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RESTORATIVE GARDEN AS AN USEFUL WAY TO RELIEVE STRESS IN MEGACITIES, A CASE STUDY IN ISTANBUL

Yıl 2016, Cilt 6, Sayı 13, 0 - 0, 31.01.2016

Öz

The stress and disorders of the urban life and the pollutions in the large cities such as Istanbul, have made the social and individual health decrease, and therefore it is necessary that some tact be considered in order to diminish these negative effects. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a relation between restorative gardens in the city and stress. In other words, can restorative gardens surrounding residential homes in cities help to create a less stressful everyday environment? This paper will begin with a cursory overview of a broad concept of stress, health and wellness and proceed to examine in detail Ulrich’s Theory of Restorative Garden Design and its implications for gardens in cities. Research shows that benefits would accrue to society as a whole if these design features were implemented on a wide scale

Kaynakça

  • Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E. Bem, D.J. and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. 1996. Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • Anonymous, 1997. Urban and rural areas 1996-2030. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, United Nations Publication, (ST/ESA/ SER.A/166), Sales, No. E 97.XIII3, http://www.un.org/ esa/population/pubsarchive/ura/urapwld.htm.
  • Antonovsky A., 1996. The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International 11(1): 11–18.
  • Bliss S., 2004, Geography Stage 6 Urban Places Mega Cities Istanbul – Asian And European City, Nsw Manager Global Education Macquarie University.
  • Brannon, L., & Feist, J. 1997. Health psychology (3 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Cervero R. 2002. Transportation Research Part D, 7(4), 265-284.
  • Coley R.L., Kuo F.E., Sullivan W.C. 1997. Environment and Behaviour, 29(4), 468-494.
  • Cohen, U. and G. Weisman, 1991. “Positive Outdoor Spaces” in Holding onto Home: Designing Environments for People with Dementia. (pp. 73-79). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Cohen, S., & Syme, S. L. (Eds.). 1985. Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.
  • Cooper Marcus. C. and M. Barnes. 1999. Healing Gardens. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Dinan, T. 1996. ‘Från stress till depression’ in SERIP, 2.
  • Dumbaugh E. 2005. Journal of American Planning Association, 71(3), 283-300.
  • Erickson, M.S., 2012., Restorative Garden Design: Enhancing wellness through healing spaces, Art and Design Discourse, JAD June 2012, no.2.
  • Emery, C. F., & Blumenthal, J. A. 1991. Effects of physical exercise on psychological and cognitive functioning of older adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 99-107.
  • Gatchel, R. J., Baum, A., & Krantz, D. S. 1989. An introduction to health psychology (2nd ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill.
  • Grahn, P. and Stigsdotter, U.A. 2003. ‘Landscape planning and stress’, in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 2, 1-18.
  • Havnesköld L & Risholm Mothander P.,1995. Utvecklingspsykologi (Developmental psychology) [In Swedish]. Psykodynamisk teori i nya perspektiv. Liber AB, Stockholm.
  • Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis, D.S., Ga¨ rling, T., 2003. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 23, 109–123.
  • Heerwagen, J. 1990. The psychological aspects of windows and window design. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, Oklahoma City.
  • Horsburgh, C. R. 1995. Healing by design. New England Journal of Medicine, 11(333), 735-740.
  • Inceoglu A. and Yürekli I, 2011. Toulouse Urban transformation in Istanbul: potentials for a better city Enhr Conference 2011 – 5-8 July.
  • Jiang,S., 2014. Therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens: A review of Chinese literature in relation to the studies in western countries Frontiers of Architectural Research (2014) 3, 141–153.
  • Kaplan, S. 1995. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrated framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169-182.
  • Kaplan, S. 1990. Parks for the future: A psychological perspective, in G. J. Sorte (ed.) Parks for the Future. Alnarp: Stad & Land, issue 85, pp.4-22.
  • Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S. and R. Ryan. 1998. “Restorative Environments” in With People in Mind. (pp. 67-77). Island Press.
  • Kaplan R, Kaplan S & Ryan RL.1998. With people in mind: Design and management of everyday nature. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Katcher, A., Segal, H., & Beck, A. 1984. Comparison of contemplation and hypnosis for the reduction of anxiety and discomfort during dental surgery. American Journalof Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 14-21.
  • Kellert, S. 2008. Dimensions, elements, and attributes of biophilic design. In S. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen & M. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic design: The theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Klingberg Larson, S. 2001. Stressutlösta utmattningsreaktioner och utbrändhet. Stockholm: Liber. Küller, R. and Lindsten, C. (1992) ‘Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 33-52.
  • Küller R & Lindsten C., 1992. Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows, Journal of Environmental Psychology 12: 33–52.
  • Küller R & Wetterberg L., 1996. The subterranean work environment: Impact on well-being and health. Environment
  • International 22: 33–52
  • Lerner, M. 1996. Choices in healing: Integrating the best of conventional and complementary approaches to cancer: MIT Press.
  • Louv, R. 2005. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
  • Louv, R. 2011. The nature principle: Human restoration and the end of nature-deficit disorder: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
  • Maslach, C. 2001., Utbränd: Om omsorgens personliga pris och hur man kan förebygga utbränning. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.
  • Malkin, J. 1992. Hospital interior architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • McNeil, J. K., LeBlanc, E. M., & Joyner, M. (1991). The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Psychology and Aging, 6, 487-488.
  • Moore E.O. 1982. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 17-34.
  • Municipality of Istanbul, 2013. Sustainable Urban Mobility: The Example of Istanbul, A short Survey, Case studies in sustainable Urban Transport. Division 44, water, Energy, Transpoet.
  • Mutlu S., 2003. Late Ottoman Population And Its Ethnic Distribution Nüfusbilim DergisiTurkish Journal of Population Studies, 25, 3-38 3 .
  • Nicholson D. 2003. Green cities and why we need them, New Economics Foundation, London.
  • Organization, W. H. 1946. Preamble to the constitution of the world health organization. New York.
  • Parsons, R., Tassinary, L.G., Ulrich, R.S., Hebl, M.R., Grossman-Alexander, M., 1998. The view from the road: implications for stress recovery and immunization. Journal of Environmental Psychology 18, 113–140.
  • Pouya S, Demirel O, Düzgüneş E., Dikmen A., Çelik K.T. 2015. "Healing Garden", Poster presentation, 52nd World Congress International Federation Of Landscape Architects, Russia 2015.
  • Pouya, S. and Şafak, P. "Sensory Garden", 24 Ulusal Özel Eğitim Kongresi, 15-17 eylül, 2014.
  • Pouya S., Demirel Ö, What is a Healing Garden, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi (2015) 28(1): 5-10.
  • Romanucci-Ross L, Moerman DE & Tancredi LR (Eds.) 1997. The anthropology of medicine. From culture to method. Bergin & Garvey, Westport.
  • Salahesh N., Irani Behbahani H.,, Pouya S., Pouya S., 2013. The Principles And Practicalities’ Evaluation Of The Healing Gardens With The Aim Of Increasing The Idea Of Healing In Urban Spaces, The 3th International Conference on Environmental Planning and Management , 29-30 October, 2013, University of Tehran, IRAN (Oral Presentation).
  • Schulz, R. 1976. Effects of control and predictability on the physical and psychological well-being of the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 563-573.
  • Stigsdotter, U.A. & Grahn P. 2004, A Garden at Your Doorstep May Reduce Stress – Private Gardens as Restorative Environments in the City, . Proceedings of the Open Space: People Space Conference, 27-29 October 2004. Edingburg, Scotland, Paper 00015.
  • Stigsdotter, U.A. and Grahn, P. 2002. ‘What makes a garden a healing garden?’, in Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 60-69.
  • Shumaker, S. A., & Czajkowski, S. M. (Eds.). 1994. Social support and cardiovascular disease. New York: Plenum.
  • Social departementet , 2002. Mål för folkhälsan, in Regeringens proposition, 2002/03:35, pp.61.
  • Tuğal C, 2008. The Greening Of Istanbul, Metropolitan Disorders, new left review 51.
  • Ulrich, R. 1992. How design impacts wellness. Healthcare Forum Journal, 20, 20-25.
  • Ulrich, R. 1981. “Natural Versus Urban Scenes: Some Psychophysiological Effects.” Environment and Behavior, 13 (5): 523-553.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1999. Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research, in Cooper Marcus, C. & Barnes, M. (eds.) Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp.27-86.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1984. ‘View through a window may influence recovery from surgery’, in Science, 224, 420-421.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1993, Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes, in Kellert, S.A & Wilson, E.O. (eds.) The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington DC: Island Press/Shearwater, pp.74-137.
  • Ulrich, R.S., 1981. Natural versus urban scenes. Some psychological effects. Environment and Behavior 13, 523–556.
  • Ulrich R.S., Simons R.F., Losito B.D., Fiorito E., Miles M.A. and Zelson M. 1991, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.
  • Uslu A., Kiper T. & Baris M.E. 2009, Public Health—Urban Landscaping Relationship and user's Perceptions, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 23:3, 1399-1408, DOI: .1080/13102818.2009.1081767.
  • Weiss, C. S., Pato, C. S., McAllister, G., Littman, R., Brier, A., Paul, S. M., et al. 1990. Differential effects of controllable and uncontrollable acute stress on lymphocyte proliferation and leukocyte percentages in humans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 4, 339-351.
  • Waxman, H. M., Carner, E. A., & Berkenstock, G. 1984. Job turnover and job satisfaction among nursing home aides. The Gerontologist, 24, 503-509.

Yıl 2016, Cilt 6, Sayı 13, 0 - 0, 31.01.2016

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E. Bem, D.J. and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. 1996. Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • Anonymous, 1997. Urban and rural areas 1996-2030. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, United Nations Publication, (ST/ESA/ SER.A/166), Sales, No. E 97.XIII3, http://www.un.org/ esa/population/pubsarchive/ura/urapwld.htm.
  • Antonovsky A., 1996. The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International 11(1): 11–18.
  • Bliss S., 2004, Geography Stage 6 Urban Places Mega Cities Istanbul – Asian And European City, Nsw Manager Global Education Macquarie University.
  • Brannon, L., & Feist, J. 1997. Health psychology (3 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Cervero R. 2002. Transportation Research Part D, 7(4), 265-284.
  • Coley R.L., Kuo F.E., Sullivan W.C. 1997. Environment and Behaviour, 29(4), 468-494.
  • Cohen, U. and G. Weisman, 1991. “Positive Outdoor Spaces” in Holding onto Home: Designing Environments for People with Dementia. (pp. 73-79). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Cohen, S., & Syme, S. L. (Eds.). 1985. Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.
  • Cooper Marcus. C. and M. Barnes. 1999. Healing Gardens. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Dinan, T. 1996. ‘Från stress till depression’ in SERIP, 2.
  • Dumbaugh E. 2005. Journal of American Planning Association, 71(3), 283-300.
  • Erickson, M.S., 2012., Restorative Garden Design: Enhancing wellness through healing spaces, Art and Design Discourse, JAD June 2012, no.2.
  • Emery, C. F., & Blumenthal, J. A. 1991. Effects of physical exercise on psychological and cognitive functioning of older adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 99-107.
  • Gatchel, R. J., Baum, A., & Krantz, D. S. 1989. An introduction to health psychology (2nd ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill.
  • Grahn, P. and Stigsdotter, U.A. 2003. ‘Landscape planning and stress’, in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 2, 1-18.
  • Havnesköld L & Risholm Mothander P.,1995. Utvecklingspsykologi (Developmental psychology) [In Swedish]. Psykodynamisk teori i nya perspektiv. Liber AB, Stockholm.
  • Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis, D.S., Ga¨ rling, T., 2003. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 23, 109–123.
  • Heerwagen, J. 1990. The psychological aspects of windows and window design. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, Oklahoma City.
  • Horsburgh, C. R. 1995. Healing by design. New England Journal of Medicine, 11(333), 735-740.
  • Inceoglu A. and Yürekli I, 2011. Toulouse Urban transformation in Istanbul: potentials for a better city Enhr Conference 2011 – 5-8 July.
  • Jiang,S., 2014. Therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens: A review of Chinese literature in relation to the studies in western countries Frontiers of Architectural Research (2014) 3, 141–153.
  • Kaplan, S. 1995. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrated framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169-182.
  • Kaplan, S. 1990. Parks for the future: A psychological perspective, in G. J. Sorte (ed.) Parks for the Future. Alnarp: Stad & Land, issue 85, pp.4-22.
  • Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S. and R. Ryan. 1998. “Restorative Environments” in With People in Mind. (pp. 67-77). Island Press.
  • Kaplan R, Kaplan S & Ryan RL.1998. With people in mind: Design and management of everyday nature. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Katcher, A., Segal, H., & Beck, A. 1984. Comparison of contemplation and hypnosis for the reduction of anxiety and discomfort during dental surgery. American Journalof Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 14-21.
  • Kellert, S. 2008. Dimensions, elements, and attributes of biophilic design. In S. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen & M. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic design: The theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Klingberg Larson, S. 2001. Stressutlösta utmattningsreaktioner och utbrändhet. Stockholm: Liber. Küller, R. and Lindsten, C. (1992) ‘Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 33-52.
  • Küller R & Lindsten C., 1992. Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows, Journal of Environmental Psychology 12: 33–52.
  • Küller R & Wetterberg L., 1996. The subterranean work environment: Impact on well-being and health. Environment
  • International 22: 33–52
  • Lerner, M. 1996. Choices in healing: Integrating the best of conventional and complementary approaches to cancer: MIT Press.
  • Louv, R. 2005. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
  • Louv, R. 2011. The nature principle: Human restoration and the end of nature-deficit disorder: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
  • Maslach, C. 2001., Utbränd: Om omsorgens personliga pris och hur man kan förebygga utbränning. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.
  • Malkin, J. 1992. Hospital interior architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • McNeil, J. K., LeBlanc, E. M., & Joyner, M. (1991). The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Psychology and Aging, 6, 487-488.
  • Moore E.O. 1982. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 17-34.
  • Municipality of Istanbul, 2013. Sustainable Urban Mobility: The Example of Istanbul, A short Survey, Case studies in sustainable Urban Transport. Division 44, water, Energy, Transpoet.
  • Mutlu S., 2003. Late Ottoman Population And Its Ethnic Distribution Nüfusbilim DergisiTurkish Journal of Population Studies, 25, 3-38 3 .
  • Nicholson D. 2003. Green cities and why we need them, New Economics Foundation, London.
  • Organization, W. H. 1946. Preamble to the constitution of the world health organization. New York.
  • Parsons, R., Tassinary, L.G., Ulrich, R.S., Hebl, M.R., Grossman-Alexander, M., 1998. The view from the road: implications for stress recovery and immunization. Journal of Environmental Psychology 18, 113–140.
  • Pouya S, Demirel O, Düzgüneş E., Dikmen A., Çelik K.T. 2015. "Healing Garden", Poster presentation, 52nd World Congress International Federation Of Landscape Architects, Russia 2015.
  • Pouya, S. and Şafak, P. "Sensory Garden", 24 Ulusal Özel Eğitim Kongresi, 15-17 eylül, 2014.
  • Pouya S., Demirel Ö, What is a Healing Garden, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi (2015) 28(1): 5-10.
  • Romanucci-Ross L, Moerman DE & Tancredi LR (Eds.) 1997. The anthropology of medicine. From culture to method. Bergin & Garvey, Westport.
  • Salahesh N., Irani Behbahani H.,, Pouya S., Pouya S., 2013. The Principles And Practicalities’ Evaluation Of The Healing Gardens With The Aim Of Increasing The Idea Of Healing In Urban Spaces, The 3th International Conference on Environmental Planning and Management , 29-30 October, 2013, University of Tehran, IRAN (Oral Presentation).
  • Schulz, R. 1976. Effects of control and predictability on the physical and psychological well-being of the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 563-573.
  • Stigsdotter, U.A. & Grahn P. 2004, A Garden at Your Doorstep May Reduce Stress – Private Gardens as Restorative Environments in the City, . Proceedings of the Open Space: People Space Conference, 27-29 October 2004. Edingburg, Scotland, Paper 00015.
  • Stigsdotter, U.A. and Grahn, P. 2002. ‘What makes a garden a healing garden?’, in Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 60-69.
  • Shumaker, S. A., & Czajkowski, S. M. (Eds.). 1994. Social support and cardiovascular disease. New York: Plenum.
  • Social departementet , 2002. Mål för folkhälsan, in Regeringens proposition, 2002/03:35, pp.61.
  • Tuğal C, 2008. The Greening Of Istanbul, Metropolitan Disorders, new left review 51.
  • Ulrich, R. 1992. How design impacts wellness. Healthcare Forum Journal, 20, 20-25.
  • Ulrich, R. 1981. “Natural Versus Urban Scenes: Some Psychophysiological Effects.” Environment and Behavior, 13 (5): 523-553.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1999. Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research, in Cooper Marcus, C. & Barnes, M. (eds.) Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp.27-86.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1984. ‘View through a window may influence recovery from surgery’, in Science, 224, 420-421.
  • Ulrich, R.S. 1993, Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes, in Kellert, S.A & Wilson, E.O. (eds.) The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington DC: Island Press/Shearwater, pp.74-137.
  • Ulrich, R.S., 1981. Natural versus urban scenes. Some psychological effects. Environment and Behavior 13, 523–556.
  • Ulrich R.S., Simons R.F., Losito B.D., Fiorito E., Miles M.A. and Zelson M. 1991, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.
  • Uslu A., Kiper T. & Baris M.E. 2009, Public Health—Urban Landscaping Relationship and user's Perceptions, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 23:3, 1399-1408, DOI: .1080/13102818.2009.1081767.
  • Weiss, C. S., Pato, C. S., McAllister, G., Littman, R., Brier, A., Paul, S. M., et al. 1990. Differential effects of controllable and uncontrollable acute stress on lymphocyte proliferation and leukocyte percentages in humans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 4, 339-351.
  • Waxman, H. M., Carner, E. A., & Berkenstock, G. 1984. Job turnover and job satisfaction among nursing home aides. The Gerontologist, 24, 503-509.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Derleme / Compilation
Yazarlar

Sima POUYA Bu kişi benim


Elif Bayramoğlu


Öner DEMİREL Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 31 Mayıs 2016
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 6, Sayı 13

Kaynak Göster

APA Pouya, S. , Bayramoğlu, E. & Demirel, Ö. (2016). RESTORATIVE GARDEN AS AN USEFUL WAY TO RELIEVE STRESS IN MEGACITIES, A CASE STUDY IN ISTANBUL . İnönü Üniversitesi Sanat ve Tasarım Dergisi , 6 (13) , 0-0 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iujad/issue/45229/566491