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An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 69, 113 - 134, 01.06.2019

Öz

The British occupation of Egypt in 1882
meant a breakaway from the Anglo-French entente’s control over Ottoman
financial system and the end of the Liberal Government’s ‘reluctant’
imperialism. When the Liberal ministry began in 1880, the cabinet immediately
focused on foreign policies towards the Ottoman Empire subsequent to
Gladstone’s campaign during the Bulgarian Agitation which had already turned
out to be a party question. The protection of the Suez Canal as well as the
interests of the British bondholders and the prestige of the British Empire was
vital, which united the Liberal ministry and the Conservatives under the same
purpose.  Despite late Ottoman approval,
the occupation signified the edge of Anglo-Ottoman alliance during the nineteenth
century. This study will analyse why the Egyptian question is important for
British party politics and to what extend the Anglo-Ottoman relations was
affected with these circumstances.  

Cite this article as: Yıldızeli, Begüm, “An
Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of Vıictorian
Party Politics”, Turk J Hist, issue 69 (2019), p.113-134.

Kaynakça

  • ‘Alexandria’s Bombardment and Burning’ by Thomas Nast, ‘Harper’s Weekly’, 22 July 1882. ‘The Lion’s just share’, by John Tenniel, Punch, 30 September 1882, Anick, Norman.‘The Embassy of Lord Ponsonby to Constantinople 1833-1841’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Canada: Montreal University, 1970. Ata, Ramazan.‘Osmanli kaynaklarina gore 1839-1841 arasi Osmanli-Misir iliskileri ve Duvel-i Muvazzama’, 1839-1841 Ottoman Empire and Egypt Affairs and Great Powers under the Light of Ottomans’ Sources’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Ankara: Ankara University, 2011. Atkins, Richard.‘The Origins of the Anglo-French Condonium in Egypt, 1875-1876’, The Historian, pp. 264-282, 1964. Biagini, E., ‘Exporting ‘Western & Beneficent Institutions’: Gladstone and Empire, 1880-1885’ in Bebbington, David and Swift, Roger (eds.). Gladstone Centenary Essays, Liverpool University Press, 2000. Birmingham Daily Post Blake, Robert. Disraeli, London: Eyre & Spotswood, 1966. Blunt, Wilfred S. A Secret History of the British Occupation of Egypt, London, 1907. Colak, Kamil. ‘Misir’in Fransizlar tarafinda isgali ve tahliyesi’, SAU Fen-Edebiyat Dergisi, II pp. 141-183, 2008. Dennis, Alfred L. P. ‘Tendencies in British policy since Disraeli’, Proceedings of the American Political Science Association, Vol. 6, Sixth Annual Meeting , pp. 109-120, 1909. Eldridge, C.C. The Imperial Idea in the Age of Gladstone and Disraeli 1868-1880, London: Macmillan, 1973. Galbraith, John S. and Sayyid-Marsot, Ataf L. al ‘The British Occupation of Egypt, Another View’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 9 No. 4, (November, 1978), pp. 471-488. Hansard Parliamentary Debates Hobson, John A. Imperialism: A study, London: James Nisbet & Co. Limited, 1902. Hopkins, A. G. ‘The Victorians and Africa: A reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882’, Journal of African History, 27, 1986, pp. 363-391 Ingram, Edward, Eastern Questions in the Nineteenth Century collected essays by Allan Cunningham, vol. II, Great Britain: Frank Cass Co. Lmtd. Publishers, 1993. Kocaoglu, Mehmet.‘Cavallan Mehmet Ali Pasha 1831-1841’, Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi, 1994, pp. 209-226. Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Life of Right Honourable, Viscount Stratford De Redcliffe, Vol II., London: Longmans & Green and co., 1888. Matthew, Colin H. G. Gladstone 1875-1898, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Matthew, H. C. G., (ed.) The Gladstone Diaries, vol. X, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Milner, Alfred. England in Egypt, London: 5th ed., 1888. Newman, Polson E. W. Great Britain in Egypt, London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1928. Osmanli Belgelerinde Misir (T.C Basbakanlik Genel Mudurlugu, Osmanli Arsivleri Daire Baskanligi, Yayin nu: 120, 2012. Polson E. W., Newman. Great Britain in Egypt, London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1928. Ramm, Agatha (ed.) The Political Correspondence of Mr. Gladstone and Lord Granville 1868–1876, Volume I, Camden Third Series ,London: Royal Historical Society, 1952. Ramm, Agatha (ed.) The political correspondence of Mr. Gladstone and Lord Granville 1876-1886, Volume I, 1876-82, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962. Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John. Africa and the Victorians the Official Mind of Imperialism, London: Macmillan& Co. Lmtd., 1965. Scholch, Alexander,‘The ‘Men on the Spot’ and the English Occupation of Egypt in 1882’, The Historical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3, September 1976, pp. 773-785. Seton Watson, R. W. Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question: A Study in Diplomacy and Party Politics, London: Macmillan, 1935. The Daily News The Derby Mercury The Essex Standard, The Huddersfield Daily Chronicle The Pall Mall Gazette The Times Tollepson, Harold. Policing Islam, The British Occupation of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Struggle over Control of the Police 1882-1914, London: Greenwood Press, 1951. Yasamee, Feroze A. K. Ottoman Diplomacy: Abdulhamid II and the Great Powers, Istanbul: Isis Press, 1996. Zeytinli, Emine ‘The Effect of Trade Agreements: the case of international trade of Europe and Turkey’, Economics and Management, 2012, pp. 1627-1636

Viktorya Dönemi Parti Siyaseti Perspektifinden İngilizler’in Mısır’ı İşgali (1882) Üzerine Bir Analiz

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 69, 113 - 134, 01.06.2019

Öz

1882 yılında İngilizler ’in Mısır’ı işgali
gerek İngiliz Hükümeti’nin ‘gönülsüz’ emperyalizminin gerekse de Osmanlı
ekonomisindeki İngiliz -Fransız kontrolünün sonu anlamına gelmekteydi. 1880
yılında Liberal parti göreve baslar başlamaz, William E. Gladstone’un 1876
yılında gerçekleştirdiği Bulgar Ajitasyonu kampanyasının bir devamı olan ve
parti siyasetinde ana gündem maddesini oluşturmuş Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na
yönelik dış politikaya ağırlık vermişlerdi. Süveyş Kanalı’nın korunması,
İngiliz tahvil sahiplerinin çıkarları ve İngiliz İmparatorluğu’nun prestiji bu
açıdan Liberal ve Muhafazakârları ayni amaçta birleştirmişti. Osmanlı’nın geç
onayıyla, 19. yüzyıl boyunca suren Osmanlı-İngiliz İşbirliği’nde işgal köşe
taşlarından biri olmuştur. Bu çalışma, Mısır Sorunu’nun İngiliz parti
politikasında önemi ve Osmanlı-İngiliz ilişkilerini bu şartlar altında ne
derecede etkilediğini analiz edecektir.  

Cite this article as: Yıldızeli, Begüm, “An
Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of Vıictorian
Party Politics”, Turk J Hist, issue 69 (2019), p.113-134.

Kaynakça

  • ‘Alexandria’s Bombardment and Burning’ by Thomas Nast, ‘Harper’s Weekly’, 22 July 1882. ‘The Lion’s just share’, by John Tenniel, Punch, 30 September 1882, Anick, Norman.‘The Embassy of Lord Ponsonby to Constantinople 1833-1841’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Canada: Montreal University, 1970. Ata, Ramazan.‘Osmanli kaynaklarina gore 1839-1841 arasi Osmanli-Misir iliskileri ve Duvel-i Muvazzama’, 1839-1841 Ottoman Empire and Egypt Affairs and Great Powers under the Light of Ottomans’ Sources’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Ankara: Ankara University, 2011. Atkins, Richard.‘The Origins of the Anglo-French Condonium in Egypt, 1875-1876’, The Historian, pp. 264-282, 1964. Biagini, E., ‘Exporting ‘Western & Beneficent Institutions’: Gladstone and Empire, 1880-1885’ in Bebbington, David and Swift, Roger (eds.). Gladstone Centenary Essays, Liverpool University Press, 2000. Birmingham Daily Post Blake, Robert. Disraeli, London: Eyre & Spotswood, 1966. Blunt, Wilfred S. A Secret History of the British Occupation of Egypt, London, 1907. Colak, Kamil. ‘Misir’in Fransizlar tarafinda isgali ve tahliyesi’, SAU Fen-Edebiyat Dergisi, II pp. 141-183, 2008. Dennis, Alfred L. P. ‘Tendencies in British policy since Disraeli’, Proceedings of the American Political Science Association, Vol. 6, Sixth Annual Meeting , pp. 109-120, 1909. Eldridge, C.C. The Imperial Idea in the Age of Gladstone and Disraeli 1868-1880, London: Macmillan, 1973. Galbraith, John S. and Sayyid-Marsot, Ataf L. al ‘The British Occupation of Egypt, Another View’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 9 No. 4, (November, 1978), pp. 471-488. Hansard Parliamentary Debates Hobson, John A. Imperialism: A study, London: James Nisbet & Co. Limited, 1902. Hopkins, A. G. ‘The Victorians and Africa: A reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882’, Journal of African History, 27, 1986, pp. 363-391 Ingram, Edward, Eastern Questions in the Nineteenth Century collected essays by Allan Cunningham, vol. II, Great Britain: Frank Cass Co. Lmtd. Publishers, 1993. Kocaoglu, Mehmet.‘Cavallan Mehmet Ali Pasha 1831-1841’, Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi, 1994, pp. 209-226. Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Life of Right Honourable, Viscount Stratford De Redcliffe, Vol II., London: Longmans & Green and co., 1888. Matthew, Colin H. G. Gladstone 1875-1898, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Matthew, H. C. G., (ed.) The Gladstone Diaries, vol. X, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Milner, Alfred. England in Egypt, London: 5th ed., 1888. Newman, Polson E. W. Great Britain in Egypt, London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1928. Osmanli Belgelerinde Misir (T.C Basbakanlik Genel Mudurlugu, Osmanli Arsivleri Daire Baskanligi, Yayin nu: 120, 2012. Polson E. W., Newman. Great Britain in Egypt, London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1928. Ramm, Agatha (ed.) The Political Correspondence of Mr. Gladstone and Lord Granville 1868–1876, Volume I, Camden Third Series ,London: Royal Historical Society, 1952. Ramm, Agatha (ed.) The political correspondence of Mr. Gladstone and Lord Granville 1876-1886, Volume I, 1876-82, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962. Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John. Africa and the Victorians the Official Mind of Imperialism, London: Macmillan& Co. Lmtd., 1965. Scholch, Alexander,‘The ‘Men on the Spot’ and the English Occupation of Egypt in 1882’, The Historical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 3, September 1976, pp. 773-785. Seton Watson, R. W. Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question: A Study in Diplomacy and Party Politics, London: Macmillan, 1935. The Daily News The Derby Mercury The Essex Standard, The Huddersfield Daily Chronicle The Pall Mall Gazette The Times Tollepson, Harold. Policing Islam, The British Occupation of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Struggle over Control of the Police 1882-1914, London: Greenwood Press, 1951. Yasamee, Feroze A. K. Ottoman Diplomacy: Abdulhamid II and the Great Powers, Istanbul: Isis Press, 1996. Zeytinli, Emine ‘The Effect of Trade Agreements: the case of international trade of Europe and Turkey’, Economics and Management, 2012, pp. 1627-1636

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Begüm YILDIZELİ Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Sayı: 69

Kaynak Göster

APA YILDIZELİ, B. (2019). An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics. Tarih Dergisi(69), 113-134.
AMA YILDIZELİ B. An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics. Tarih Dergisi. Haziran 2019;(69):113-134.
Chicago YILDIZELİ, Begüm. “An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69 (Haziran 2019): 113-34.
EndNote YILDIZELİ B (01 Haziran 2019) An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics. Tarih Dergisi 69 113–134.
IEEE B. YILDIZELİ, “An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics”, Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69, ss. 113–134, Haziran 2019.
ISNAD YILDIZELİ, Begüm. “An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics”. Tarih Dergisi 69 (Haziran 2019), 113-134.
JAMA YILDIZELİ B. An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics. Tarih Dergisi. 2019;:113–134.
MLA YILDIZELİ, Begüm. “An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69, 2019, ss. 113-34.
Vancouver YILDIZELİ B. An Analysis of The British Invasion of Egypt (1882) Through the Lens of VICTORIAN Party Politics. Tarih Dergisi. 2019(69):113-34.