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The Mental Health Of Turkish Society During The COVID-19 Pandemic

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 4, 543 - 547, 31.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1057608

Öz

Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-1 quickly spread all over the world and caused many deaths in Turkey as in the whole world. COVID-19 is potentially lethal and affects the mental health of people. It is important to detect the potential psychological changes in a timely manner during the pandemic. We aimed to determine the anxiety levels and associated risk factors of the society during COVID-19 in Turkey. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted throughout Turkey during the pandemic. The questionnaires were delivered to the participants via Google Forms. The questionnaire was first published on April 15, 2020, and data were collected for a period of 30 days. Results: 8,917 questionnaire forms filled out by Turkish society were included in the study. The anxiety level and fear of death were higher in older, females, parents, smokers, people who have comorbidities, social media users, and people who have higher education levels. Conclusion: The present study is the most comprehensive study conducted in Turkey in terms of the number of participants and sheds light on the mental state of Turkish society during the pandemic. It was determined that COVID-19 has negatively affected the mental health of the population and has increased the anxiety levels and fear of death in Turkey. People who have higher anxiety levels and fear of death should be identified, and psychological support should be provided to these people.

Kaynakça

  • Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.
  • WH O. Statement on the second meeting of the international health regulations (2005) emergency committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 2020.
  • Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(16):1564-7.
  • Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of medical virology. 2020;92(4):441-7.
  • Schaller M, Murray DR, Bangerter A. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2015;370(1669):20140105.
  • Terrizzi Jr JA, Shook NJ, McDaniel MA. The behavioral immune system and social conservatism: A meta-analysis. Evolution and Human Behavior. 2013;34(2):99-108.
  • Mortensen CR, Becker DV, Ackerman JM, Neuberg SL, Kenrick DT. Infection breeds reticence: The effects of disease salience on self-perceptions of personality and behavioral avoidance tendencies. Psychological Science. 2010;21(3):440-7.
  • Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ. 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes. 2002;65(3):240-60.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Annual review of psychology. 2002;53(1):83-107.
  • Öner N, Durumluk LCAS, El Kitabı SKE. 1. baskı. Bogaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul. 1983.
  • Spielberger CD. Test anxiety inventory. The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. 2010:1-.
  • Thorson JA, Powell FC. A revised death anxiety scale. Death Studies. 1992;16(6):507-21.
  • Karaca F, Yıldız M. Thorson-Powell Ölüm Kaygısı Ölçeğinin Türkçe Çevirisinin Normal Populasyonda Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Tabula Rasa. 2001;1(1):43-55.
  • Taylor MR, Agho KE, Stevens GJ, Raphael B. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza. BMC public health. 2008;8(1):347.
  • Lee AM, Wong JG, McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Sham PC, et al. Stress and psychological distress among SARS survivors 1 year after the outbreak. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;52(4):233-40.
  • Li J-B, Yang A, Dou K, Cheung RY. Self-control moderates the association between perceived severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mental health problems among the Chinese public. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020.
  • Fitzpatrick KM, Harris C, Drawve G. Fear of COVID-19 and the mental health consequences in America. Psychological trauma: theory, research, practice, and policy. 2020.
  • Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General psychiatry. 2020;33(2).
  • Xiao C. A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: structured letter therapy. Psychiatry investigation. 2020;17(2):175.
  • Kelly JD, Hoff NA, Spencer DA, Musene K, Bramble MS, McIlwain D, et al. Neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings among survivors of Ebola virus disease from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2019;68(8):1388-93.
  • Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2005;18(1):39-42.
  • Ozamiz-Etxebarria N, Dosil-Santamaria M, Picaza-Gorrochategui M, Idoiaga-Mondragon N. Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2020;36:e00054020.
  • Ustun G. Determining depression and related factors in a society affected by COVID-19 pandemic. The International journal of social psychiatry. 2020.
  • Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(5):1729.
  • Petzold MB, Bendau A, Plag J, Pyrkosch L, Mascarell Maricic L, Betzler F, et al. Risk, resilience, psychological distress, and anxiety at the beginning of the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Brain and behavior. 2020;10(9):e01745.
  • Roberts T, Esponda GM, Krupchanka D, Shidhaye R, Patel V, Rathod S. Factors associated with health service utilisation for common mental disorders: a systematic review. BMC psychiatry. 2018;18(1):262.
  • Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. Plos one. 2020;15(4):e0231924.

COVID-19 Pandemisi Sırasında Türk Toplumunun Ruh Sağlığı

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 4, 543 - 547, 31.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1057608

Öz

Giriş: Yeni koronavirüs hastalığı (COVID-1 tüm dünyaya hızla yayılarak tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye'de de çok sayıda ölüme neden olmuştur. COVID-19 potansiyel olarak öldürücüdür ve insanların ruh sağlığını etkiler. Potansiyel psikolojik sorunları tespit etmek önemlidir. Türkiye'de COVID-19 sürecinde toplumun kaygı düzeylerini ve ilişkili risk faktörlerini belirlemeyi amaçladık. Yöntemler: Bu, pandemi sırasında Türkiye genelinde gerçekleştirilen kesitsel bir çalışmadır. Anketler katılımcılara Google Formlar aracılığıyla ulaştırılmıştır. Anket ilk olarak 15 Nisan 2020 tarihinde yayınlanmış ve 30 günlük bir süre boyunca veriler toplanmıştır. Bulgular: Türk toplumu tarafından doldurulan 8.917 anket formu çalışmaya dahil edildi. Yaşlılarda, kadınlarda, anne-babalarda, sigara içenlerde, ek hastalığı olanlarda, sosyal medya kullananlarda ve eğitim düzeyi yüksek olanlarda kaygı düzeyi ve ölüm korkusu daha yüksekti. Sonuç: Bu çalışma, katılımcı sayısı açısından Türkiye'de yapılmış en kapsamlı çalışma olup, Türk toplumunun pandemi sürecindeki ruhsal durumuna ışık tutmaktadır. Türkiye'de COVID-19'un nüfusun ruh sağlığını olumsuz yönde etkilediği, kaygı düzeylerini ve ölüm korkusunu artırdığı belirlendi. Kaygı düzeyi ve ölüm korkusu yüksek olan kişiler belirlenmeli ve bu kişilere psikolojik destek sağlanmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.
  • WH O. Statement on the second meeting of the international health regulations (2005) emergency committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 2020.
  • Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(16):1564-7.
  • Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of medical virology. 2020;92(4):441-7.
  • Schaller M, Murray DR, Bangerter A. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2015;370(1669):20140105.
  • Terrizzi Jr JA, Shook NJ, McDaniel MA. The behavioral immune system and social conservatism: A meta-analysis. Evolution and Human Behavior. 2013;34(2):99-108.
  • Mortensen CR, Becker DV, Ackerman JM, Neuberg SL, Kenrick DT. Infection breeds reticence: The effects of disease salience on self-perceptions of personality and behavioral avoidance tendencies. Psychological Science. 2010;21(3):440-7.
  • Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ. 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes. 2002;65(3):240-60.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Annual review of psychology. 2002;53(1):83-107.
  • Öner N, Durumluk LCAS, El Kitabı SKE. 1. baskı. Bogaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul. 1983.
  • Spielberger CD. Test anxiety inventory. The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. 2010:1-.
  • Thorson JA, Powell FC. A revised death anxiety scale. Death Studies. 1992;16(6):507-21.
  • Karaca F, Yıldız M. Thorson-Powell Ölüm Kaygısı Ölçeğinin Türkçe Çevirisinin Normal Populasyonda Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Tabula Rasa. 2001;1(1):43-55.
  • Taylor MR, Agho KE, Stevens GJ, Raphael B. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza. BMC public health. 2008;8(1):347.
  • Lee AM, Wong JG, McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Sham PC, et al. Stress and psychological distress among SARS survivors 1 year after the outbreak. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;52(4):233-40.
  • Li J-B, Yang A, Dou K, Cheung RY. Self-control moderates the association between perceived severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mental health problems among the Chinese public. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020.
  • Fitzpatrick KM, Harris C, Drawve G. Fear of COVID-19 and the mental health consequences in America. Psychological trauma: theory, research, practice, and policy. 2020.
  • Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General psychiatry. 2020;33(2).
  • Xiao C. A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: structured letter therapy. Psychiatry investigation. 2020;17(2):175.
  • Kelly JD, Hoff NA, Spencer DA, Musene K, Bramble MS, McIlwain D, et al. Neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings among survivors of Ebola virus disease from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2019;68(8):1388-93.
  • Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2005;18(1):39-42.
  • Ozamiz-Etxebarria N, Dosil-Santamaria M, Picaza-Gorrochategui M, Idoiaga-Mondragon N. Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2020;36:e00054020.
  • Ustun G. Determining depression and related factors in a society affected by COVID-19 pandemic. The International journal of social psychiatry. 2020.
  • Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(5):1729.
  • Petzold MB, Bendau A, Plag J, Pyrkosch L, Mascarell Maricic L, Betzler F, et al. Risk, resilience, psychological distress, and anxiety at the beginning of the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Brain and behavior. 2020;10(9):e01745.
  • Roberts T, Esponda GM, Krupchanka D, Shidhaye R, Patel V, Rathod S. Factors associated with health service utilisation for common mental disorders: a systematic review. BMC psychiatry. 2018;18(1):262.
  • Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. Plos one. 2020;15(4):e0231924.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Orjinal Araştırma
Yazarlar

İlker KAÇER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
TC. Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi Aksaray Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0002-9653-7958
Türkiye


Ahmet ÇAĞLAR>
Aksaray Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0002-0161-1167
Türkiye


Berkant ÖZTÜRK>
Aksaray Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0002-6645-7287
Türkiye


Muhammet HACIMUSTAFAOĞLU>
Aksaray Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0001-6368-6853
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 1 Haziran 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2022
Kabul Tarihi 18 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

AMA Kaçer İ. , Çağlar A. , Öztürk B. , Hacımustafaoğlu M. The Mental Health Of Turkish Society During The COVID-19 Pandemic. J Contemp Med. 2022; 12(4): 543-547.