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FREQUENCY OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: A SINGLE-CENTER CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN ISTANBUL

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 6 (Forthcoming Issue-Gelecek sayı), 755 - 760, 21.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.984173

Öz

Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among children worldwide. This study aims to assess the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in children and how it varies according to gender, age, and season in Istanbul. Materials and methods: The study included 3096 children aged 0-18 admitted to the pediatric outpatient clinic in Istanbul. The serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration was categorized into four groups: deficiency (<20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL), sufficiency (30-100 ng/mL), and toxicity (>100 ng/mL). Descriptive methods, Chi-square, Independent Samples T-Test, ANOVA, and correlation test were used in the statistical analysis of the data. Results: Of children, 52% were girls and 48% boys. The mean serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 21.8 ± 15.8 ng/mL, and the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was 53.1%. There was a different distribution of vitamin D status between age groups. Vitamin D deficiency was more common in older children. There was also a significant difference between girls and boys in the frequency of vitamin D deficiency (57.6% versus 48.3%). The mean serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration was significantly lower in winter and spring. A moderate negative correlation was found between age and serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration (correlation coefficient:-0.36). Conclusion: This study showed that female sex, older children, and the winter/spring seasons were significantly associated with a higher frequency of vitamin D deficiency and a lower mean serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Holick MF. Medical progress: Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007;357(3):266–281.
  • 2. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011;96(7):1911–1930.
  • 3. Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1678–1688.
  • 4. Huh SY, Gordon CM. Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, impact and treatment. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2008:161–70.
  • 5. Holick MF. Vitamin D: Important for prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular heart disease, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. South. Med. J. 2005;98(10):1024–1027.
  • 6. Sahin ON, Serdar M, Serteser M, Unsal I, Ozpinar A. Vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone variations of children living in a subtropical climate: A data mining study. Ital. J. Pediatr. 2018;44(1):1–7.
  • 7. Coşkun C, Şahin K. Correlation between vitamin D level and platelet indices in children aged 0-18 years. Haseki Tip Bul. 2018;56(2):153–157.
  • 8. Türe E, Müderrisoğlu S, Acı R, Çubukçu M, Erdem MA. Evaluation of Vitamin D Levels in Adolescents and Children According to Age, Sex and Seasonal Charesteristics. Ankara Med. J. 2020;20(2):380–386.
  • 9. Demiral M, Sırmagül B, Kirel B. Endokrin polikliniğine başvuran çocuklarda d vitamini düzeyleri. Guncel Pediatr. 2016;14(2):60–66.
  • 10. Yetim A, Tıkız C, Baş F. Prevelance of vitamin D and B12 deficiency in adolescence. Çocuk Derg. 2017;17(1):24–29.
  • 11. Atasoy V, Ateş Altunbaş E, Set T. Evaluation of Vitamin D levels among overweight and obese children. Türkiye Aile Hekim. Derg. 2019;23(3):102–109.
  • 12. Naiboğlu E, Naiboğlu S, Turan E, Hasbal Akkuş C, Hatipoğlu S. Investigation of Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Child Clinic. Bakirkoy Tip Derg. / Med. J. Bakirkoy 2019;15(4):339–344.
  • 13. Doğan N, Colak AA, Güden N, Üstüner F. Vitamin D deficiency in children in Aegean Region in Turkey. Cumhur. Med. J. 2015;37(1):17–22.
  • 14. Ozhan B, Evrengul H, Yilmaz Agladioglu S, Umit Yasar S, Demir S. Vitamin D Status of Children in a University Hospital in West Turkey. Hong Kong Med. J. 2016;21:251–256.
  • 15. Bucak IH, Almis H. The Retrospective Analysis of Vitamin D Levels of Pediatric Patients in a Small City Center in Turkey. Sak. Med. J. 2016;6(3):136–140.
  • 16. Topal I, Mertoglu C, Arslan YK et al. Erzincan Bölgesindeki Çocukların D Vitamini Seviyelerinin Yaş, Cinsiyet ve Mevsimlere Göre Değerlendirilmesi. Firat Med J 2018;23(4):168–172.
  • 17. Acik S, Yakinci MC. Vitamin D Levels of Pediatric Intensive Care Patients. Konuralp Tıp Derg. 2018;10(3):326–332.
  • 18. Moore CE, Liu Y. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with total adiposity of children in the United States: National Health and Examination Survey 2005 to 2006. Nutr. Res. 2016;36(1):72–79.
  • 19. Yang C, Mao M, Ping L, Yu D. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among 460,537 children in 825 hospitals from 18 provinces in mainland China. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(44). doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000022463.
  • 20. Isa H, Almaliki M, Alsabea A, Mohamed A. Vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in Bahrain: Do gender and age matter? East. Mediterr. Heal. J. 2020;26(3):260–267.
  • 21. Beer RJ, Herrán OF, Villamor E. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in a tropical setting: results from a nationally representative survey. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2020;112(4):1088–1098.
  • 22. Kanike N, Hospattankar KG, Sharma A, Worley S, Groh-Wargo S. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Large Newborn Cohort from Northern United States and Effect of Intrauterine Drug Exposure. Nutrients 2020;12(7):1–9.
  • 23. Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL et al. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin. Pediatr. (Phila). 2007;46(1):42–44.
  • 24. Merewood A, Mehta SD, Grossman X et al. Widespread vitamin D deficiency in urban Massachusetts newborns and their mothers. Pediatrics 2010;125(4):640–647.
  • 25. Halicioglu O, Aksit S, Koc F et al. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in spring time in western Turkey. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 2012;26(1):53–60.
  • 26. Chen Z, Lv X, Hu W et al. Vitamin D Status and Its Influence on the Health of Preschool Children in Hangzhou. Front. public Heal. 2021;9. doi:10.3389/FPUBH.2021.675403.
  • 27. Al-Sadat N, Majid HA, Sim PY et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs). BMJ Open 2016;6(8). doi:10.1136/BMJOPEN-2015-010689.
  • 28. Khor GL, Chee WSS, Shariff ZM et al. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 2011;11(95):1–8.
  • 29. Shaikh AMA, Abaalkhail B, Soliman A et al. Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and calcium homeostasis in saudi children. JCRPE J. Clin. Res. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 2016;8(4):461–467.
  • 30. Levis S, Gomez A, Jimenez C et al. Vitamin D deficiency and seasonal variation in an adult south Florida population. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005;90(3):1557–1562.
  • 31. Gannagé-Yared MH, Chemali R, Yaacoub N, Halaby G. Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: Relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2000;15(9):1856–1862.
  • 32. van der Mei IAF, Ponsonby AL, Engelsen O et al. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude. Environ. Health Perspect. 2007;115(8):1132–1139.
  • 33. Mishal AA. Effects of different dress styles on vitamin D levels in healthy young Jordanian women. Osteoporos. Int. 2001;12(11):931–935.
  • 34. Zhang H qi, Teng J hua, Li Y et al. Vitamin D status and its association with adiposity and oxidative stress in schoolchildren. Nutrition 2014;30(9):1040–1044.
  • 35. Turer CB, Lin H, Flores G. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among overweight and obese us children. Pediatrics 2013;131(1):152–61.
  • 36. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000;72(3):690–693.
  • 37. Clemens TL, Henderson SL, Adams JS, Holick MF. Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1982;319(8263):74–76.
  • 38. Weishaar T, Vergili JM. Vitamin D Status Is a Biological Determinant of Health Disparities. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2013;113(5):643–651.
  • 39. Puri S, Marwaha RK, Agarwal N et al. Vitamin D status of apparently healthy schoolgirls from two different socioeconomic strata in Delhi: Relation to nutrition and lifestyle. Br. J. Nutr. 2008;99(4):876–882.

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 6 (Forthcoming Issue-Gelecek sayı), 755 - 760, 21.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.984173

Öz

Kaynakça

  • 1. Holick MF. Medical progress: Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007;357(3):266–281.
  • 2. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011;96(7):1911–1930.
  • 3. Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1678–1688.
  • 4. Huh SY, Gordon CM. Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, impact and treatment. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2008:161–70.
  • 5. Holick MF. Vitamin D: Important for prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular heart disease, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. South. Med. J. 2005;98(10):1024–1027.
  • 6. Sahin ON, Serdar M, Serteser M, Unsal I, Ozpinar A. Vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone variations of children living in a subtropical climate: A data mining study. Ital. J. Pediatr. 2018;44(1):1–7.
  • 7. Coşkun C, Şahin K. Correlation between vitamin D level and platelet indices in children aged 0-18 years. Haseki Tip Bul. 2018;56(2):153–157.
  • 8. Türe E, Müderrisoğlu S, Acı R, Çubukçu M, Erdem MA. Evaluation of Vitamin D Levels in Adolescents and Children According to Age, Sex and Seasonal Charesteristics. Ankara Med. J. 2020;20(2):380–386.
  • 9. Demiral M, Sırmagül B, Kirel B. Endokrin polikliniğine başvuran çocuklarda d vitamini düzeyleri. Guncel Pediatr. 2016;14(2):60–66.
  • 10. Yetim A, Tıkız C, Baş F. Prevelance of vitamin D and B12 deficiency in adolescence. Çocuk Derg. 2017;17(1):24–29.
  • 11. Atasoy V, Ateş Altunbaş E, Set T. Evaluation of Vitamin D levels among overweight and obese children. Türkiye Aile Hekim. Derg. 2019;23(3):102–109.
  • 12. Naiboğlu E, Naiboğlu S, Turan E, Hasbal Akkuş C, Hatipoğlu S. Investigation of Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Child Clinic. Bakirkoy Tip Derg. / Med. J. Bakirkoy 2019;15(4):339–344.
  • 13. Doğan N, Colak AA, Güden N, Üstüner F. Vitamin D deficiency in children in Aegean Region in Turkey. Cumhur. Med. J. 2015;37(1):17–22.
  • 14. Ozhan B, Evrengul H, Yilmaz Agladioglu S, Umit Yasar S, Demir S. Vitamin D Status of Children in a University Hospital in West Turkey. Hong Kong Med. J. 2016;21:251–256.
  • 15. Bucak IH, Almis H. The Retrospective Analysis of Vitamin D Levels of Pediatric Patients in a Small City Center in Turkey. Sak. Med. J. 2016;6(3):136–140.
  • 16. Topal I, Mertoglu C, Arslan YK et al. Erzincan Bölgesindeki Çocukların D Vitamini Seviyelerinin Yaş, Cinsiyet ve Mevsimlere Göre Değerlendirilmesi. Firat Med J 2018;23(4):168–172.
  • 17. Acik S, Yakinci MC. Vitamin D Levels of Pediatric Intensive Care Patients. Konuralp Tıp Derg. 2018;10(3):326–332.
  • 18. Moore CE, Liu Y. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with total adiposity of children in the United States: National Health and Examination Survey 2005 to 2006. Nutr. Res. 2016;36(1):72–79.
  • 19. Yang C, Mao M, Ping L, Yu D. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among 460,537 children in 825 hospitals from 18 provinces in mainland China. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(44). doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000022463.
  • 20. Isa H, Almaliki M, Alsabea A, Mohamed A. Vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in Bahrain: Do gender and age matter? East. Mediterr. Heal. J. 2020;26(3):260–267.
  • 21. Beer RJ, Herrán OF, Villamor E. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in a tropical setting: results from a nationally representative survey. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2020;112(4):1088–1098.
  • 22. Kanike N, Hospattankar KG, Sharma A, Worley S, Groh-Wargo S. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Large Newborn Cohort from Northern United States and Effect of Intrauterine Drug Exposure. Nutrients 2020;12(7):1–9.
  • 23. Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL et al. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin. Pediatr. (Phila). 2007;46(1):42–44.
  • 24. Merewood A, Mehta SD, Grossman X et al. Widespread vitamin D deficiency in urban Massachusetts newborns and their mothers. Pediatrics 2010;125(4):640–647.
  • 25. Halicioglu O, Aksit S, Koc F et al. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in spring time in western Turkey. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 2012;26(1):53–60.
  • 26. Chen Z, Lv X, Hu W et al. Vitamin D Status and Its Influence on the Health of Preschool Children in Hangzhou. Front. public Heal. 2021;9. doi:10.3389/FPUBH.2021.675403.
  • 27. Al-Sadat N, Majid HA, Sim PY et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs). BMJ Open 2016;6(8). doi:10.1136/BMJOPEN-2015-010689.
  • 28. Khor GL, Chee WSS, Shariff ZM et al. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 2011;11(95):1–8.
  • 29. Shaikh AMA, Abaalkhail B, Soliman A et al. Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and calcium homeostasis in saudi children. JCRPE J. Clin. Res. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 2016;8(4):461–467.
  • 30. Levis S, Gomez A, Jimenez C et al. Vitamin D deficiency and seasonal variation in an adult south Florida population. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005;90(3):1557–1562.
  • 31. Gannagé-Yared MH, Chemali R, Yaacoub N, Halaby G. Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: Relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2000;15(9):1856–1862.
  • 32. van der Mei IAF, Ponsonby AL, Engelsen O et al. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude. Environ. Health Perspect. 2007;115(8):1132–1139.
  • 33. Mishal AA. Effects of different dress styles on vitamin D levels in healthy young Jordanian women. Osteoporos. Int. 2001;12(11):931–935.
  • 34. Zhang H qi, Teng J hua, Li Y et al. Vitamin D status and its association with adiposity and oxidative stress in schoolchildren. Nutrition 2014;30(9):1040–1044.
  • 35. Turer CB, Lin H, Flores G. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among overweight and obese us children. Pediatrics 2013;131(1):152–61.
  • 36. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000;72(3):690–693.
  • 37. Clemens TL, Henderson SL, Adams JS, Holick MF. Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1982;319(8263):74–76.
  • 38. Weishaar T, Vergili JM. Vitamin D Status Is a Biological Determinant of Health Disparities. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2013;113(5):643–651.
  • 39. Puri S, Marwaha RK, Agarwal N et al. Vitamin D status of apparently healthy schoolgirls from two different socioeconomic strata in Delhi: Relation to nutrition and lifestyle. Br. J. Nutr. 2008;99(4):876–882.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Orjinal Araştırma
Yazarlar

Muhammet Ali VARKAL (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSTANBUL TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, ÇOCUK SAĞLIĞI VE HASTALIKLARI ANABİLİM DALI, GENEL PEDİATRİ BİLİM DALI
0000-0002-2564-8298
Türkiye


Mustafa ÖZÇETİN
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSTANBUL TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, ÇOCUK SAĞLIĞI VE HASTALIKLARI ANABİLİM DALI, GENEL PEDİATRİ BİLİM DALI
0000-0003-0697-4271
Türkiye


Ayşe KILIÇ
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSTANBUL TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, ÇOCUK SAĞLIĞI VE HASTALIKLARI ANABİLİM DALI, GENEL PEDİATRİ BİLİM DALI
0000-0003-3217-4075
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 8 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 6 (Forthcoming Issue-Gelecek sayı)

Kaynak Göster

AMA Varkal M. A. , Özçetin M. , Kılıç A. FREQUENCY OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: A SINGLE-CENTER CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN ISTANBUL. J Contemp Med. 2021; 11(6 (Forthcoming Issue-Gelecek sayı)): 755-760.