardan uzak bir yaşam sürmesine yönelik çalışmalarına, günümüzde gelişen bilim ve teknoloji olanaklarının da ilave edilmesiyle, Transhümanizm akımı bir boyut daha atlamış ve günümüzde birçok bilim dalında kendine yer edinmiştir. Transhümanizm, esas olarak insanın zihnini ve bedenini ilgilendiren bir eğilim olduğundan, insanlık üzerindeki etkisi büyüktür. Spor bilimleri de temelde insanı içerdiğinden, doğal olarak bu tartışmaların içerisindedir. Bu bakımdan, son yıllardaki teknolojik gelişmeler ve ilerlemeler temelde insan yaşamına yardımcı, hayatı kolaylaştıran unsur olarak ortaya çıkmasıyla, spor alanında da yeni tartışmaları beraberinde getirmiştir. Literatür taramasına dayanan bu araştırmada, Transhümanizm çalışmaları kapsamında teknoloji ve insan unsurunun etkileşimi ile bunun spora yansımalarını kapsayan gelişmeler taranarak, Transhümanizmin spor olgusuna fırsat veya tehdit olup olmadığı irdelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda Transhümanizm alanında son yıllarda yapılan çalışmalar taranarak, yeni teknolojilerin insan hayatına girmesi ile spordaki avantaj dezavantaj, fırsat veya tehdit açısından tartışılmıştır. Transhümanizm çalışmalarının spor organizasyonlarını farklı boyutlara taşıyabileceği vurgulanmış, ancak gerekli önlemler zamanında alınmadığı takdirde günümüz sporları ve sporcuları için tehdit oluşturabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • AFP (2019). Elon Musk wants to merge human brains with AI. Retrieved from: https://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/elon-musk-wants-to-merge-human-brains-with-ai-1.4511363
  • Akkaya, M.Ş. (1947). Humanizm'in çıkışı ve yayılışı.[The emergence and spread of Humanism]. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 201-222.
  • Akpek, A. (2019). İnsan kendini tasarlıyor: yapay organlar. İnsanlık 2.0. Biyolojisi değişen insana doğru. [Man designs himself: artificial organs. Humanity 2.0. Towards a person whose biology has changed]. TMMOB Elektrik Mühendisleri Odası, İzmir Şb. Bülteni. 31(349), 1-28.
  • Andjus, R.K. & Lovelock, J.E. (1955). Reanimation of rats from body temperatures between 0° and 1°C by microwave diathermy. The Journal of Physiology, 128(3), 541-546.
  • Anissimov, M.M. (2015) Our accelerating future. How superintelegence, nanotachnology and transhumanizm will transform the planet. California: Berkeley Zenit Books. Aschwanden, C.(2000). Gene cheats. New Scientist. 24–9.
  • Aşkın, M. (2015). Genetik mühendislik: Dost mu düşman mı? [Genetic engineering: Friend or foe?]Türkiye Bioetik Dergisi, 2(2), 160-165.
  • Benabid, A.L., Costecalde, T., Eliseyev, A. et al. (2019). An exoskeleton controlled by an epidural wireless brain–machine interface in a tetraplegic patient: a proof-of-concept demonstration. The Lancet Neurology, 18(12), P1112-1122, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30321-7
  • Bernal, J. D. (1929). The world, the flesh and the devil: An enquiry into the future of the three enemies of the rational soul. Verso Books. Best, B. (2008). Scientific justification of cryonics practice. Rejuvenation research. 11. 493-503. 10.1089/rej.2008.0661.
  • Brown, J. (2019). Genetic doping: WADA we do about the future of ‘cheating’in sport?. The International Sports Law Journal. 1-23.
  • Brumlik, M. (2016) Transhumanism Is Humanism, and Humanism Is Transhumanism. In: Hurlbut J., Tirosh-Samuelson H. (eds) Perfecting Human Futures. Technikzukünfte, Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft / Futures of Technology, (pp 121-140). Science and Society. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-11044-4_6
  • Chemeurope (2021). Exocortex. Retrieved from: https://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Exocortex.html
  • Cryonics (2021). (n.d.) The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cryonics
  • Cyranoski, D.(2018). First CRISPR babies: six questions that remain [news article]. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-07607-3
  • Çınar, V, Yazıcı, G, Şebi̇n, K & Öztürk, M . (2010). Doping ve sporcularda kullanımı. [Dopıng and theır usage on sportsman]. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 7 (4) , 27-31.
  • Dambrot, S. M. (2016). Exocortical Cognition: Heads in the Cloud - A transdisciplinary framework for augmenting human high-level cognitive processes. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), Budapest, Hungary, (pp. 004007-004014), https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2016.7844860.
  • Demir, A. (2013). Etik açıdan insan genom projesi. [The human genomproject-etically]. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 23. 317-327.
  • Demiray, M,. Başer, Ö. & Kilic, E. (2015). Alt uzuv dış iskelet robot eklemlerinde kararlılık için sönümleme katsayıları ve momentlerinin hesaplanması. [Calculation of damping coefficients and moments for stability in lower limb exoskeleton robot joints]. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 18. 35-51. https://doi.org/10.19113/sdufbed.41983.
  • Ertin, H. & Bardakçı, T. (2020). Sporda insanı geliştirme: doping ve dopingle mücadelenin tarihi. [Human development in sport: the history of doping and anti-doping].Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics.28(1):99-109. https://doi.org/10.5336/mdethic.2019-71091
  • Evolution (2021). Transhuman - human evolution. Retrieved from: http://www.dieweltistwasgemachtes.de/transhuman/ Folacci, M.A. & Baudin, L. (2019) Construire aujourd’hui la société de demain. [Building the future society from today]. CEA rapport annuel 2019. p.16. Retrieved from: https://www.cea.fr/multimedia/Lists/StaticFiles/rapports/annuel/pdf/CEARA2019FR.pdf
  • Fratil, P. et. al. (2015). Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology. Current Neuropharmacology, 13, 5-11.
  • Ganier, A. Boudault, A. & Garrec P. (2018). L’exosquelette. Les défis du CEA. [The exoskeleton. The CEA challenges] Retrieved from: https://www.cea.fr/multimedia/documents/infographies/exosquelette.pdf
  • Gardner, M.R., Kattenhorn, L.M., Kondur, H.R., von Schaewen, M., Dorfman, T., Chiang, J. J., Haworth, K.G., Decker, J.M., Alpert, M.D., Bailey, C.C., Neale, E.S., Jr, Fellinger, C.H., Joshi, V.R., Fuchs, S.P., Martinez-Navio, J.M., Quinlan, B.D., Yao, A.Y., Mouquet, H., Gorman, J., Zhang, B., … Farzan, M. (2015). AAV-expressed eCD4-Ig provides durable protection from multiple SHIV challenges. Nature, 519(7541), 87–91. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14264
  • Girişmen, G. & Gürkan, M. (2018). Paralimpik Oyunlar. [Paralimpic Games]. Retrieved from: https://kulturveyasam.com/8-madde-ile-paralimpik-oyunlari-turk-sporcularin-ilk-sampiyonluklari/
  • Greely, H.T. (2019). CRISPR'd babies: human germline genome editing in the 'He Jiankui affair'. Journal of law and the biosciences, 6(1), 111–183. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsz010
  • Hakimi, P., Yang, J., Casadesus, G., Massillon, D., Tolentino-Silva, F., Nye, C. K., Cabrera, M. E., Hagen, D.R., Utter, C.B., Baghdy, Y., Johnson, D.H., Wilson, D.L., Kirwan, J.P., Kalhan, S.C., & Hanson, R.W. (2007). Overexpression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in skeletal muscle repatterns energy metabolism in the mouse. The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(45), 32844–32855. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M706127200
  • Haldane, J.B.S. (1924). Daedalus or Science and the Future. (pp. 63-65). New York: EP Dutton.
  • Huxley, J. (1968). Transhumanism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 8. 73-76. https://doi.org/10.1177/002216786800800107.
  • Jie, S.,Yameng, L. & Xiaoyi, L. (2021). China explores cryopreservation with leading technologies but doubts remain about widespread adoption of technology. Retrieved from: https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202101/1213554.shtml
  • Kadıoğlu, M. (2011). Humanizm. Istanbul Journal of Sociological Studies, 0 (23). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iusoskon/issue/9545/119216
  • Krucoff, M.O., Rahimpour, S., Slutzky, M.W., Edgerton, V.R., & Turner, D.A. (2016). Enhancing nervous system recovery through neurobiologics, neural ınterface training, and neurorehabilitation. Frontiers in neuroscience, 10, 584. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00584
  • Liotta, D. (2012). Michael E. DeBakey and Denton A. Cooley— Mike, the Master Assembler; Denton, the courageous fighter: A personal overview unforgettable past remembrances in the 1960s. Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery. 02. 37-45. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2012.23010.
  • Mazan, T.(2015). Transcend the Flesh: Transhumanism debate. 10.13140/RG.2.1.3797.6168.
  • McCrory, P. (2003). Super athletes or gene cheats?. British journal of sports medicine. 37. 192-3. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.3.192.
  • More, M. (1990). Transhumanizm. Retrieved from: https://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-faq/
  • More, M. (2010). True transhumanism. Edited by Gregory R. Hansell and William Grassie, Philadelphia: Metanexus USA. 136.
  • More, M., & Vita-More, N. (Eds.). (2013). The transhumanist reader: Classical and contemporary essays on the science, technology, and philosophy of the human future. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Musk, E (2019). An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels. Retrieved from: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703801v4.full.pdf Erişim tarihi: 01.05.2020
  • Ossürs (2021). i-Limb® Quantum. Retrieved from: https://www.ossur.com/en-us/prosthetics/arms/i-limb-quantum
  • Özcan, A. (2020). Yapay Organlar. [Artificial Organs]. Balıkesir Üniversitesi/Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Kimya Bölümü. Retrieved from: http://kimya.balikesir.edu.tr/Seminerler/dokuman/201610105008AleynaOzcan_1.pdf
  • Özcan, A. (2021). Nöron Korunması. [Neuroproteective] Retrieved from: https://www.todnet.org/glokom/noron-koruma.htm#:~:text=Retina%20ganglion%20hücrelerinin%20tam%20olarak,verilmektedir%20(1%2C2).
  • Pepperell, R. (2003). The posthuman condition. Consciousness beyond the brain. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 100.
  • Perry M. (2017). A year of jubilees: Some important cryonics anniversaries. Cryonics. 38(3). 1-48
  • Regalado, A. (2018). Chinese scientists are creating CRISPR babies. MIT Technology Review. Availiable online at https://www .technologyreview.com/s/612458/exclusive-chinese-scientists-arecreating-crispr-babies/
  • Sandberg, A., & Bostrom, N. (2008). Whole brain emulation: a roadmap. Technical Report #2008-3, Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford, UK: Oxford University. Retrieved from https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/brain-emulation-roadmap-report.pdf
  • Sandel, M.J. (2007). The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering. Cambridge: Harvard University Press;. p.25.
  • Singh, S. (2019). Lulu and Nana open Pandora’s box far beyond Louise Brown. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 191. E642-E643. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.71979.
  • Sotala, J., & Valpola, H. (2012). Coalescing minds: brain uploading-related group mind scenarios. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 4(1), 293–312.
  • Theoharides, T., Tsilioni, I., Patel, A. et al. (2016) Atopic diseases and inflammation of the brain in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. Transl Psychiatry 6, e84. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.77
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Berkan ATASOY (Sorumlu Yazar)
GENÇLİK VE SPOR BAKANLIĞI
0000-0003-1439-7435
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { intjscs922625, journal = {International Journal of Sport Culture and Science}, issn = {2148-1148}, address = {}, publisher = {Uluslararası Bilim Kültür ve Spor Derneği (UBİKS)}, year = {2021}, volume = {9}, pages = {282 - 299}, doi = {}, title = {Transhumanism and Sport}, key = {cite}, author = {Atasoy, Berkan} }
APA Atasoy, B. (2021). Transhumanism and Sport . International Journal of Sport Culture and Science , 9 (2) , 282-299 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/intjscs/issue/64215/922625
MLA Atasoy, B. "Transhumanism and Sport" . International Journal of Sport Culture and Science 9 (2021 ): 282-299 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/intjscs/issue/64215/922625>
Chicago Atasoy, B. "Transhumanism and Sport". International Journal of Sport Culture and Science 9 (2021 ): 282-299
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Transhumanism and Sport AU - Berkan Atasoy Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - International Journal of Sport Culture and Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 282 EP - 299 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - 2148-1148- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Sport Culture and Science Transhumanism and Sport %A Berkan Atasoy %T Transhumanism and Sport %D 2021 %J International Journal of Sport Culture and Science %P 2148-1148- %V 9 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Atasoy, Berkan . "Transhumanism and Sport". International Journal of Sport Culture and Science 9 / 2 (Temmuz 2021): 282-299 .
AMA Atasoy B. Transhumanism and Sport. IntJSCS. 2021; 9(2): 282-299.
Vancouver Atasoy B. Transhumanism and Sport. International Journal of Sport Culture and Science. 2021; 9(2): 282-299.
IEEE B. Atasoy , "Transhumanism and Sport", International Journal of Sport Culture and Science, c. 9, sayı. 2, ss. 282-299, Tem. 2021
IntJSCS is published by International Science Culture and Sport Association (ISCSA).