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Oryantalizme Yeniden Yön Vermek: Osmanlı Tarihyazımı ve On Yedinci Yüzyıl Fransız Seyahatnamelerinin Tasvirleri

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 73, 53 - 76, 15.02.2021
https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.756501

Öz

Oryantalizme dair çağdaş söylem erken modern Avrupalı seyyahları lekelemiş ve bu yüzden birçok bilim insanı Osmanlı tarihinin tutarlı kaynakları olarak kendilerini göz ardı etmiştir. Bununla birlikte, daha yakından incelendiğinde, söz konusu çalışmalara yönelik yanlı tutumun, eserlerin kendisinden ziyade bunları yanlış yorumlamış ve manipüle etmiş 19 ve 20. yüzyıl bilim insanlarından kaynaklandığı görülür. Bu çalışma sonraki bilimsel çalışmaların Osmanlı İmparatorluğu üzerine kaleme alınmış 17. yüzyıl Fransız seyahatnamelerini neden ve nasıl yanlış sunduğunu incelemekte ve bu anlatıların tarihçiler için değerli ve iyi kullanılmamış kaynaklar olduğunu öne sürmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Alî Efendi, Morali Seyyid et Seyyid Abdürrahim Muhibb Efendi. Deux ottomans à Paris sous le Directoire et l'Empire: relations d'ambassade. Récits traduits de l'ottoman, présentés et annotés par Stéphane Yerasimos. Arles: Actes Sud: Sindbad, 1998.
  • Ames, Glenn J. and Ronald S. Love, eds. Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures: the French experience in Asia, 1600-1700. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Atkinson, Geoffroy. Les Relations de Voyages du XVIIe Siècle. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Edouard Champion, 1924.
  • Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis and H. Batu. L'Empire Ottoman, la République de Turquie et la France. Istanbul: Éditions ISIS, 1986.
  • Baghdiantz McCabe, Ina. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime. Oxford; New York: Berg, 2008.
  • Baudier, Michel. Histoire de la cour du roy de la Chine. Paris: Chez Claude Cramoisy, 1626.
  • ________. Histoire generale de la religion des Turcs. Paris: Cl. Cramoisy, 1625.
  • ________. Histoire generale dv serrail, et de la covr dv Grand Seignevr, empereur des Turcs. Paris: I. Gvignard, 1633.
  • Bernier, François. Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656-1668. Lahore: al-Biruni, 1976.
  • ________. The history of the late revolution of the empire of the Great Mogol together with the most considerable passages for 5 years following in that empire. Trans. by Henry Oldenburg. London: Printed and sold by Moses Pitt, Simon Miller, and John Starkey, 1671.
  • Bevilacqua, Alexander, and Helen Pfeifer. “Turquerie: Culture in Motion, 1650–1750.” Past & Present, no. 221 (2013): 75–118.
  • Bozdogan, Sibel. “Journey to the East - Ways of Looking at the Orient and the Question of Representation.” Journal of Architectural Education 41:4 (1988): 38-45.
  • Chardin, Jean. Journal du voyage du Chevalier Chardin en Perse et aux Indes Orientales, par la Mer Noire & par la Colchide qui contient le voyage de Parie à Ispahan. London: M. Pitt, 1686.
  • D’Arvieux, Laurent. Mémoires du chevalier d’Arvieux. Paris, 1735.
  • ________. Mémoires. Introduction, notes et index par Antoine Abdelnour. Beyrouth: Editions Dar Lahad Khater, 1982.
  • ________. Voyage dans la Palestine, vers le grand emir, chef des princes arabes du desert, connus sous le nom de Bedouins. Fait par ordre du roi Louis XIV. Avec la description generale de l’Arabie, faite par le sultan Ismael Abulfeda, tr. en françois, avec des notes par m. de La Roque. Amsterdam : Steenhouwer & Uytwerf, 1718.
  • Dew, Nicholas. Orientalism in Louis XIV’s France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Eurich, S. Amanda. “Secrets of the Seraglio: Harem Politics and the Rhetoric of Imperialism in the Travels of Sir Jean Chardin.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 47-70. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Faroqhi, Suraiya. The Ottoman Empire and the World around It. London: IB Tauris, 2006.
  • Finkel, Caroline. Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300-1923. London: John Murray Press, 2012.
  • Foucault, Michel. L'Archéologie du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1969.
  • Galland, Antoine. Journal d’Antoine Galland pendant son séjour à Constantinople. Publié et annoté par Charles Schefer. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1881.
  • ________. Les mille et une nuits, contes arabes, traduits par Galland; avec notice de Charles Nodier. Nouv. éd. rev. et préfacée par Gaston Picard. Paris: Garnier frères, 1941.
  • ________. Voyage à Constantinople, 1672-1673. Edition originale présentée et annotée par Charles Schefer. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2002.
  • ________. Le Voyage à Smyrne: Un manuscrit d’Antoine Galland (1678). Paris: Editions Chandeigne, 2000.
  • Göçek, Fatma Müge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Göllner, Carl and Martin Luther. Chronica und Beschreibung der Türkei. Köln; Wien: Böhlau, 1983.
  • Grelot, Guillaume-Joseph. Relation nouvelle d’un voyage de Constantinople. Paris: Chez la veuve de D. Foucault, 1680.
  • Hallaq, Wael B. Restating Orientalism: A Critique of Modern Knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018.
  • Hasluck, Frederick William. Christianity and Islam under the Sultans. Edited by Margaret M. Hasluck. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.
  • Herbelot, Barthélemy d’. Bibliotheque orientale, ou, Dictionaire universel: contenant generalement tout ce qui regarde la connoissance des peuples de l'Orient. Paris: Compagnie des libraires, 1697.
  • Hosford, Desmond, and Chong J. Wojtkowski. French Orientalism: Culture, Politics, and the Imagined Other. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.
  • Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  • Kaiser, Tom. “The Evil Empire? The Debate on Turkish Despotism in Eighteenth-Century French Political Culture.” Journal of Modern History 72 (2000), 6-34.
  • Keddie, Nikki R. Women in the Middle East. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
  • Keller, Marcus. “The Turk of Early Modern France.” L’Esprit Créateur 53, no. 4 (2013): 1–8.
  • Keller, Marcus and Javier Irigoyen-García. The Dialectics of Orientalism in Early Modern Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
  • Kinglake, Alexander William. Eothen. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845.
  • Labib-Rahman, Leleh. “Sir Jean Chardin, the Great Traveller (1643-1712/3).” Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London XXIII, no. 5 (1981): 309-318.
  • Lewis, W. H. Levantine Adventurer: The Travels and Missions of the Chevalier D'Arvieux, 1653-1697. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962.
  • Lowry, Heath W. “The Reorganization of the Ottoman Archives.” Turkish Studies Association Bulletin 13, no. 2 (1989): 107–11.
  • Longino, Michele. French Travel Writing in the Ottoman Empire: Marseilles to Constantinople, 1650-1700. New York: Routledge, 2015.
  • Mandeville, John, Sir. The Voyages and Travels of Sir John Maundeville. London, New York: Cassell and Company, Ltd., 1899.
  • Mantran, Robert. Istanbul dans la seconde moitié du XVIIe siècle. Paris: Maisonneuve, 1962.
  • Meyer, Eve R. “Turquerie and Eighteenth-Century Music.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 7, no. 4 (1974): 474-488.
  • Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York and Toronto: Random House, Inc., 1978.
  • Parlea, Vanezia. “Un Franc parmy les Arabes”: Parcours oriental et découverte de l’Autre chez le chevalier d’Arvieux. Grenoble: UGA Editions, 2015.
  • Patrides, C. A. “‘The Bloody and Cruell Turke’: The Background of a Renaissance Commonplace.” The Renaissance Society of America 10 (1963): 126-135.
  • Pettet, Deirdre. “A Veritable Bedouin.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 21-46. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Preto, Paolo. Venezia e i Turchi. Firenze: G. C. Sansoni, 1975.
  • Roosen, William James. The Age of Louis XIV: The Rise of Modern Diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co., 1976.
  • ________. “Early Modern Diplomatic Ceremonial: A Systems Approach.” Journal of Modern History 52, no. 3 (1980): 452-476.
  • Rouillard, Clarence Dana. The Turk in French History, Thought, and Literature (1520-1660). Paris: Boivin, 1941.
  • Rycaut, Sir Paul. The History of the Present State of the Ottoman Empire: Containing the Maxims of the Turkish Polity, the Most Material Points of the Mahometan Religion, Their Sects and Heresies, Their Convents and Religious Votaries, Their Military Discipline, with an Exact Computation of Their Forces Both by Sea and Land. 3 Vols. London: R. Clavell, J. Robinson and A. Churchill, 1686.
  • Schwoebel, Robert H. The Shadow of the Crescent: The Renaissance Image of the Turk (1453-1517). New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1967.
  • Spary, E. C. Eating the Enlightenment: Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-1760. University of Chicago Press, 2013.
  • Sundeen, Glenn. “Thévenot the Tourist: A Frenchman Abroad in the Ottoman Empire.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 1-20. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste. Les six voyages de Jean Baptiste Tavernier, en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes, pendant l'espace de quarante ans. Paris, 1679.
  • Tournefort. Relation d’un voyage du Levant. Lyon: Freres Bruyset, 1727.
  • Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Bilaine, 1664.
  • ________. Voyages de M. de Thevenot en Europe, Asie, & Afrique, divisez en trois parties, troisième ed., enrichie de figures en taille douce. Amsterdam: M.C. Le Céne, 1727.
  • Tzoref-Ashkenazi, Chen. “Romantic Attitudes toward Oriental Despotism.” The Journal of Modern History 85, no. 2 (2013): 280–320.
  • Vandal, Albert. L'odyssée d'un ambassadeur: les voyages du marquis de Nointel (1670-1680). Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1900.
  • Valensi, L. Birth of a Despot: Venice and the Sublime Porte. Paris, 1987.
  • Vaughan, Dorothy M. Europe and the Turk: A Pattern of Alliances, 1350-1700. Liverpool: University Press, 1954.
  • Venturi, Franco. “Oriental Despotism.” Journal of the History of Ideas 24, no. 1 (1963): 133–42.
  • Wittfogel, Karl August. Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957.
  • Yerasimos, Stephane. Les voyageurs dans l’Empire ottoman XVIe – XVIe siècles: bibliographie, itinéraires et inventaire des lieux habités. Ankara: Société turque d’histoire, 1991.
  • Zarinebaf, F. Mediterranean Encounters: Trade and Pluralism in Early Modern Galata. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2018.
  • Ze’evi, Dror. “Hiding Sexuality: The Disappearance of Sexual Discourse in the Late Ottoman Middle East.” Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice 49, no. 2 (2005): 34–53.

Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 73, 53 - 76, 15.02.2021
https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.756501

Öz

Contemporary discourse on orientalism has stigmatized early modern European travelogues, leading many scholars to reject them as viable sources of Ottoman history. Yet on closer examination, the orientalist biases associated with these works come primarily from nineteenth- and twentieth-century scholars, who misinterpreted and manipulated them, rather than from the sources themselves. This study investigates how and why subsequent scholarship misrepresented seventeenth-century French travelogues on the Ottoman Empire. It argues that these accounts constitute a valuable and underutilized resource for historians.

Kaynakça

  • Alî Efendi, Morali Seyyid et Seyyid Abdürrahim Muhibb Efendi. Deux ottomans à Paris sous le Directoire et l'Empire: relations d'ambassade. Récits traduits de l'ottoman, présentés et annotés par Stéphane Yerasimos. Arles: Actes Sud: Sindbad, 1998.
  • Ames, Glenn J. and Ronald S. Love, eds. Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures: the French experience in Asia, 1600-1700. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Atkinson, Geoffroy. Les Relations de Voyages du XVIIe Siècle. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Edouard Champion, 1924.
  • Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis and H. Batu. L'Empire Ottoman, la République de Turquie et la France. Istanbul: Éditions ISIS, 1986.
  • Baghdiantz McCabe, Ina. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime. Oxford; New York: Berg, 2008.
  • Baudier, Michel. Histoire de la cour du roy de la Chine. Paris: Chez Claude Cramoisy, 1626.
  • ________. Histoire generale de la religion des Turcs. Paris: Cl. Cramoisy, 1625.
  • ________. Histoire generale dv serrail, et de la covr dv Grand Seignevr, empereur des Turcs. Paris: I. Gvignard, 1633.
  • Bernier, François. Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656-1668. Lahore: al-Biruni, 1976.
  • ________. The history of the late revolution of the empire of the Great Mogol together with the most considerable passages for 5 years following in that empire. Trans. by Henry Oldenburg. London: Printed and sold by Moses Pitt, Simon Miller, and John Starkey, 1671.
  • Bevilacqua, Alexander, and Helen Pfeifer. “Turquerie: Culture in Motion, 1650–1750.” Past & Present, no. 221 (2013): 75–118.
  • Bozdogan, Sibel. “Journey to the East - Ways of Looking at the Orient and the Question of Representation.” Journal of Architectural Education 41:4 (1988): 38-45.
  • Chardin, Jean. Journal du voyage du Chevalier Chardin en Perse et aux Indes Orientales, par la Mer Noire & par la Colchide qui contient le voyage de Parie à Ispahan. London: M. Pitt, 1686.
  • D’Arvieux, Laurent. Mémoires du chevalier d’Arvieux. Paris, 1735.
  • ________. Mémoires. Introduction, notes et index par Antoine Abdelnour. Beyrouth: Editions Dar Lahad Khater, 1982.
  • ________. Voyage dans la Palestine, vers le grand emir, chef des princes arabes du desert, connus sous le nom de Bedouins. Fait par ordre du roi Louis XIV. Avec la description generale de l’Arabie, faite par le sultan Ismael Abulfeda, tr. en françois, avec des notes par m. de La Roque. Amsterdam : Steenhouwer & Uytwerf, 1718.
  • Dew, Nicholas. Orientalism in Louis XIV’s France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Eurich, S. Amanda. “Secrets of the Seraglio: Harem Politics and the Rhetoric of Imperialism in the Travels of Sir Jean Chardin.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 47-70. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Faroqhi, Suraiya. The Ottoman Empire and the World around It. London: IB Tauris, 2006.
  • Finkel, Caroline. Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300-1923. London: John Murray Press, 2012.
  • Foucault, Michel. L'Archéologie du savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1969.
  • Galland, Antoine. Journal d’Antoine Galland pendant son séjour à Constantinople. Publié et annoté par Charles Schefer. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1881.
  • ________. Les mille et une nuits, contes arabes, traduits par Galland; avec notice de Charles Nodier. Nouv. éd. rev. et préfacée par Gaston Picard. Paris: Garnier frères, 1941.
  • ________. Voyage à Constantinople, 1672-1673. Edition originale présentée et annotée par Charles Schefer. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 2002.
  • ________. Le Voyage à Smyrne: Un manuscrit d’Antoine Galland (1678). Paris: Editions Chandeigne, 2000.
  • Göçek, Fatma Müge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Göllner, Carl and Martin Luther. Chronica und Beschreibung der Türkei. Köln; Wien: Böhlau, 1983.
  • Grelot, Guillaume-Joseph. Relation nouvelle d’un voyage de Constantinople. Paris: Chez la veuve de D. Foucault, 1680.
  • Hallaq, Wael B. Restating Orientalism: A Critique of Modern Knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018.
  • Hasluck, Frederick William. Christianity and Islam under the Sultans. Edited by Margaret M. Hasluck. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.
  • Herbelot, Barthélemy d’. Bibliotheque orientale, ou, Dictionaire universel: contenant generalement tout ce qui regarde la connoissance des peuples de l'Orient. Paris: Compagnie des libraires, 1697.
  • Hosford, Desmond, and Chong J. Wojtkowski. French Orientalism: Culture, Politics, and the Imagined Other. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.
  • Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  • Kaiser, Tom. “The Evil Empire? The Debate on Turkish Despotism in Eighteenth-Century French Political Culture.” Journal of Modern History 72 (2000), 6-34.
  • Keddie, Nikki R. Women in the Middle East. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
  • Keller, Marcus. “The Turk of Early Modern France.” L’Esprit Créateur 53, no. 4 (2013): 1–8.
  • Keller, Marcus and Javier Irigoyen-García. The Dialectics of Orientalism in Early Modern Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
  • Kinglake, Alexander William. Eothen. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845.
  • Labib-Rahman, Leleh. “Sir Jean Chardin, the Great Traveller (1643-1712/3).” Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London XXIII, no. 5 (1981): 309-318.
  • Lewis, W. H. Levantine Adventurer: The Travels and Missions of the Chevalier D'Arvieux, 1653-1697. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962.
  • Lowry, Heath W. “The Reorganization of the Ottoman Archives.” Turkish Studies Association Bulletin 13, no. 2 (1989): 107–11.
  • Longino, Michele. French Travel Writing in the Ottoman Empire: Marseilles to Constantinople, 1650-1700. New York: Routledge, 2015.
  • Mandeville, John, Sir. The Voyages and Travels of Sir John Maundeville. London, New York: Cassell and Company, Ltd., 1899.
  • Mantran, Robert. Istanbul dans la seconde moitié du XVIIe siècle. Paris: Maisonneuve, 1962.
  • Meyer, Eve R. “Turquerie and Eighteenth-Century Music.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 7, no. 4 (1974): 474-488.
  • Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York and Toronto: Random House, Inc., 1978.
  • Parlea, Vanezia. “Un Franc parmy les Arabes”: Parcours oriental et découverte de l’Autre chez le chevalier d’Arvieux. Grenoble: UGA Editions, 2015.
  • Patrides, C. A. “‘The Bloody and Cruell Turke’: The Background of a Renaissance Commonplace.” The Renaissance Society of America 10 (1963): 126-135.
  • Pettet, Deirdre. “A Veritable Bedouin.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 21-46. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Preto, Paolo. Venezia e i Turchi. Firenze: G. C. Sansoni, 1975.
  • Roosen, William James. The Age of Louis XIV: The Rise of Modern Diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co., 1976.
  • ________. “Early Modern Diplomatic Ceremonial: A Systems Approach.” Journal of Modern History 52, no. 3 (1980): 452-476.
  • Rouillard, Clarence Dana. The Turk in French History, Thought, and Literature (1520-1660). Paris: Boivin, 1941.
  • Rycaut, Sir Paul. The History of the Present State of the Ottoman Empire: Containing the Maxims of the Turkish Polity, the Most Material Points of the Mahometan Religion, Their Sects and Heresies, Their Convents and Religious Votaries, Their Military Discipline, with an Exact Computation of Their Forces Both by Sea and Land. 3 Vols. London: R. Clavell, J. Robinson and A. Churchill, 1686.
  • Schwoebel, Robert H. The Shadow of the Crescent: The Renaissance Image of the Turk (1453-1517). New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1967.
  • Spary, E. C. Eating the Enlightenment: Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-1760. University of Chicago Press, 2013.
  • Sundeen, Glenn. “Thévenot the Tourist: A Frenchman Abroad in the Ottoman Empire.” In Distant Lands and Diverse Cultures. Edited by Glenn J. Ames and Ronald S. Love, 1-20. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
  • Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste. Les six voyages de Jean Baptiste Tavernier, en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes, pendant l'espace de quarante ans. Paris, 1679.
  • Tournefort. Relation d’un voyage du Levant. Lyon: Freres Bruyset, 1727.
  • Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Bilaine, 1664.
  • ________. Voyages de M. de Thevenot en Europe, Asie, & Afrique, divisez en trois parties, troisième ed., enrichie de figures en taille douce. Amsterdam: M.C. Le Céne, 1727.
  • Tzoref-Ashkenazi, Chen. “Romantic Attitudes toward Oriental Despotism.” The Journal of Modern History 85, no. 2 (2013): 280–320.
  • Vandal, Albert. L'odyssée d'un ambassadeur: les voyages du marquis de Nointel (1670-1680). Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1900.
  • Valensi, L. Birth of a Despot: Venice and the Sublime Porte. Paris, 1987.
  • Vaughan, Dorothy M. Europe and the Turk: A Pattern of Alliances, 1350-1700. Liverpool: University Press, 1954.
  • Venturi, Franco. “Oriental Despotism.” Journal of the History of Ideas 24, no. 1 (1963): 133–42.
  • Wittfogel, Karl August. Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957.
  • Yerasimos, Stephane. Les voyageurs dans l’Empire ottoman XVIe – XVIe siècles: bibliographie, itinéraires et inventaire des lieux habités. Ankara: Société turque d’histoire, 1991.
  • Zarinebaf, F. Mediterranean Encounters: Trade and Pluralism in Early Modern Galata. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2018.
  • Ze’evi, Dror. “Hiding Sexuality: The Disappearance of Sexual Discourse in the Late Ottoman Middle East.” Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice 49, no. 2 (2005): 34–53.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Andrea DUFFY (Sorumlu Yazar)
Colorado State University
0000-0002-0408-493X
United States

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Şubat 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 73

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { iutarih756501, journal = {Tarih Dergisi}, issn = {1015-1818}, eissn = {2619-9505}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {53 - 76}, doi = {10.26650/iutd.756501}, title = {Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues}, key = {cite}, author = {Duffy, Andrea} }
APA Duffy, A. (2021). Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues . Tarih Dergisi , (73) , 53-76 . DOI: 10.26650/iutd.756501
MLA Duffy, A. "Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues" . Tarih Dergisi (2021 ): 53-76 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iutarih/issue/60567/756501>
Chicago Duffy, A. "Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues". Tarih Dergisi (2021 ): 53-76
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues AU - Andrea Duffy Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.26650/iutd.756501 DO - 10.26650/iutd.756501 T2 - Tarih Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 53 EP - 76 VL - IS - 73 SN - 1015-1818-2619-9505 M3 - doi: 10.26650/iutd.756501 UR - https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.756501 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Tarih Dergisi Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues %A Andrea Duffy %T Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues %D 2021 %J Tarih Dergisi %P 1015-1818-2619-9505 %V %N 73 %R doi: 10.26650/iutd.756501 %U 10.26650/iutd.756501
ISNAD Duffy, Andrea . "Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues". Tarih Dergisi / 73 (Şubat 2021): 53-76 . https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.756501
AMA Duffy A. Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues. Tarih Dergisi. 2021; (73): 53-76.
Vancouver Duffy A. Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues. Tarih Dergisi. 2021; (73): 53-76.
IEEE A. Duffy , "Reorienting Orientalism: Ottoman Historiography and the Representation of Seventeenth-Century French Travelogues", Tarih Dergisi, sayı. 73, ss. 53-76, Şub. 2021, doi:10.26650/iutd.756501