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The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 15 - 20, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.1018996

Öz

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey on the immune system of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). It was targeted to use whey, which is a by-product of the dairy industry, in the aquaculture industry as a promoter of fish immune system and as a source of fish feed protein. Rainbow trout individuals with an average weight of 70.28 ± 1.50 g were placed in 6 tanks with a stock density of 10 kg/m3. While fish meal (52%) was used as a protein source in the control group feeds, in the experimental group feeds whey powder (48%) was used. The fish were fed these pellet feeds that were isocaloric (21 kj / g) and isonitrogenous (41% protein) for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected once a week and while hematocrit and hemoglobin values were determined using a fully automated hematology analyzer, standard hemocytometry methods were used in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts. In addition, free radical production and complement 3 concentrations were determined quantitatively. According to the one-way ANOVA analysis, the control group and the experimental group were statistically similar (p> 0,05). However, it was found that C3 complement concentration, which was measured equally at the beginning in the control and experimental groups, showed a statistically significant increase (p <0.05) in the experimental group compared to the control group in the second week. This is the first study in Turkey investigating the effect of using whey in fish feeds on the immune system of fish.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (1998). Official methods of analysis (15 ed.). Arlington, VA: AOAC.
  • Abou‐El‐Atta, M.E., Abdel‐Tawwab, M., Abdel‐Razek, N. & Abdelhakim, T.M.N. (2019). Effects of dietary probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and whey protein concentrate on the productive parameters, immunity response and susceptibility of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), to Aeromonas sobria infection. Aquaculture Nutrition, 25: 1367– 1377.
  • Amer, S.A., Osman, A., Al-Gabri, N.A., Elsayed, S.A.M., Abd El-Rahman, G.I., Elabbasy, M.T., Ahmed, S.A.A. & Ibrahim, R.E. (2019). The effect of dietary replacement of fish meal with Whey protein concentrate on the growth performance, fish health, and immune status of Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals, 9: 1003.
  • Bañuelos-Vargas, I., López, L.M., Pérez-Jiménez, A. & Peres, H. (2014). Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of Totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 170: 18-25.
  • Bell, J.G., McEvoy, J., Tocher, D.R., McGhee, F., Campbell, P.J. & Sargent, J.R. (2001). Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid composition and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. The Journal of Nutrition, 131: 1535–1543.
  • Buckley, J.A., Whitmore, C.M. & Matsuda, R.I. (1976). Changes in blood chemistry and blood cell morphology in Coho Salmon (O. kisutch), following exposureto sublethal levels of total residual chlorin in municipal wastewater. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 33: 776-782.
  • Caballero, M.J., Obach, A., Rosenlund, G., Montero, D., Gisvold, M. & Izquierdo, M.S. (2002). Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 214: 253–271.
  • Clare, D., Catignani, G. & Swaisgood, H. (2003). Biodefense properties of milk: The role of antimicrobial proteins and peptides. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 9: 1239–1255.
  • Çetinkaya, O. & Şahin, A. (2005). Anaesthesia applications on fish and main anaesthetics. In: M. Karatas (ed.) Research Techniques in Fish Biology. Part 9, 237-275p, Nobel Publishing, Ankara.
  • De Wit, J. (1998). Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(3): 597-608.
  • Eslami, S., Karandish, M., Marandi, M.S. & Zand-Moghaddam, A. (2010). Effects of Whey protein supplementation on hematological parameters in healthy young resistance male athletes. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10: 991-995.
  • EWPA. (2020). European Whey Processors Association (EWPA) web sitesi. http://ewpa.euromilk.org/pub/benefitsofwhey/whey-protein-can-benefit-many-people.html (Ziyaret tarihi: 19.05.2020)
  • Gatlin, D.M., Barrows, F.T., Brown, P., Dabrowski, K., Gaylord, T.G., Hardy, R.W., Herman, E., Hu, G., Krogdahl, A., Nelson, R., Overturf, K., Rust, M., Sealey, W., Skonberg, D., Souza, E.J., Stone, D., Wilson, R. & Wurtele, E. (2007). Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquaculture Research, 38: 551-579. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01704.x
  • Gonzalez-Siso, M.I. (1996). The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: A review. Bioresource Technology, 57: 1–17. Hofmann, R. & Lomel, R. (1984). Effects of repeated blood sampling on some blood parameters in freshwater fish. Journal of Fish Biology, 24: 245-251.
  • Jobling, M. (2016). Fish nutrition research: past, present and future. Aquaculture International, 24(3): 767–786. Kriton, G., Dimitra, K., Corraze, G., Jaume, P.S., Adorjan, A. & Zsuzsanna, J.S. (2018). Impact of diets containing plant raw materials as fish meal and fish oil replacement on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) freshness. Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2018, Article ID 1717465, 14 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1717465
  • Macwan, S.R., Bhumika, K.D., Parmar, S.C. & Aparnathi, K.D. (2016). Whey and its utilization. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(8): 134-155. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.508.016
  • Özcan, M., İspir, Ü., Şahin, A. (2021). Effects of Whey Protein on Biochemical Composition of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(2): 170-173. https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.828969
  • Rana, K.R., Siriwardena, S. & Hasan, M.R. (2009). Impact of Rising Feed Ingredient Prices on Aquafeeds and Aquaculture Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • Rosenlund, G., Obach, A., Sandberg, M.G., Standal, H. & Tveit, K. (2001). Effect of alternative lipid sources on long-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture Research, 32: 323–328.
  • Rusu, D., Drouin, R., Pouliot, Y., Gauthier, S. & Poubelle, P.E. (2009). A bovine Whey protein extract can enhance innate immunity by priming normal human blood neutrophils. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(2): 386–393.
  • Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J., Johnson, D., Cross, M.L. & Gill, H.S. (2005). Modified milk powder supple-mented with immunostimulating whey protein concentrate (IMUCARE) enhances immune function in mice. Nutrition Research, 25: 192–203.
  • Siwicki, A.K., Miyazaki, T., Komatsu, I. & Matsusato, T. (1996). In vitro influence of heat extract from firefly squid watasenia scintillans on the phagocyte and lymphocyte activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Pathology, 31(1): 1-7.
  • Summerfelt, R.C. & Smith, L.S. (1990). Anaesthesia, surgery and related techniques. In: C.B. Schreck and P.B. Moyle (eds.) Methods for Fish Biology. 213- 272p., American Fisheries Society, Bedhesda, MD.
  • Szczurek, W., Szymczyk, B., Arczewska-Włosek, A., Józefiak, D. & Alloui, M.N. (2013). The effects of dietary whey protein concentrate level on performance, selected intestinal tract and blood parameters, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver and breast meat of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 22(4): 342–353.
  • Tacon, A.G.J. & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1-4): 146–158.
  • Wong, C.W. & Watson, D.L. (1995). Immunomodulatory effects of dietary whey proteins in mice. Journal of Dairy Research, 62(2): 359-368.
  • Wong, C.W., Seow, H., Husband, A., Regester, G. & Watson, D.L. (1997). Effects of purified bovine whey factors on cellular immune functions in ruminants. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 56: 85–96.
  • Wong, K., Middleton, N., Montgomery, M., Dey, M. & Carr, R. (1998). Immunostimulation of murine spleen cells by materials associated with bovine milk protein fractions. Journal of Dairy Science, 81: 1825–1832.
  • Yang, Y.H., Wang, Y.Y., Lu, Y. & Li, Q.Z. (2011). Effect of replacing fish meal with soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 19: 405–419.
  • Yıldız, M., Eroldoğan, T.O., Ofori-Mensah, S., Engin, K. & Baltacı, M.A. (2018). The effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oils on growth performance and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout: re-feeding with fish oil finishing diet improved the fatty acid composition. Aquaculture, 488: 123-133.
  • Yılmaz, S. & Ergün, S. (2018). Trans-cinnamic acid application for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on haematological, serum biochemical, non-specific immune and head kidney gene expression responses. Fish & shellfish immunology, 78: 140-157.
  • Yılmaz, S. (2018). Balık İmmunolojisi Analiz Yöntemleri/Methods of Fish Immunology Analysis. Paradigma Akademi Kitabevi Yayınları, İSTANBUL, 105 sayfa.

Peynir Altı Suyunun (PAS) Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Bağışıklık Parametreleri Üzerine Etkisi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 15 - 20, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.1018996

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı kültürü yapılan gökkuşağı alabalıklarının (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bağışıklık sistemi üzerine peynir altı suyunun (PAS) etkisinin incelenmesidir. Süt ve süt ürünleri endüstrisi atığı olan PAS’ın akuakültür endüstrisinde balık bağışıklık sistemi destekleyicisi ve balık yemi protein kaynağı olarak kullanılması hedeflenmiştir. Ortalama ağırlığı 70,28 ± 1,50 g olan gökkuşağı alabalığı bireyleri 10 kg/m3 stok yoğunluğunda olacak şekilde 6 adet tanka yerleştirilmiştir. Kontrol grubu yemlerinde protein kaynağı olarak balık unu kullanılırken deney grubu yemlerinde ise balık unu yerine PAS kullanılmıştır. Balıklar izokalorik (21 kj/g) ve izonitrojenik (%41 protein) olarak hazırlanan bu pelet yemlerle 3 hafta boyunca beslenmiştir. Haftada birer kez olmak üzere balıklardan kan örnekleri alınmış; hematokrit ve hemoglobin değerleri tam otomatik hematoloji analizatörü ile belirlenmiş, eritrosit ve lökosit sayıları ise standart hemositometri yöntemleri kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Bunlara ek olarak oksidatif radikal üretimi ve kompleman 3 konsantrasyonu da kantitatif olarak belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar tek yönlü varyans analizi (one-way ANOVA) ile değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak kontrol grubu ile deney grubu arasında istatistiki açıdan herhangi bir farklılık olmadığı görülmüştür (p>0,05). Bununla birlikte, kontrol ve deney grubunda başlangıçta eşit olarak ölçülen C3 kompleman konsantrasyonunun, deney grubunda ikinci haftada kontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel açıdan önemli (p<0,05) bir artış gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışma, ülkemizde balık yemlerinde PAS kullanılmasının balıkların bağışıklık sistemi üzerine etkisinin araştırıldığı ilk çalışmadır.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (1998). Official methods of analysis (15 ed.). Arlington, VA: AOAC.
  • Abou‐El‐Atta, M.E., Abdel‐Tawwab, M., Abdel‐Razek, N. & Abdelhakim, T.M.N. (2019). Effects of dietary probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and whey protein concentrate on the productive parameters, immunity response and susceptibility of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), to Aeromonas sobria infection. Aquaculture Nutrition, 25: 1367– 1377.
  • Amer, S.A., Osman, A., Al-Gabri, N.A., Elsayed, S.A.M., Abd El-Rahman, G.I., Elabbasy, M.T., Ahmed, S.A.A. & Ibrahim, R.E. (2019). The effect of dietary replacement of fish meal with Whey protein concentrate on the growth performance, fish health, and immune status of Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals, 9: 1003.
  • Bañuelos-Vargas, I., López, L.M., Pérez-Jiménez, A. & Peres, H. (2014). Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of Totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 170: 18-25.
  • Bell, J.G., McEvoy, J., Tocher, D.R., McGhee, F., Campbell, P.J. & Sargent, J.R. (2001). Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid composition and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. The Journal of Nutrition, 131: 1535–1543.
  • Buckley, J.A., Whitmore, C.M. & Matsuda, R.I. (1976). Changes in blood chemistry and blood cell morphology in Coho Salmon (O. kisutch), following exposureto sublethal levels of total residual chlorin in municipal wastewater. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 33: 776-782.
  • Caballero, M.J., Obach, A., Rosenlund, G., Montero, D., Gisvold, M. & Izquierdo, M.S. (2002). Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 214: 253–271.
  • Clare, D., Catignani, G. & Swaisgood, H. (2003). Biodefense properties of milk: The role of antimicrobial proteins and peptides. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 9: 1239–1255.
  • Çetinkaya, O. & Şahin, A. (2005). Anaesthesia applications on fish and main anaesthetics. In: M. Karatas (ed.) Research Techniques in Fish Biology. Part 9, 237-275p, Nobel Publishing, Ankara.
  • De Wit, J. (1998). Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(3): 597-608.
  • Eslami, S., Karandish, M., Marandi, M.S. & Zand-Moghaddam, A. (2010). Effects of Whey protein supplementation on hematological parameters in healthy young resistance male athletes. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10: 991-995.
  • EWPA. (2020). European Whey Processors Association (EWPA) web sitesi. http://ewpa.euromilk.org/pub/benefitsofwhey/whey-protein-can-benefit-many-people.html (Ziyaret tarihi: 19.05.2020)
  • Gatlin, D.M., Barrows, F.T., Brown, P., Dabrowski, K., Gaylord, T.G., Hardy, R.W., Herman, E., Hu, G., Krogdahl, A., Nelson, R., Overturf, K., Rust, M., Sealey, W., Skonberg, D., Souza, E.J., Stone, D., Wilson, R. & Wurtele, E. (2007). Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquaculture Research, 38: 551-579. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01704.x
  • Gonzalez-Siso, M.I. (1996). The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: A review. Bioresource Technology, 57: 1–17. Hofmann, R. & Lomel, R. (1984). Effects of repeated blood sampling on some blood parameters in freshwater fish. Journal of Fish Biology, 24: 245-251.
  • Jobling, M. (2016). Fish nutrition research: past, present and future. Aquaculture International, 24(3): 767–786. Kriton, G., Dimitra, K., Corraze, G., Jaume, P.S., Adorjan, A. & Zsuzsanna, J.S. (2018). Impact of diets containing plant raw materials as fish meal and fish oil replacement on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) freshness. Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2018, Article ID 1717465, 14 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1717465
  • Macwan, S.R., Bhumika, K.D., Parmar, S.C. & Aparnathi, K.D. (2016). Whey and its utilization. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(8): 134-155. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.508.016
  • Özcan, M., İspir, Ü., Şahin, A. (2021). Effects of Whey Protein on Biochemical Composition of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(2): 170-173. https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.828969
  • Rana, K.R., Siriwardena, S. & Hasan, M.R. (2009). Impact of Rising Feed Ingredient Prices on Aquafeeds and Aquaculture Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • Rosenlund, G., Obach, A., Sandberg, M.G., Standal, H. & Tveit, K. (2001). Effect of alternative lipid sources on long-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture Research, 32: 323–328.
  • Rusu, D., Drouin, R., Pouliot, Y., Gauthier, S. & Poubelle, P.E. (2009). A bovine Whey protein extract can enhance innate immunity by priming normal human blood neutrophils. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(2): 386–393.
  • Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J., Johnson, D., Cross, M.L. & Gill, H.S. (2005). Modified milk powder supple-mented with immunostimulating whey protein concentrate (IMUCARE) enhances immune function in mice. Nutrition Research, 25: 192–203.
  • Siwicki, A.K., Miyazaki, T., Komatsu, I. & Matsusato, T. (1996). In vitro influence of heat extract from firefly squid watasenia scintillans on the phagocyte and lymphocyte activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Pathology, 31(1): 1-7.
  • Summerfelt, R.C. & Smith, L.S. (1990). Anaesthesia, surgery and related techniques. In: C.B. Schreck and P.B. Moyle (eds.) Methods for Fish Biology. 213- 272p., American Fisheries Society, Bedhesda, MD.
  • Szczurek, W., Szymczyk, B., Arczewska-Włosek, A., Józefiak, D. & Alloui, M.N. (2013). The effects of dietary whey protein concentrate level on performance, selected intestinal tract and blood parameters, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver and breast meat of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 22(4): 342–353.
  • Tacon, A.G.J. & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1-4): 146–158.
  • Wong, C.W. & Watson, D.L. (1995). Immunomodulatory effects of dietary whey proteins in mice. Journal of Dairy Research, 62(2): 359-368.
  • Wong, C.W., Seow, H., Husband, A., Regester, G. & Watson, D.L. (1997). Effects of purified bovine whey factors on cellular immune functions in ruminants. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 56: 85–96.
  • Wong, K., Middleton, N., Montgomery, M., Dey, M. & Carr, R. (1998). Immunostimulation of murine spleen cells by materials associated with bovine milk protein fractions. Journal of Dairy Science, 81: 1825–1832.
  • Yang, Y.H., Wang, Y.Y., Lu, Y. & Li, Q.Z. (2011). Effect of replacing fish meal with soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 19: 405–419.
  • Yıldız, M., Eroldoğan, T.O., Ofori-Mensah, S., Engin, K. & Baltacı, M.A. (2018). The effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oils on growth performance and fatty acid profile of rainbow trout: re-feeding with fish oil finishing diet improved the fatty acid composition. Aquaculture, 488: 123-133.
  • Yılmaz, S. & Ergün, S. (2018). Trans-cinnamic acid application for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on haematological, serum biochemical, non-specific immune and head kidney gene expression responses. Fish & shellfish immunology, 78: 140-157.
  • Yılmaz, S. (2018). Balık İmmunolojisi Analiz Yöntemleri/Methods of Fish Immunology Analysis. Paradigma Akademi Kitabevi Yayınları, İSTANBUL, 105 sayfa.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Remziye Eda YARDIMCI> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Bilimleri Fakültesi
0000-0001-7737-8739
Türkiye


Emre TURGAY>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ VE HASTALIKLARI BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ HASTALIKLARI ANABİLİM DALI, HASTALIKLAR BİLİM DALI
0000-0001-9964-3919
Türkiye


Sevdan YILMAZ>
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE TEKNOLOJİSİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-4809-5809
Türkiye


Can SARVAN Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ VE HASTALIKLARI BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ ANABİLİM DALI, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK BİLİM DALI
0000-0000-0000-0000
Türkiye


Süheyla KARATAŞ STEINUM>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ VE HASTALIKLARI BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ HASTALIKLARI ANABİLİM DALI, HASTALIKLAR BİLİM DALI
0000-0003-2006-7854
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Istanbul University Scientific Research Projects Unit
Proje Numarası 3372
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 4 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi 24 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jaes1018996, journal = {Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences}, eissn = {2548-0006}, address = {}, publisher = {Bülent VEREP}, year = {2022}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {15 - 20}, doi = {10.35229/jaes.1018996}, title = {The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)}, key = {cite}, author = {Yardımcı, Remziye Eda and Turgay, Emre and Yılmaz, Sevdan and Sarvan, Can and Karataş Steınum, Süheyla} }
APA Yardımcı, R. E. , Turgay, E. , Yılmaz, S. , Sarvan, C. & Karataş Steınum, S. (2022). The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) . Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences , 7 (1) , 15-20 . DOI: 10.35229/jaes.1018996
MLA Yardımcı, R. E. , Turgay, E. , Yılmaz, S. , Sarvan, C. , Karataş Steınum, S. "The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" . Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences 7 (2022 ): 15-20 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jaes/issue/68760/1018996>
Chicago Yardımcı, R. E. , Turgay, E. , Yılmaz, S. , Sarvan, C. , Karataş Steınum, S. "The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)". Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences 7 (2022 ): 15-20
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) AU - Remziye Eda Yardımcı , Emre Turgay , Sevdan Yılmaz , Can Sarvan , Süheyla Karataş Steınum Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.35229/jaes.1018996 DO - 10.35229/jaes.1018996 T2 - Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 15 EP - 20 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - -2548-0006 M3 - doi: 10.35229/jaes.1018996 UR - https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.1018996 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) %A Remziye Eda Yardımcı , Emre Turgay , Sevdan Yılmaz , Can Sarvan , Süheyla Karataş Steınum %T The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) %D 2022 %J Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences %P -2548-0006 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.35229/jaes.1018996 %U 10.35229/jaes.1018996
ISNAD Yardımcı, Remziye Eda , Turgay, Emre , Yılmaz, Sevdan , Sarvan, Can , Karataş Steınum, Süheyla . "The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)". Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences 7 / 1 (Mart 2022): 15-20 . https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.1018996
AMA Yardımcı R. E. , Turgay E. , Yılmaz S. , Sarvan C. , Karataş Steınum S. The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). JAES. 2022; 7(1): 15-20.
Vancouver Yardımcı R. E. , Turgay E. , Yılmaz S. , Sarvan C. , Karataş Steınum S. The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences. 2022; 7(1): 15-20.
IEEE R. E. Yardımcı , E. Turgay , S. Yılmaz , C. Sarvan ve S. Karataş Steınum , "The Effect of Whey on the Immune Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)", Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, c. 7, sayı. 1, ss. 15-20, Mar. 2022, doi:10.35229/jaes.1018996


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