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FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 69, 169 - 194, 01.06.2019

Öz

The early 20th century witnessed the
ideological triumph of Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism in the Middle East with
the cultural and literary renaissance that rose in the region leading to a
collective consciousness as to the Arab identity among Arab intellectuals. It
was the Arab nation-identity rather than the individual Arab states’ identity
that shaped the political discourse of the then-Arab regimes. In addition, the
political juncture with the advent of anti-colonial movements in the region
following the Second World War set the stage for the radicalization trend of
the military regimes which aimed to unify Arab nations under one state and
carry out sweeping economic programs of modernization and centralization. On
the other hand, the defeat in the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 was a defining
historic moment in the reconfiguration of Arab politics in the Middle East.
Since the war, Arab states moved into a post-nationalist stage in which strict
ideological control and authoritarian policies were replaced with a set of
limited political and economic openings and the Arab-Israeli treaty. This
article investigates the birth and rise of the Arab nationalist movement along
with the ideological origins of the radicalization trend of the ruling regimes
in the Middle East. The article suggests that pan-Arabism, Arab socialism and
anti-imperialism gained momentum in the 1950s and 1960s with a number of
political developments under Egypt’s President Abd-al Nasser. Nevertheless, the
eventual decline of the radical regimes was witnessed with the 1967 Arab defeat
that inflicted a mortal blow to the Arab nationalist movement. From 1967
onwards, the regimes lost both their capability and aspirations to realize Arab
nationalist goals and in this era, state nationalism came to the forefront.

Cite this article as: Erdoğan, Ayfer, “From
the Free Officers Coup to the Arab-Israeli War of 1967: The Rise and Demise of
the Radicalization Trend in The Middle East”, Turk J Hist, issue 69 (2019),
p.169-194.

Kaynakça

  • Askari, Hossesin, John Thomas Cummings, James Toth. “Land Reform in the Middle East: A Note on Its Distributive Effects.” Iranian Studies 10, No. 4 (Autumn 1977): 267-79. Barnett, Michael N. Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order. Bognor Regis: Colombia University Press, 1998. Choueiri, Youssef M. A Companion to the History of the Middle East. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Choueiri, Youssef M. Arab Nationalism- A History: Nation and State in the Arab World. New Jersey: Wiley Blackwell, 2000. CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, “Soviet Policy and the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.” (Reference Title: Caesar XXXVIII) March 16, 1970 (declassified June 2007). Accessed December 7, 2018, https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/caesar-50.pdf Cleveland, William L., Martin P. Bunton, A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. Cook, Steven A. The Struggle for Egypt. From Nasser to Tahrir Square. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Dawisha, Adeed. “Requem for Arab Nationalism.” Middle East Political Quarterly 10, no. 1 (Winter 2003): 25-41. Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003. Devlin, John. “The Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis.” The American Historical Review 96, no. 5 (1991): 1396- 1407. Devlin, John. The Ba’th Party: A History from its Origins to 1966. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute Press, 1975. Golan, Galia. Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War II to Gorbachev. Cambridge: Cambridge Russian Paperbacks, 1990. Haddad, Mahmoud. “The Rise of Arab Nationalism Reconsidered.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 26, no. 2 (1994): 201-222. Haim, Sylvia. Arab Nationalism: An Antology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962. Hinnebusch, Raymond. “Authoritarian Persistence, democratization theory and the Middle East: An Overview and Critique.” Democratization 13, no. 3 (June 2006): 373-395. Kienle, Eberhard. “Arab Unity Schemes Revisited: Interest, Identity, and Policy in Syria and Egypt”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 27, no. 1 (February 1995): 53-71. Laron, Guy. ‘‘The Cold War and the Middle East, Playing with fire: The Soviet- Syrian- Israeli Triangle, 1965- 1967.’’ Cold War History 10, no. 2 (2010): 163-184. Lenczowski, George. ‘‘Radical Regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Iraq: Comparative Observations on Ideologies and Practises.’’ The Journal of Politics 28, no. 1 (1966): 29-56. Lenczowski, George. Soviet Advances in the Middle East. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971. Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. UK: Oxford University Press, 1968. Osman, Tarek. Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to the Muslim Brotherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010. Nasr, Salah. Mozakerat Salah Nasr (Memories of Salah Nasr), Vol. 3. Cairo: Dar Al-Khayal, 1999. Pfaff, R. H. “The Function of Arab Nationalism.” Comparative Politics 2, no: 2 (1970): 147- 167. Sorby, Karol. “Arab Nationalism After the Young Turk Revolution (1908-1912).” Asian and African Studies 14, no. 1 (2005): 4-21. Sorby, Karol. “The Separatist Period in Syria, 1961-1963.” Asian and African Studies 18, no. 2 (2009): 145-168. Tauber, Eliezer. The Emergence of the Arab Movements. London: Frank Cass, 1993. United Arab Republic. “Draft of the National Charter Presented by President Gamal Abdel Nasser at the Inaugural Session of the National Congress of Popular Powers on 21st May, 1962.” Cairo: Information Department, 1962. William Roe Polk, Understanding Iraq. London: I.B. Tauris, 2005.

HÜR SUBAYLAR DARBESİNDEN 1967 ARAP-İSRAİL SAVAŞINA: ORTA DOĞU'DA RADİKALLEŞME EĞİLİMİNİN YÜKSELİŞİ VE ÇÖKÜŞÜ

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 69, 169 - 194, 01.06.2019

Öz

20. yüzyılın başı bölgede yükselen kültürel
ve edebi rönesansın Arap entellektüelleri arasında Arap kimliğine dair kolektif
bir bilinci ortaya çıkarmasıyla birlikte Orta Doğu Arab milliyetçiliği ve
pan-Arabizmin ideolojik zaferine sahne olmuştur. Münferit Arap devletlerinin
kimliklerinden ziyade Arab ulusu kimliği o dönemdeki Arap rejimlerinin siyasi
söylemlerine şekil vermiştir. Bunun yanısıra, İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası
bölgede koloni karşıtı hareketlerin yükselişi ile ortaya çıkan siyasi
konjonktür, Arap milletlerini tek bir devlet altında birleştirmeyi ve modernleşme
ve merkezileştirmeye yönelik ekonomik programları hayata geçirmeyi hedefleyen
askeri rejimlerin radikalleşme eğilimleri için zemin hazırlamıştır. Diğer
yandan, 1967 Arap-İsrail savaşı Orta Doğu’da Arap siyasetinin yeniden
şekillenmesinde belirleyici tarihsel bir dönüm noktası olmuştur, çünkü bu
savaştan sonra Arap ülkeleri, katı bir ideolojik kontrolün ve otoriter
politikaların yerini bir dizi sınırlı siyasi ve ekonomik açılımın ve İsrail’le
müzakere ve anlaşmaların aldığı yeni bir döneme geçmiştir. Bu makale Arap
milliyetçiliğinin doğuşu, yükselişi ve Orta Doğu’da hüküm süren rejimlerin
radikalleşme eğiliminin ideolojik temellerini incelemektedir. Makaleye göre,
Pan-Arabizm, Arap sosyalizmi ve emperyalizm karşıtlığı Mısır Cumhurbaşkanı
Abdülnasır döneminde bir dizi siyasi gelişme ile birlikte ivme kazanmıştır.
Diğer yandan, radikal rejimlerin nihai çöküşü Arap milliyetçiliği hareketine
ölümcül bir darbe vuran 1967 savaşında Araplar’ın yenilgisi ile
gerçekleşmiştir. 1967’yi takip eden süreçte, bu rejimler Arab milliyetçiliği
hedeflerini gerçekleştirmek için yeterliliklerini ve isteklerini
kaybetmişlerdir ve bu dönemde devlet milliyetçiliği öne çıkmıştır.

Cite this article as: Erdoğan, Ayfer, “From
the Free Officers Coup to the Arab-Israeli War of 1967: The Rise and Demise of
the Radicalization Trend in The Middle East”, Turk J Hist, issue 69 (2019),
p.169-194.

Kaynakça

  • Askari, Hossesin, John Thomas Cummings, James Toth. “Land Reform in the Middle East: A Note on Its Distributive Effects.” Iranian Studies 10, No. 4 (Autumn 1977): 267-79. Barnett, Michael N. Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order. Bognor Regis: Colombia University Press, 1998. Choueiri, Youssef M. A Companion to the History of the Middle East. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Choueiri, Youssef M. Arab Nationalism- A History: Nation and State in the Arab World. New Jersey: Wiley Blackwell, 2000. CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, “Soviet Policy and the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.” (Reference Title: Caesar XXXVIII) March 16, 1970 (declassified June 2007). Accessed December 7, 2018, https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/caesar-50.pdf Cleveland, William L., Martin P. Bunton, A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. Cook, Steven A. The Struggle for Egypt. From Nasser to Tahrir Square. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Dawisha, Adeed. “Requem for Arab Nationalism.” Middle East Political Quarterly 10, no. 1 (Winter 2003): 25-41. Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003. Devlin, John. “The Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis.” The American Historical Review 96, no. 5 (1991): 1396- 1407. Devlin, John. The Ba’th Party: A History from its Origins to 1966. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute Press, 1975. Golan, Galia. Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War II to Gorbachev. Cambridge: Cambridge Russian Paperbacks, 1990. Haddad, Mahmoud. “The Rise of Arab Nationalism Reconsidered.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 26, no. 2 (1994): 201-222. Haim, Sylvia. Arab Nationalism: An Antology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962. Hinnebusch, Raymond. “Authoritarian Persistence, democratization theory and the Middle East: An Overview and Critique.” Democratization 13, no. 3 (June 2006): 373-395. Kienle, Eberhard. “Arab Unity Schemes Revisited: Interest, Identity, and Policy in Syria and Egypt”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 27, no. 1 (February 1995): 53-71. Laron, Guy. ‘‘The Cold War and the Middle East, Playing with fire: The Soviet- Syrian- Israeli Triangle, 1965- 1967.’’ Cold War History 10, no. 2 (2010): 163-184. Lenczowski, George. ‘‘Radical Regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Iraq: Comparative Observations on Ideologies and Practises.’’ The Journal of Politics 28, no. 1 (1966): 29-56. Lenczowski, George. Soviet Advances in the Middle East. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971. Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. UK: Oxford University Press, 1968. Osman, Tarek. Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to the Muslim Brotherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010. Nasr, Salah. Mozakerat Salah Nasr (Memories of Salah Nasr), Vol. 3. Cairo: Dar Al-Khayal, 1999. Pfaff, R. H. “The Function of Arab Nationalism.” Comparative Politics 2, no: 2 (1970): 147- 167. Sorby, Karol. “Arab Nationalism After the Young Turk Revolution (1908-1912).” Asian and African Studies 14, no. 1 (2005): 4-21. Sorby, Karol. “The Separatist Period in Syria, 1961-1963.” Asian and African Studies 18, no. 2 (2009): 145-168. Tauber, Eliezer. The Emergence of the Arab Movements. London: Frank Cass, 1993. United Arab Republic. “Draft of the National Charter Presented by President Gamal Abdel Nasser at the Inaugural Session of the National Congress of Popular Powers on 21st May, 1962.” Cairo: Information Department, 1962. William Roe Polk, Understanding Iraq. London: I.B. Tauris, 2005.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ayfer ERDOĞAN Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Sayı: 69

Kaynak Göster

APA ERDOĞAN, A. (2019). FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Tarih Dergisi(69), 169-194.
AMA ERDOĞAN A. FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Tarih Dergisi. Haziran 2019;(69):169-194.
Chicago ERDOĞAN, Ayfer. “FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69 (Haziran 2019): 169-94.
EndNote ERDOĞAN A (01 Haziran 2019) FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Tarih Dergisi 69 169–194.
IEEE A. ERDOĞAN, “FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST”, Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69, ss. 169–194, Haziran 2019.
ISNAD ERDOĞAN, Ayfer. “FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST”. Tarih Dergisi 69 (Haziran 2019), 169-194.
JAMA ERDOĞAN A. FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Tarih Dergisi. 2019;:169–194.
MLA ERDOĞAN, Ayfer. “FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 69, 2019, ss. 169-94.
Vancouver ERDOĞAN A. FROM THE FREE OFFICERS COUP TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI WAR OF 1967: THE RISE AND DEMISE OF THE RADICALIZATION TREND IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Tarih Dergisi. 2019(69):169-94.