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Investigation of the Frequency of Rotavirus and Enteric Adenovirus in Children with Acute Viral Gastroenteritis Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 5, 727 - 732, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1146516

Öz

Aim: Rotavirus and enteric adenovirus are common causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. With the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, measures for pandemic management have also affected frequency of other viral agents. The aim of this study was to investigate changing antigen positivity pattern of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus before and during pandemic and to determine its distribution according to age groups, gender and season of admittance. Material and Method: Test results of 14670 stool samples of pediatric patients with gastroenteritis between January 2019-June 2021 were evaluated retrospectively. Rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigens were detected by immunochromatography. Results: The positivity rates of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus antigen were 9.5% and 1.6%, respectively, before pandemic. A statistically significant decrease was detected for positivity rates of both these viruses during pandemic. Rotavirus antigen positivity significantly increased in 0-2 age group during pandemic (72.9%) compared to pre-pandemic period (70.4%) and significantly decreased from 4.1% to 3.5% in age group of 8-14 during pandemic. Distribution of adenovirus antigen positivity according to age groups did not differ significantly. There was no significant association between period and gender in terms of positivity rates. In pre-pandemic winter, rotavirus and adenovirus positivity rates were found to be significantly higher than in other seasons whereas during pandemic, positivity rates significantly increased in spring and summer. Conclusion: Frequencies of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus have shown a significant decrease during pandemic. Infection control measures have play an important role in reducing incidence of enteric viruses as well as SARS-CoV-2.

Kaynakça

  • Çömçe M, Kafadar D, Erol M, Yiğit Ö. A retrospective analysis of rotavirus and adenovirus ınfections in pediatric population admitted to emergency department with acute gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Inf 2017;11(4):e135-42.
  • Coşkun USS, Kasap T. Frequency of rotavirus and adenovirus in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. J Contemp Med 2019;9(1):85-8.
  • Çelik E, Halhalli HC, Şancı E. The Effectiveness of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Hospitalization of Childhood Viral Gastroenteritis. Kocaeli Med J 2020;9;3:111-19.
  • Tagbo BN, Chukwubike CM, Ezeugwu RI, Ani EO. Adenovirus and Rotavirus Associated Diarrhoea in under 5 Children from Enugu Rural Communities, South East Nigeria. World J. Vaccines 2019;9:71-83.
  • Güler E, Baddal B, M Güvenir, K Süer. Epidemiological surveillance of rotavirus and adenovirus among patients with acute gastroenteritis:A single-center experience in Northern Cyprus. Cyprus J Med Sci 2019;4(3):229-34.
  • Akpınar O, Akpınar H. Investigation of the enteric adenovirus antigen frequency by immunochromotographic method in children with acute gastroenteritis. Meandros Med Dent J 2017;18:86-9.
  • Dong JX, Li AF, Li RQ, Chao S, Yang S and Zhao XY. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus and adenovirus related gastroenteritis in Beijing:A retrospective case-control study in pediatric patients. Biomed Environ Sci 2020;33(3):196-200.
  • Bostan S, Erdem R, Öztürk YE, Kılıç T, Yılmaz A. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the Turkish Society. Electron J Gen Med 2020;17(6):em237.
  • Chan MCW. Return of Norovirus and Rotavirus activity in winter 2020-21 in city with strict COVID-19 control strategy, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2022;28(3):713-16.
  • Knudsena PK, Lind A, Klundby I, Dudman S. The incidence of infectious diseases and viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 amongst hospitalised children in Oslo, Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic 2020–2021. J Clin Virol Plus 2 2022;100060.
  • Wang LP, Han JY, Zhou SX et al. The changing pattern of enteric pathogen infections in China during the COVID-19 pandemic:A nation-wide observational study. Lancet Reg Health West. Pac 2021;16:100268.
  • Mack D, Gohl P, Kolbert M et al. Where have the enteric viruses gone? - Differential effects on frequent causes of infectious diarrhoea by SARS-CoV-2 pandemic lockdown measures. Infect Prev Pract 2021:3(4):10018.
  • Li W, Zhu Y, Lou J, Chen J, Xie X, Mao J. Rotavirus and adenovirus infections in children during COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. Transl Pediatr 2021;10(9):2281-6.
  • Yalçın TY, Yıldırım D, Alkan S. Frequency of rotavirus and adenovirus in children with diarrhea in Sivas Numune Hospital. Cumhur Medical J 2016;38(4):258-62.
  • Ahn SY, Park JY, Lim IS, et al. Changes in the occurrence of gastrointestinal infections after COVID-19 in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2021;36(24):e180.
  • Bruggink LD, Garcia-Clapes A, Tran T, Druce JD, Thorley BR. Decreased incidence of enterovirus and norovirus infections during the COVID-19 pandemic, Victoria, Australia, 2020. Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020;44:1-8.
  • Zaraket R, Salami A, Bahmad M, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of rotavirus and adenovirus among Lebanese hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis. Heliyon 6 2020:e04248.
  • Güzel M, Akpınar O, Kılıç MB. Prevalence of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis cases in early childhood in Turkey:Meta-Analysis. Children 2020:7(10):159.

Akut Viral Gastroenteritli Çocuklarda COVID-19 Pandemisi Öncesi ve Sırasında Rotavirüs ve Enterik Adenovirüs Sıklığının Araştırılması

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 5, 727 - 732, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1146516

Öz

Amaç: Rotavirüs ve enterik adenovirüs, dünya çapında çocuklarda akut gastroenteritin yaygın nedenleridir. COVID-19 pandemisinin ortaya çıkmasıyla pandemi yönetimine yönelik tedbirler diğer viral ajanların sıklığını da etkilemiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, pandemi öncesi ve pandemi sırasında rotavirüs ve enterik adenovirüsün değişen antijen pozitiflik paternini araştırmak ve yaş gruplarına, cinsiyete ve başvuru mevsimine göre dağılımını belirlemektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Ocak 2019-Haziran 2021 tarihleri arasında gastroenteritli çocuk hastalardan alınan 14670 dışkı örneğinin test sonuçları geriye dönük olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Rotavirüs ve enterik adenovirüs antijenleri immünokromatografiyle saptanmıştır. Bulgular: Pandemi öncesi dönemde rotavirüs ve enterik adenovirüs antijeni pozitiflik oranları sırasıyla %9,5 ve %1,6 idi. Pandemi sırasında bu iki virüsün pozitiflik oranlarında pandemi öncesi döneme göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir azalma saptanmıştır. Rotavirus antijen pozitifliği 0-2 yaş grubunda pandemi döneminde (%72,9) pandemi öncesine (%70,4) göre anlamlı olarak artarken, pandemi sırasında 8-14 yaş grubunda %4,1'den %3,5'e düşmüştür. Adenovirüs antijen pozitifliğinin yaş gruplarına göre dağılımı anlamlı farklılık göstermemiştir. Pozitiflik oranları açısından dönem ve cinsiyet arasında anlamlı bir ilişki yoktu. Pandemi öncesi kış mevsiminde rotavirüs ve adenovirüs pozitiflik oranları diğer mevsimlere göre anlamlı derecede yüksek bulunurken, pandemi döneminde ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında önemli ölçüde artmıştır. Sonuç: Rotavirüs ve enterik adenovirüs sıklığı pandemi döneminde belirgin bir azalma göstermiştir. İnfeksiyon kontrol önlemleri SARS-CoV-2’nin yanı sıra enterik virüslerin görülme sıklığının da azalmasında önemli bir rol oynamıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Çömçe M, Kafadar D, Erol M, Yiğit Ö. A retrospective analysis of rotavirus and adenovirus ınfections in pediatric population admitted to emergency department with acute gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Inf 2017;11(4):e135-42.
  • Coşkun USS, Kasap T. Frequency of rotavirus and adenovirus in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. J Contemp Med 2019;9(1):85-8.
  • Çelik E, Halhalli HC, Şancı E. The Effectiveness of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Hospitalization of Childhood Viral Gastroenteritis. Kocaeli Med J 2020;9;3:111-19.
  • Tagbo BN, Chukwubike CM, Ezeugwu RI, Ani EO. Adenovirus and Rotavirus Associated Diarrhoea in under 5 Children from Enugu Rural Communities, South East Nigeria. World J. Vaccines 2019;9:71-83.
  • Güler E, Baddal B, M Güvenir, K Süer. Epidemiological surveillance of rotavirus and adenovirus among patients with acute gastroenteritis:A single-center experience in Northern Cyprus. Cyprus J Med Sci 2019;4(3):229-34.
  • Akpınar O, Akpınar H. Investigation of the enteric adenovirus antigen frequency by immunochromotographic method in children with acute gastroenteritis. Meandros Med Dent J 2017;18:86-9.
  • Dong JX, Li AF, Li RQ, Chao S, Yang S and Zhao XY. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus and adenovirus related gastroenteritis in Beijing:A retrospective case-control study in pediatric patients. Biomed Environ Sci 2020;33(3):196-200.
  • Bostan S, Erdem R, Öztürk YE, Kılıç T, Yılmaz A. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the Turkish Society. Electron J Gen Med 2020;17(6):em237.
  • Chan MCW. Return of Norovirus and Rotavirus activity in winter 2020-21 in city with strict COVID-19 control strategy, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2022;28(3):713-16.
  • Knudsena PK, Lind A, Klundby I, Dudman S. The incidence of infectious diseases and viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 amongst hospitalised children in Oslo, Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic 2020–2021. J Clin Virol Plus 2 2022;100060.
  • Wang LP, Han JY, Zhou SX et al. The changing pattern of enteric pathogen infections in China during the COVID-19 pandemic:A nation-wide observational study. Lancet Reg Health West. Pac 2021;16:100268.
  • Mack D, Gohl P, Kolbert M et al. Where have the enteric viruses gone? - Differential effects on frequent causes of infectious diarrhoea by SARS-CoV-2 pandemic lockdown measures. Infect Prev Pract 2021:3(4):10018.
  • Li W, Zhu Y, Lou J, Chen J, Xie X, Mao J. Rotavirus and adenovirus infections in children during COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. Transl Pediatr 2021;10(9):2281-6.
  • Yalçın TY, Yıldırım D, Alkan S. Frequency of rotavirus and adenovirus in children with diarrhea in Sivas Numune Hospital. Cumhur Medical J 2016;38(4):258-62.
  • Ahn SY, Park JY, Lim IS, et al. Changes in the occurrence of gastrointestinal infections after COVID-19 in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2021;36(24):e180.
  • Bruggink LD, Garcia-Clapes A, Tran T, Druce JD, Thorley BR. Decreased incidence of enterovirus and norovirus infections during the COVID-19 pandemic, Victoria, Australia, 2020. Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020;44:1-8.
  • Zaraket R, Salami A, Bahmad M, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of rotavirus and adenovirus among Lebanese hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis. Heliyon 6 2020:e04248.
  • Güzel M, Akpınar O, Kılıç MB. Prevalence of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis cases in early childhood in Turkey:Meta-Analysis. Children 2020:7(10):159.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Orjinal Araştırma
Yazarlar

Nadire Seval GÜNDEM> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KONYA DR ALİ KEMAL BELVİRANLI KADIN DOĞUM VE ÇOCUK HASTALIKLARI HASTANESİ
0000-0003-3157-6849
Türkiye


Esma KELEŞ ALP>
KONYA DR ALİ KEMAL BELVİRANLI KADIN DOĞUM VE ÇOCUK HASTALIKLARI HASTANESİ
0000-0003-4525-2159
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 11 Temmuz 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2022
Kabul Tarihi 10 Eylül 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 5

Kaynak Göster

AMA Gündem N. S. , Keleş Alp E. Investigation of the Frequency of Rotavirus and Enteric Adenovirus in Children with Acute Viral Gastroenteritis Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Contemp Med. 2022; 12(5): 727-732.