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The Relationship Between In-Service Teachers’ Mindset Types and Their Efficacy Beliefs in Instructional Strategies*

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4, 191 - 203, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.46423/izujed.752446

Öz

Zihniyet insanların yeteneklerinin geliştirilip geliştirilemeyeceğine dair olan inançlardır. Eğitimde önemli bir olgudur ve bu kavramın değeri öğretmenlerin kariyerlerinde göz ardı edilemez. Öğretmenlerin zihniyeti, öğrenci başarısı ve öz-yeterlik inancı oluşturmada çok önemli bir rol oynar. Öte yandan, öğretmenlerin zihniyetini ve öğretmenlerin öğretim stratejilerindeki yeterlik inancı arasındaki ilişki adına çok fazla araştırma yapılmamıştır. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma öğretmen adaylarının zihniyet türleri ile öğretim stratejilerindeki yeterlik inancı arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Türkiye'de bulunan devlet ve vakıf üniversitelerinde İngilizce hazırlık programlarında görev alan 130 İngilizce öğretmeni bu araştırmaya katılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Öğretmen Öz yeterlik Ölçeği ve Öğretmen Zihniyet Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bu ölçekler, öğretmenlerin öğretim stratejilerini ve zihniyetlerini ölçmek için en güvenilir ve geçerli araçlar olarak bulunmuştur. Öğretmen Zihniyet Ölçeğinin güvenilirliği = .79 olarak ölçülmüştür. Öğretmenlerin Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeğinin alt faktörü olan öğretim stratejileri yeterliliği güvenirliği açısından = .86 olarak ölçülmüştür. Öğretim stratejilerinde öğretmenlerin zihniyetleri ve öğretim stratejileri arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak için Pearson Korelasyon Analizi ve Regresyon Analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, gelişme zihniyeti ve sabit zihniyete sahip öğretmenlerin öğretim stratejileri kullanma açısından farklı olduklarını göstermektedir. Öğretim stratejilerindeki öğretmen etkinliği, öğretmenler gelişme zihniyetlerini benimsediğinde daha güçlüdür. Bu iki kavramı araştırmak, öğretmenlerin gelecekteki başarılarına katkıda bulunabilir. Ayrıca, bu çalışma üniversitelerin öğretmenlerine sunacağı öğretmen gelişim programlarına ışık tutabilir.

Kaynakça

  • Allinder, R. M. (1994). The Relationship Between Efficacy and the Instructional Practices of Special Education Teachers and Consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17(2): 86–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/088840649401700203
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(02): 191-215.
  • Butler, R. (2000). Making Judgments About Ability: The Role of Implicit Theories of Ability in Moderating Inferences from Temporal and Social Comparison Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78: 965-978. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.78.5.965
  • Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ Self- Efficacy Beliefs as Determinants Of Job Satisfaction And Students’ Academic Achievement: A Study At The School Level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6): 473-490.
  • Deemer, S. A. (2004). Classroom Goal Orientation in High School Classrooms: Revealing Links between Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Environments. Educational Research, 46(1): 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188042000178836
  • Dupeyrat, C. & Mariné, C. (2005). Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck’s Model with Returning to School, Adults. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(1), 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.007
  • Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher Efficacy: A Construct Validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4): 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.4.569
  • Guo, Y., Connor, C. M., Yang, Y., Roehrig, A. D. & Morrison, F. J. (2012). The Effects of Teacher Qualification, Teacher Self-efficacy, and Classroom Practices on Fifth Graders’ Literacy: Outcomes. Elementary School Journal, 113(1): 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1086/665816
  • Guskey, T. R. (1984). The Influence of Change in Instructional Effectiveness Upon the Affective Characteristics of Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 21: 245-259.
  • Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in Teacher Efficacy During the Early Years of Teaching: A Comparison of Four Measures. Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(4): 343-356.
  • Lee, K. (1996). A Study of Teacher Responses Based on Their Conceptions of Intelligence. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 31(2): 1–12.
  • Muijs, D. & Reynolds, D. (2015). Teachers’ Beliefs and Behaviors: What Really Matters? Journal of Classroom Interaction, 50(1): 25–40.
  • Mulholland, J., & Wallace, J. (2001). Teacher Induction and Elementary Science Teaching: Enhancing Self-Efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17: 243-261. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4): 543–578.
  • Plaks, J. E., Stroessner, S. J., Dweck, C. S. & Sherman, J. W. (2001). Person Theories and Attention Allocation: Preferences for Stereotypic Versus Counterstereotypic Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(6): 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.6.876
  • Podell, D. M. & Soodak, L.C. (1993). Teacher Efficacy and Bias in Special Education Referrals. Journal of Educational Research, 86(4): 247-253 Rattan, A., Good, C. & Dweck, C. S. (2012). “It’s Ok - Not Everyone Can Be Good at Math”: Instructors with an Entity Theory Comfort (and Demotivate) Students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(3): 731–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.012
  • Skaalvik, E., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher Self-Efficacy and Teacher Burnout: A Study of Relations. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(4): 1059-1069.
  • Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher Development and School Improvement: The Process of Teacher Change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4: 171-187.
  • Swann, W. B. & Snyder, M. (1980). On Translating Beliefs into Action: Theories of Ability and Their Application in an Instructional Setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(6): 879–888. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.38.6.879
  • Tschannen-Moran, M. & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher Efficacy: Capturing an Elusive Construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7): 783-805
  • Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W. & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2): 202-248
  • Watanabe, M. (2006). “Some People Think This School is Tracked and Some People Don’t”: Using Inquiry Groups to Unpack Teachers’ Perspectives on Detracking. Theory into Practice, 45(1): 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4501_4
  • Ross, J. A. (1994, June). Beliefs That Make A Difference: The Origins and Impacts Of Teacher Efficacy. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies.
  • Bandura, A. (1994). Self-Efficacy. New York: Academic Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development New York: Psychology Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, (1st ed.). New York: Random House.
  • Hattie, J. (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers Maximizing Impact on Learning, (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • Mertens, D. M. (2010). Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods, (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Brooks, R., DeVries, M. & Goldstein, S. (2013). Translating Resilience Theory for Application with Children and Adolescents by Parents, Teachers, and Mental Health Professionals. In Prince-Embury, S. & Saklofske D. H. (1st ed.), Resilience in Children, Adolescents, and Adults Translating Research into Practice, New York, NY: Springer Science Business Media, 73-90.
  • Gero, G. P. (2013). What Drives Teachers to Improve? The Role of Teacher Mindset in Professional Learning (Published Ph.D. Dissertation). Claremont Graduate University, California.
  • Mowbray, B. K. (2014). Transformation of Teacher Beliefs Regarding Intelligence Theory (Doctoral Dissertation). Cardinal Stritch University, Wisconsin. Retrieved from ProQuest. (3704120)
  • Tweed, S. (2013). Technology Implementation: Teacher Age, Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Professional Development as Related Classroom Technology Integration. (Electronic Thesis and Dissertations) Paper 1109. East Tennessee State University, USA. Retrieved from https://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1109,
  • Webb, M. B. (2015). Exploring the Correlation Between Teachers’ Mindset and Judgment Accuracy to Reveal the Cues Behind Teachers’ Expectations (Published Ph.D. Dissertation). Boise State University, Idaho.
  • Jerald, C. D. (2007). Believing and Achieving. Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (January). http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED495708
  • Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and Self- Efficacy. http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/
  • Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass G., Pauly, E. & Zellman, G. (1977). Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change: Vol. 2, Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation (Report No. R-1589/7-HEW). Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IN-SERVICE TEACHERS’ MINDSET TYPES AND THEIR EFFICACY BELIEFS IN INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4, 191 - 203, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.46423/izujed.752446

Öz

Mindset is the belief of whether people's abilities can be improved or not. It has been an essential phenomenon in education, and the value of this concept cannot be ignored in teachers' educational career. Teachers' mindset plays a pivotal role in learner achievement and building up self-esteem. On the other hand, there has not been much research that examines teachers' mindset and teacher efficacy in instructional strategies. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between in-service teachers' mindset types and their efficacy in instructional strategies. 130 EFL instructors teaching at the English Preparatory Programs from both state and foundation universities in Turkey participated in this research. Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES) and Teachers' Mindset Instrument (TMI) were used as data collection tools. TSES and TMS were found to be the most trustable and valid tools to measure teachers' instructional strategies and their mindset. The reliability of the Teacher Mindset Instrument was measured as = .79. The reliability of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale was measured as = .86 for efficacy in instructional strategies. Pearson Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between teachers' mindset and teacher efficacy in instructional strategies. The results of the study indicate that there is a significant difference between teachers who have a growth mindset and a fixed mindset in terms of using instructional strategies. The teacher efficacy in the instructional strategies is more powerful when the teachers adopt growth mindsets. Researching these two concepts might contribute to teachers’ success in the future. Also, this study can shed light on the teacher development programs that universities will offer to their teachers.

Kaynakça

  • Allinder, R. M. (1994). The Relationship Between Efficacy and the Instructional Practices of Special Education Teachers and Consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17(2): 86–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/088840649401700203
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(02): 191-215.
  • Butler, R. (2000). Making Judgments About Ability: The Role of Implicit Theories of Ability in Moderating Inferences from Temporal and Social Comparison Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78: 965-978. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.78.5.965
  • Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ Self- Efficacy Beliefs as Determinants Of Job Satisfaction And Students’ Academic Achievement: A Study At The School Level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6): 473-490.
  • Deemer, S. A. (2004). Classroom Goal Orientation in High School Classrooms: Revealing Links between Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Environments. Educational Research, 46(1): 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188042000178836
  • Dupeyrat, C. & Mariné, C. (2005). Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck’s Model with Returning to School, Adults. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(1), 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.007
  • Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher Efficacy: A Construct Validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4): 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.4.569
  • Guo, Y., Connor, C. M., Yang, Y., Roehrig, A. D. & Morrison, F. J. (2012). The Effects of Teacher Qualification, Teacher Self-efficacy, and Classroom Practices on Fifth Graders’ Literacy: Outcomes. Elementary School Journal, 113(1): 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1086/665816
  • Guskey, T. R. (1984). The Influence of Change in Instructional Effectiveness Upon the Affective Characteristics of Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 21: 245-259.
  • Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in Teacher Efficacy During the Early Years of Teaching: A Comparison of Four Measures. Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(4): 343-356.
  • Lee, K. (1996). A Study of Teacher Responses Based on Their Conceptions of Intelligence. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 31(2): 1–12.
  • Muijs, D. & Reynolds, D. (2015). Teachers’ Beliefs and Behaviors: What Really Matters? Journal of Classroom Interaction, 50(1): 25–40.
  • Mulholland, J., & Wallace, J. (2001). Teacher Induction and Elementary Science Teaching: Enhancing Self-Efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17: 243-261. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4): 543–578.
  • Plaks, J. E., Stroessner, S. J., Dweck, C. S. & Sherman, J. W. (2001). Person Theories and Attention Allocation: Preferences for Stereotypic Versus Counterstereotypic Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(6): 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.6.876
  • Podell, D. M. & Soodak, L.C. (1993). Teacher Efficacy and Bias in Special Education Referrals. Journal of Educational Research, 86(4): 247-253 Rattan, A., Good, C. & Dweck, C. S. (2012). “It’s Ok - Not Everyone Can Be Good at Math”: Instructors with an Entity Theory Comfort (and Demotivate) Students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(3): 731–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.012
  • Skaalvik, E., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher Self-Efficacy and Teacher Burnout: A Study of Relations. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(4): 1059-1069.
  • Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher Development and School Improvement: The Process of Teacher Change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4: 171-187.
  • Swann, W. B. & Snyder, M. (1980). On Translating Beliefs into Action: Theories of Ability and Their Application in an Instructional Setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(6): 879–888. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.38.6.879
  • Tschannen-Moran, M. & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher Efficacy: Capturing an Elusive Construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7): 783-805
  • Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W. & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2): 202-248
  • Watanabe, M. (2006). “Some People Think This School is Tracked and Some People Don’t”: Using Inquiry Groups to Unpack Teachers’ Perspectives on Detracking. Theory into Practice, 45(1): 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4501_4
  • Ross, J. A. (1994, June). Beliefs That Make A Difference: The Origins and Impacts Of Teacher Efficacy. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies.
  • Bandura, A. (1994). Self-Efficacy. New York: Academic Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development New York: Psychology Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, (1st ed.). New York: Random House.
  • Hattie, J. (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers Maximizing Impact on Learning, (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • Mertens, D. M. (2010). Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods, (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Brooks, R., DeVries, M. & Goldstein, S. (2013). Translating Resilience Theory for Application with Children and Adolescents by Parents, Teachers, and Mental Health Professionals. In Prince-Embury, S. & Saklofske D. H. (1st ed.), Resilience in Children, Adolescents, and Adults Translating Research into Practice, New York, NY: Springer Science Business Media, 73-90.
  • Gero, G. P. (2013). What Drives Teachers to Improve? The Role of Teacher Mindset in Professional Learning (Published Ph.D. Dissertation). Claremont Graduate University, California.
  • Mowbray, B. K. (2014). Transformation of Teacher Beliefs Regarding Intelligence Theory (Doctoral Dissertation). Cardinal Stritch University, Wisconsin. Retrieved from ProQuest. (3704120)
  • Tweed, S. (2013). Technology Implementation: Teacher Age, Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Professional Development as Related Classroom Technology Integration. (Electronic Thesis and Dissertations) Paper 1109. East Tennessee State University, USA. Retrieved from https://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1109,
  • Webb, M. B. (2015). Exploring the Correlation Between Teachers’ Mindset and Judgment Accuracy to Reveal the Cues Behind Teachers’ Expectations (Published Ph.D. Dissertation). Boise State University, Idaho.
  • Jerald, C. D. (2007). Believing and Achieving. Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (January). http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED495708
  • Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and Self- Efficacy. http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/
  • Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass G., Pauly, E. & Zellman, G. (1977). Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change: Vol. 2, Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation (Report No. R-1589/7-HEW). Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Aslıhan YILMAZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ISTANBUL SABAHATTIN ZAIM UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3832-2518
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 13 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 30 Kasım 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Yılmaz, A. (2020). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IN-SERVICE TEACHERS’ MINDSET TYPES AND THEIR EFFICACY BELIEFS IN INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES . İZÜ Eğitim Dergisi , 2 (4) , 191-203 . DOI: 10.46423/izujed.752446