Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 23, Sayfalar 135 - 158 2021-01-08

Sardes: History, Architecture and Urbanization
Sardes: Tarih, Mimarlık ve Şehircilik

Fikret K. YEGÜL [1]


Sardis is located on the northern foothills of Tmolos Mountains in western Anatolia. It was the capital of the Lydian Kingdom until its defeat by the Persians in 547 BCE. The city became the western capital of the Seleucid Empire in 280 BCE. The Lydian city featured massive fortifications with terraced structures. Hellenistic and Roman Sardis followed the organic planning principles of its predecessor, never adopting the grid plan. The foremost monument of the ancient city is the Temple of Artemis, the largest pseudodipteros of the ancient world, started under the Seleucids (ca. 280-260 BCE) and completed under Hadrian.

Tarih boyunca ve değişik idareler altında, Sardes’i asırlar boyu, Asya/Anadolu’nun ortak kültür ve ortak-lisanlı bütününün (Anadolu koine’si) diğer kentleri arasında değişik ve benzersiz yapan nedir? Sardes’i antik Anadolu kentleri içinde hangi özelliği ile adlandırırız ve hatırlarız? Hangi özelliği ile Seleukos kralları, kraliçeleri, İran satrapları ve derebeyleri ve Roma imparatorlarının nezdinde kabul ve belki sevgi görmüştür? Bu soruların cevabı, kentin muhteşem surları, mermer caddeleri, yılan başlı çeşmeleri, akropolünün dik yamaçlarından uçar gibi yükselen terasları ve sarayları, hatta Artemis’i ve Kybebe’si için yapılan görkemli tapınaklarının somut yapılarında değil, onların canlandırdığı soyut dünyada ve Sardes’in insanlarının düşlerinde ve düşüncelerindedir. Nesiller boyu hayallerdeki “Altın Sardes” Lidya imparatorluğunun ve Kral Kroisos’un başkenti olarak yarattığı tarihi ve mitolojik çekiciliğini hiç kaybetmemiştir. Defalarca Sardes’in ve Sardes’linin romantik geçmişi şiir ve şarkıda yaşadı ve “kentin çiçeklerle kaplı Tmolos’un gölgesindeki yeri … tüm Lidya’nın ve Asya’nın metropolisi” olarak gerçekte olmasa bile hayal ve hatıralarda kaldı.
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Birincil Dil tr
Konular Arkeoloji, Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası, Tarih
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Fikret K. YEGÜL (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: University of California
Ülke: United States


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 8 Ocak 2021

APA Yegül, F . (2021). Sardes: Tarih, Mimarlık ve Şehircilik . Anadolu Araştırmaları , (23) , 135-158 . DOI: 10.26650/anar.2020.23.820687