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Tıp Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeyleri: küresel bir sorun

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6, 937 - 943, 30.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1190953

Öz

Amaç: Düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin genel sağlık, bilişsel işlevler ve zihinsel sağlık üzerinde olumlu etkileri gösterilmiştir. Üniversite öğrencilerinin büyük çoğunluğu, kabul görmüş rehberlerin fiziksel aktivite önerilerini karşılamamaktadır. Bu çalışmada tıp fakültesi öğrencilerinin fiziksel aktivite düzeyleri ve ilişkili faktörleri belirlemeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmamız kesitsel ve gözlemsel bir anket çalışmasıdır. Çalışmada çevrimiçi bir Google anket aracı kullanıldı. Gönüllü onam formunu onaylayan beş yüz yirmi sekiz öğrenci çalışmaya dahil edildi. Sosyodemografik verileri ve kişisel yaşam tarzını sorgulayan bir anket kullanıldı. Katılımcıların fiziksel aktivite düzeyleri Uluslararası Fiziksel Aktivite Anketi-kısa formu (IPAQ-SF) ile, depresyon ve anksiyete düzeyleri sırasıyla Beck Depresyon Ölçeği (BDÖ) ve Beck Anksiyete Ölçeği (BAÖ) ile belirlendi. Bulgular: Katılımcıların ortalama toplam IPAQ-SF puanları 1658±1793,91 MET idi. BDÖ skoru ile fiziksel aktivite düzeyi arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı negatif korelasyon bulundu (r=-0.102, p=0.019). Aktif hobisi ve düzenli fiziksel aktivite katılımı olanların fiziksel aktivite düzeyleri istatistiksel anlamlılıkla daha yüksekti (sırasıyla, p<0.001, p=0.001). Aktif hobisi olanların BDÖ ve BAÖ skorları olmayanlara göre istatistiksel anlamlılıkla daha düşük saptandı (sırasıyla,13.60±7.57 vs 16.46±9.59, p<0.001; 10.33±8.31 vs 12.64±10.13, p=0.004). Sonuç: Aktif hobi varlığı ve düzenli fiziksel aktivite katılımı tıp fakültesi öğrencilerinde fiziksel aktivite düzeyi ve mental sağlığı olumlu etkilemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • References: 1. Naudeau S, Cunningham W, Lundberg MK, McGinnis L. World Bank. Programs and policies that promote positive youth development and prevent risky behaviors: an international perspective. New Dir Child Adolesc Devv 2008;122:75-87. doi: 10.1002/cd.230. PMID: 19021247.
  • 2. Reiner M, Niermann C, Jekauc D, Woll A. Long-term health benefits of physical activity--a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health 2013;13:813. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-813.
  • 3. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med 2020;54(24):1451-1462. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955.
  • 4. Pengpid S, Peltzer K, Kassean HK, Tsala Tsala JP, Sychareun V, Müller-Riemenschneider F. Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Int J Public Health 2015;60(5):539-49. doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0680-0.
  • 5. Vankim NA, Nelson TF. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students. Am J Health Promot 2013;28(1):7-15. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.111101-QUAN-395.
  • 6. Ghrouz AK, Noohu MM, Dilshad Manzar M, Warren Spence D, BaHammam AS, Pandi-Perumal SR. Physical activity and sleep quality in relation to mental health among college students. Sleep Breath 2019;23(2):627-634. doi: 10.1007/s11325-019-01780-z.
  • 7. Warburton DER, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews. Curr Opin Cardiol 2017;32(5):541-556. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000437.
  • 8. Nakagawa T, Koan I, Chen C, et al. Regular Moderate- to Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Rather Than Walking Is Associated with Enhanced Cognitive Functions and Mental Health in Young Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(2):614. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17020614.
  • 9. Booth M. Assessment of physical activity: an international perspective. Res Q Exerc Sport 2000;71(2):114-20.
  • 10. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(8):1381-95. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB.
  • 11. Saglam M, Arikan H, Savci S, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Perceptual and motor skills 2010;(111.1): 278-284. oi: 10.2466/06.08.PMS.111.4.278-284.
  • 12. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.
  • 13. Hisli N. Beck Depresyon Envanteri’nin geçerliği üzerine bir çalışma [A study on the validity of Beck Depression Inventory]. Pskoloji Dergisi 1988;(6):118-122.
  • 14. Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56(6):893-7. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.56.6.893.
  • 15. Ulusoy M, Nesrin H. Sahin, Hüsnü Erkmen. Turkish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties. Journal of cognitive psychotherapy 1998;12(2): 163.
  • 16. Haase A, Steptoe A, Sallis JF, Wardle J. Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: associations with health beliefs, risk awareness, and national economic development. Prev Med 2004;39(1):182-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.01.028.
  • 17. Sevil J, Sánchez-Miguel PA, Pulido JJ, Práxedes A, Sánchez-Oliva D. Motivation and Physical Activity: Differences Between High School and University Students in Spain. Percept Mot Skills 2018;125(5):894-907. doi: 10.1177/0031512518788743.
  • 18. Sevil J, Práxedes A, Abarca-Sos A, Del Villar F, García-González L. Levels of physical activity, motivation and barriers to participation in university students. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016;56(10):1239-1248.
  • 19. Kljajević V, Stanković M, Đorđević D, et al. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness among University Students-A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;19(1):158. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010158.
  • 20. Lee E, Kim Y. Effect of university students' sedentary behavior on stress, anxiety, and depression. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2019;55(2):164-169. doi: 10.1111/ppc.12296.
  • 21. Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008;9(1):58-65. doi: 10.1038/nrn2298. PMID: 18094706.
  • 22. Stimpson NJ, Davison G, Javadi AH. Joggin' the Noggin: Towards a Physiological Understanding of Exercise-Induced Cognitive Benefits. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018;88:177-186. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.018.
  • 23. Mammen G, Faulkner G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am J Prev Med 2013;45(5):649-57. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.08.001.
  • 24. McDowell CP, Dishman RK, Gordon BR, Herring MP. Physical Activity and Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Am J Prev Med 2019;57(4):545-556. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.05.012.
  • 25. Hope V, Henderson M. Medical student depression, anxiety and distress outside North America: a systematic review. Med Educ 2014;48(10):963-79. doi: 10.1111/medu.12512.
  • 26. Puthran R, Zhang MW, Tam WW, Ho RC. Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Med Educ 2016;50(4):456-68. doi: 10.1111/medu.12962.
  • 27. Dinis J, Bragança M. Quality of Sleep and Depression in College Students: A Systematic Review. Sleep Sci 2018 ;11(4):290-301. doi: 10.5935/1984-0063.20180045.
  • 28. Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res 2012;1453:87-101. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068.
  • 29. Hamer M, Molloy GJ, de Oliveira C, Demakakos P. Leisure time physical activity, risk of depressive symptoms, and inflammatory mediators: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34(7):1050-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.02.004.
  • 30. Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, O'Neal HA. Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 ;33(6 ):S587-97; discussion 609-10. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200106001-00027.
  • 31. Vieira JL, Romera LA, Lima MCP. Lazer entre universitários da área da saúde: revisão de literatura [Leisure among university students in the healthcare area: a review of the literature]. Cien Saude Colet 2018;23(12):4221-4229. doi: 10.1590/1413-812320182312.31012016.
  • 32. Dinis T, Santiago LM, Caetano IR, Marôco J. Perfeccionismo, Burnout e as Atividades Extracurriculares nos Estudantes de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra [Perfectionism, Burnout and Extracurricular Activities Among Medical Students from the University of Coimbra]. Acta Med Port 2020;33(6):367-375. doi: 10.20344/amp.12083.
  • 33. Varela-Mato V, Cancela JM, Ayan C, Martín V, Molina A. Lifestyle and health among Spanish university students: differences by gender and academic discipline. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012;9(8):2728-41. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9082728.
  • 34. Klinker CD, Schipperijn J, Kerr J, Ersbøll AK, Troelsen J. Context-Specific Outdoor Time and Physical Activity among School-Children Across Gender and Age: Using Accelerometers and GPS to Advance Methods. Front Public Health 2014;2:20. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00020.
  • 35. Kling, K.G.; Margaryan, L.; Fuchs, M. (In) equality in the outdoors: Gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains. Curr Issues Tour 2020;23:233–247.
  • 36. Rodríguez-Larrad A, Mañas A, Labayen I, González-Gross M, Espin A, Aznar S, et al. Impact of COVID-19 Confinement on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Spanish University Students: Role of Gender. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(2):369. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020369.
  • 37. Brown T, Moore TH, Hooper L, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019;7(7):CD001871. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001871.pub4.
  • 38. Zbrońska I, Mędrela-Kuder E. The level of physical activity in elderly persons with overweight and obesity. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2018;69(4):369-373. doi: 10.32394/rpzh.2018.0042.
  • 39. Udo T, Grilo CM. Physical activity levels and correlates in nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with healthy weight, obesity, and binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2020;53(1):85-95. doi: 10.1002/eat.23199.
  • 40. Lee PH, Macfarlane DJ, Lam TH, Stewart SM. Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF): a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:115. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-115.

Physical Activity Levels of Medical Students: a global issue to be addressed

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6, 937 - 943, 30.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1190953

Öz

Aim: Regular physical activity has been shown to have positive effects on general health, cognitive functions, and mental health. The vast majority of university students do not meet the physical activity recommendations of well-accepted guidelines. In this study, we aimed to determine the physical activity levels (PALs) of medical school students and the related factors. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational survey study. The survey was conducted with an online Google survey tool. Five hundred and twenty-eight students who approved the voluntary consent form were included in the study. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data and questions about personal lifestyle were used. The physical activity levels of the participants were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF), depression and anxiety levels were determined with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Results: The mean total IPAQ-SF scores of the participants were 1658±1793.91 METs. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between BDI scores and PALs (r=-0.102, p=0.019). The PALs of those who had active hobbies and those who participated in regular sports activities were statistically significantly higher (p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). BDI and BAI scores of those with active hobby were statistically significantly lower than those without (13.60±7.57 vs 16.46±9.59, p<0.001; 10.33±8.31 vs 12.64±10.13, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, having an active hobby and participation in sports activities positively affects the PALs and the mental well-being of medical students.

Kaynakça

  • References: 1. Naudeau S, Cunningham W, Lundberg MK, McGinnis L. World Bank. Programs and policies that promote positive youth development and prevent risky behaviors: an international perspective. New Dir Child Adolesc Devv 2008;122:75-87. doi: 10.1002/cd.230. PMID: 19021247.
  • 2. Reiner M, Niermann C, Jekauc D, Woll A. Long-term health benefits of physical activity--a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health 2013;13:813. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-813.
  • 3. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med 2020;54(24):1451-1462. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955.
  • 4. Pengpid S, Peltzer K, Kassean HK, Tsala Tsala JP, Sychareun V, Müller-Riemenschneider F. Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Int J Public Health 2015;60(5):539-49. doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0680-0.
  • 5. Vankim NA, Nelson TF. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students. Am J Health Promot 2013;28(1):7-15. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.111101-QUAN-395.
  • 6. Ghrouz AK, Noohu MM, Dilshad Manzar M, Warren Spence D, BaHammam AS, Pandi-Perumal SR. Physical activity and sleep quality in relation to mental health among college students. Sleep Breath 2019;23(2):627-634. doi: 10.1007/s11325-019-01780-z.
  • 7. Warburton DER, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews. Curr Opin Cardiol 2017;32(5):541-556. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000437.
  • 8. Nakagawa T, Koan I, Chen C, et al. Regular Moderate- to Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Rather Than Walking Is Associated with Enhanced Cognitive Functions and Mental Health in Young Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(2):614. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17020614.
  • 9. Booth M. Assessment of physical activity: an international perspective. Res Q Exerc Sport 2000;71(2):114-20.
  • 10. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(8):1381-95. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB.
  • 11. Saglam M, Arikan H, Savci S, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Perceptual and motor skills 2010;(111.1): 278-284. oi: 10.2466/06.08.PMS.111.4.278-284.
  • 12. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.
  • 13. Hisli N. Beck Depresyon Envanteri’nin geçerliği üzerine bir çalışma [A study on the validity of Beck Depression Inventory]. Pskoloji Dergisi 1988;(6):118-122.
  • 14. Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56(6):893-7. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.56.6.893.
  • 15. Ulusoy M, Nesrin H. Sahin, Hüsnü Erkmen. Turkish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties. Journal of cognitive psychotherapy 1998;12(2): 163.
  • 16. Haase A, Steptoe A, Sallis JF, Wardle J. Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: associations with health beliefs, risk awareness, and national economic development. Prev Med 2004;39(1):182-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.01.028.
  • 17. Sevil J, Sánchez-Miguel PA, Pulido JJ, Práxedes A, Sánchez-Oliva D. Motivation and Physical Activity: Differences Between High School and University Students in Spain. Percept Mot Skills 2018;125(5):894-907. doi: 10.1177/0031512518788743.
  • 18. Sevil J, Práxedes A, Abarca-Sos A, Del Villar F, García-González L. Levels of physical activity, motivation and barriers to participation in university students. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016;56(10):1239-1248.
  • 19. Kljajević V, Stanković M, Đorđević D, et al. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness among University Students-A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;19(1):158. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010158.
  • 20. Lee E, Kim Y. Effect of university students' sedentary behavior on stress, anxiety, and depression. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2019;55(2):164-169. doi: 10.1111/ppc.12296.
  • 21. Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008;9(1):58-65. doi: 10.1038/nrn2298. PMID: 18094706.
  • 22. Stimpson NJ, Davison G, Javadi AH. Joggin' the Noggin: Towards a Physiological Understanding of Exercise-Induced Cognitive Benefits. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018;88:177-186. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.018.
  • 23. Mammen G, Faulkner G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am J Prev Med 2013;45(5):649-57. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.08.001.
  • 24. McDowell CP, Dishman RK, Gordon BR, Herring MP. Physical Activity and Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Am J Prev Med 2019;57(4):545-556. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.05.012.
  • 25. Hope V, Henderson M. Medical student depression, anxiety and distress outside North America: a systematic review. Med Educ 2014;48(10):963-79. doi: 10.1111/medu.12512.
  • 26. Puthran R, Zhang MW, Tam WW, Ho RC. Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Med Educ 2016;50(4):456-68. doi: 10.1111/medu.12962.
  • 27. Dinis J, Bragança M. Quality of Sleep and Depression in College Students: A Systematic Review. Sleep Sci 2018 ;11(4):290-301. doi: 10.5935/1984-0063.20180045.
  • 28. Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res 2012;1453:87-101. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068.
  • 29. Hamer M, Molloy GJ, de Oliveira C, Demakakos P. Leisure time physical activity, risk of depressive symptoms, and inflammatory mediators: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34(7):1050-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.02.004.
  • 30. Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, O'Neal HA. Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 ;33(6 ):S587-97; discussion 609-10. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200106001-00027.
  • 31. Vieira JL, Romera LA, Lima MCP. Lazer entre universitários da área da saúde: revisão de literatura [Leisure among university students in the healthcare area: a review of the literature]. Cien Saude Colet 2018;23(12):4221-4229. doi: 10.1590/1413-812320182312.31012016.
  • 32. Dinis T, Santiago LM, Caetano IR, Marôco J. Perfeccionismo, Burnout e as Atividades Extracurriculares nos Estudantes de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra [Perfectionism, Burnout and Extracurricular Activities Among Medical Students from the University of Coimbra]. Acta Med Port 2020;33(6):367-375. doi: 10.20344/amp.12083.
  • 33. Varela-Mato V, Cancela JM, Ayan C, Martín V, Molina A. Lifestyle and health among Spanish university students: differences by gender and academic discipline. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012;9(8):2728-41. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9082728.
  • 34. Klinker CD, Schipperijn J, Kerr J, Ersbøll AK, Troelsen J. Context-Specific Outdoor Time and Physical Activity among School-Children Across Gender and Age: Using Accelerometers and GPS to Advance Methods. Front Public Health 2014;2:20. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00020.
  • 35. Kling, K.G.; Margaryan, L.; Fuchs, M. (In) equality in the outdoors: Gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains. Curr Issues Tour 2020;23:233–247.
  • 36. Rodríguez-Larrad A, Mañas A, Labayen I, González-Gross M, Espin A, Aznar S, et al. Impact of COVID-19 Confinement on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Spanish University Students: Role of Gender. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(2):369. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020369.
  • 37. Brown T, Moore TH, Hooper L, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019;7(7):CD001871. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001871.pub4.
  • 38. Zbrońska I, Mędrela-Kuder E. The level of physical activity in elderly persons with overweight and obesity. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2018;69(4):369-373. doi: 10.32394/rpzh.2018.0042.
  • 39. Udo T, Grilo CM. Physical activity levels and correlates in nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with healthy weight, obesity, and binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2020;53(1):85-95. doi: 10.1002/eat.23199.
  • 40. Lee PH, Macfarlane DJ, Lam TH, Stewart SM. Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF): a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:115. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-115.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Orjinal Araştırma
Yazarlar

Tuba BAYKAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-4600-2207
Türkiye


Feray SOYUPEK>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2360-1020
Türkiye

Teşekkür We would like to thank Z. A. Kaymak (M.D., Asst. Prof.) for her support in the statistical analysis of the study data and G.O. Unal (M.D., Asst. Prof.) for her contributions to the evaluation of mental health.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 1 Ekim 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Kasım 2022
Kabul Tarihi 14 Kasım 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6

Kaynak Göster

AMA Baykal T. , Soyupek F. Physical Activity Levels of Medical Students: a global issue to be addressed. J Contemp Med. 2022; 12(6): 937-943.