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Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?

Yıl 2015, Cilt 0, Sayı 8, 85 - 102, 24.07.2015

Öz

The pace of speech i.e. tempo can be varied to our mood of the moment. Fast speech can convey urgency, whereas slower speech can be used for emphasis. In public speaking, orators produce powerful effects by varying the loudness and pace of their speech. The juxtaposition of very loud and very quiet utterances is a device often used by those trying to arouse strong emotions in their audience. Talking too quickly is one of the most common behaviors that can discount professional speaking skills. It is exhausting being forced to listen to uncomfortable speech patterns. This creates the potential for miscommunication, lost opportunity or decreased credibility.  Researches have shown that one of the hardest things about learning English is understanding the native speakers when they speak too fast. So teachers must lower their rate of speech when they teach English in order that their students should benefit from their teaching. Many studies have shown that lowering the speech rate does affect the intelligibility of the speakers’ utterance; and the students need this more than anything. Teachers who wish to be effective in their teaching should not only relate information to their students but especially be able to communicate with them at a speed level of their understanding at a steady but not fast rate, and make sure to pause briefly at the end of their meaningful phrases. And as for the students’ oral performance they should naturally concentrate on grammatical items along with their correct articulation, intonation and tempo. If they speak too fast, they risk mispronunciation of syllables and become incomprehensible even to natives. Non-native English speakers often speak too slowly when they don’t have a good grasp of English yet, but when their knowledge of the language and thought process goes faster, their speech also gets faster.

Keywords: the pace of speech, the tempo, intelligibility, speed level

Kaynakça

  • American Rhetoric (2012). http://www.americanrhetoric.com/top100speechesall.html
  • Andrehsen, Nicole M. (2010). Effects of Reading Mastery on Oral Reading Fluency, Retell, and Motivation of Second Grade Readers, Concordia University, Portland
  • Aphter, Prior (2012). Comedy Acting Techniques - The Importance of Tempo and Pacing in a Scene http://voices.yahoo.com/comedy-acting-techniques-importance-tempo-and-11421988.html?cat=40)
  • BBC and Europe (2000). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/correspondents/stephanieflanders/
  • Blau (1990 Blau, E. (1990). The effect of syntax, speed and pauses on listening comprehension, TESOL Quarterly, 24, 4, pp. 746-752
  • China TEFL Primer (2012). Difficulties Faced by Chinese EFL Students (2012). http://middlekingdomlife.com/guide/teaching-english-chinese-students.htm?tmpl=component&type=raw)
  • Clearly Speaking (2012). Rate of Speech, http://www.clearly-speaking.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=89)
  • Cohen, (2007). Phonological Awareness and Speech Comprehensibility: An Exploratory Study, Language Awareness, Volume 16, Issue 4, 2007
  • Communication Skills (2012). First Things First, http://ucat.osu.edu/read/teaching/international/international_communicationfirst.html)
  • Crystal, D (1969). Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English (An Introduction to the Study of Speech, Edward Sapir, 1921)
  • Cucchiarini, (2008). Strik, H., Neri, A., & Cucchiarini, C. (2008). Speech technology for language tutoring. In Proceedings of LangTech-2008. (pp. 73-6). Rome, Italy. February 28-29, 2008. Retrieved from http://lands.let.ru.nl/%7Estrik/publications/a142-ASR-CALL-Langtech08.pdf
  • Dahl, D. (1981). The role of experience in speech modifications for second language learners. Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language, 7, 2, pp. 78-93.)
  • Donovan, M. (2011). How to Abuse and Neglect Punctuation Marks Posted by Melissa Donovan on August 9. http://www.writingforward.com/category/grammar/punctuation-marks eHow.com (2011). How to Improve Your Speech and Speak Confidently At Every Occasion http://www.ehow.com/how_5056650_improve-speech-speak-confidently-occasion.html
  • Ellis, R. (1996). The Study of Second Language Acquisition, OUP. London.
  • English Language (2012). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language.
  • Ferencik (2012). Stylistic Changes of Meaning, http://www.pulib.sk/elpub2/FF/Ferencik/04.pdf.
  • Fluency Shaping (2009). http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/fluency-shaping.htm
  • Giles, H. (1992). ‘Speech tempo’ in W.Bright (ed.) The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford University Press.
  • Gross, Susan (2012). Developing foreign language fluency, http://susangrosstprs.com/articles/FLUENCYPEALS.pdf
  • Hausknecht, Douglas (1986). The effects of time compressed advertising on brand attitude judgments, University of Akron, Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 1986, pp. 105-110.
  • How to Learn Speed Reading (2012). http://www.wikihow.com/Learn-Speed-Reading) http://www.scribd.com/doc/28656718/Improve-Speaking-Skills
  • Kelch, K. (1985). Modified input as an aid to comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acqui-sition, 7, 1, pp. 81-90
  • Kostenko, N.B. (2007). Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students: Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку Автор/создатель: Борискина О.О., Костенко Н.В.
  • Laver, J. (1995). Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge University Press.
  • McKay, Brett&Kate (2012). Becoming Well-Spoken: How to Minimize Your Uh’s and Um’s, June 14, 2012, 68 Comments in A Man’s Life, Personal Development.
  • Naro, A. (1983). Comments on simplified input and second language acquisition. In Anderson ed.
  • Osbone, D. (2012). Teacher-Talk: A Sociolinguistic Variable http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol37/no2/p10.htm)
  • Owen, D. (1996). Do teachers modify their speech according to the proficiency of their students, Elted, 2, 1.
  • Peterson, E. (2012). Learning how to control your fast rate of speech: http://www.articlesbase.com/self-improvement-articles/learning-how-to-control-your-fast-rate-of-speech-783892.html
  • Roach, P., Arnfield, S., P., Setter, J., Greasley, P. & Horton, D. (1995). Emotional stress and speech tempo variation’, Proceedings of the ESCA/NATO Workshop on Speech Under Stress, Lisbon.
  • Robertson, P. (2002). Teaching English pronunciation skills to the asian learner. A cultural complexity or subsumed piece of cake?, The Asian EFL Journal, http://asian-efl-journal.com/1457/quarterly-journal/2003/06/teaching-english-pronunciation-skills-to-the-asian-learner-a-cultural-complexity-or-subsumed-piece-of-cake/
  • ROS (2012). Rate of Speech, http://www.usingenglish.com/forum/pronunciation-phonetics/103613-ros-rate-speech.html
  • Sason, D. (2012). Improve Speaking Skills -- Tips and Techniques for Speaking and Presentation Skills, http://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/9539-how-to-improve-speaking-skills-in-the-esl-classroom
  • Schnoebelen, T. (2012). The social meaning of tempo, http://www.stanford.edu/~tylers/notes/socioling/Social_meaning_tempo_Schnoebelen_3-23-09.pdf
  • Schötz, S. (2012). Linguistic & paralinguistic phonetic variation in speaker recognition & text-to-speech synthesis, Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University.

Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?

Yıl 2015, Cilt 0, Sayı 8, 85 - 102, 24.07.2015

Öz

Konuşmanın hızı yani temposu konuşulan andaki duygularımızla ilişkilidir. Hızlı konuşmada bir aciliyet, yavaş konuşmada ise vurgulama söz konusudur. Halk önünde konuşanlar seslerinin yüksekliği ile birlikte konuşmalarının hızını ayarlarlar. Konuşmanın çok yüksek perdeden veya düşük perdeden çıkışı arasında gidiş geliş dinleyicilerde kuvvetli heyecanlar oluşturur. Çok hızlı bir tempoda konuşmak profesyonel konuşmacıların normalde tercih ettikleri bir tarz değildir. Çünkü dinleyiciler kendilerini rahat hissetmedikleri bir tempoda konuşulmasından rahatsız olurlar. Bu durumda iletişim kopukluğu, fırsatların kaybı veya güven zedelenmesi yaşanır. Araştırıcılar İngilizce öğrenmede en zor işin ana dili İngilizce konuşanları anlamak olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu nedenle öğrencilerinin öğretmenlerinin öğretmelerinden yararlanmaları için İngilizce öğrettiklerinde konuşmalarının hızını azaltmaları gerekir. Araştırmalar göstermiştir ki konuşma temposunun düşürülmesi konuşmacıların söylediklerinin anlaşılmasını etkilemektedir. Öğrencilerin ise buna her şeyden daha fazla ihtiyacı vardır. Öğretim tarzlarında etkili olmak isteyen öğretmenlerin öğrencilerine bilgiyi herhangi bir şekilde aktarmaya çalışmaları yeterli değildir; özellikle mesajlarını onların anlayabilecekleri biçimde ve hızda iletmeleri büyük önem taşır. Öğrencilerin kendilerini sözlü olarak ifadelerinde de aynı şekilde gramer kurallarına uymaları kadar telaffuzlarına, vurgularına ve özellikle konuşma hızlarına dikkat etmeleri gerekir. İngilizceyi eğer çok hızlı konuşurlarsa bazı heceleri yanlış telaffuz edecekleri için ana dili İngilizce olanlar dahi kendilerini anlayamaz. İngilizce’yi iyi bilmeyenler genellikle çok yavaş konuşurlar; dili daha iyi öğrendikçe, hem düşüncelerinin oluşumu hem de konuşmaları giderek hızlanır

Kaynakça

  • American Rhetoric (2012). http://www.americanrhetoric.com/top100speechesall.html
  • Andrehsen, Nicole M. (2010). Effects of Reading Mastery on Oral Reading Fluency, Retell, and Motivation of Second Grade Readers, Concordia University, Portland
  • Aphter, Prior (2012). Comedy Acting Techniques - The Importance of Tempo and Pacing in a Scene http://voices.yahoo.com/comedy-acting-techniques-importance-tempo-and-11421988.html?cat=40)
  • BBC and Europe (2000). http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/correspondents/stephanieflanders/
  • Blau (1990 Blau, E. (1990). The effect of syntax, speed and pauses on listening comprehension, TESOL Quarterly, 24, 4, pp. 746-752
  • China TEFL Primer (2012). Difficulties Faced by Chinese EFL Students (2012). http://middlekingdomlife.com/guide/teaching-english-chinese-students.htm?tmpl=component&type=raw)
  • Clearly Speaking (2012). Rate of Speech, http://www.clearly-speaking.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=89)
  • Cohen, (2007). Phonological Awareness and Speech Comprehensibility: An Exploratory Study, Language Awareness, Volume 16, Issue 4, 2007
  • Communication Skills (2012). First Things First, http://ucat.osu.edu/read/teaching/international/international_communicationfirst.html)
  • Crystal, D (1969). Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English (An Introduction to the Study of Speech, Edward Sapir, 1921)
  • Cucchiarini, (2008). Strik, H., Neri, A., & Cucchiarini, C. (2008). Speech technology for language tutoring. In Proceedings of LangTech-2008. (pp. 73-6). Rome, Italy. February 28-29, 2008. Retrieved from http://lands.let.ru.nl/%7Estrik/publications/a142-ASR-CALL-Langtech08.pdf
  • Dahl, D. (1981). The role of experience in speech modifications for second language learners. Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language, 7, 2, pp. 78-93.)
  • Donovan, M. (2011). How to Abuse and Neglect Punctuation Marks Posted by Melissa Donovan on August 9. http://www.writingforward.com/category/grammar/punctuation-marks eHow.com (2011). How to Improve Your Speech and Speak Confidently At Every Occasion http://www.ehow.com/how_5056650_improve-speech-speak-confidently-occasion.html
  • Ellis, R. (1996). The Study of Second Language Acquisition, OUP. London.
  • English Language (2012). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language.
  • Ferencik (2012). Stylistic Changes of Meaning, http://www.pulib.sk/elpub2/FF/Ferencik/04.pdf.
  • Fluency Shaping (2009). http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/fluency-shaping.htm
  • Giles, H. (1992). ‘Speech tempo’ in W.Bright (ed.) The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford University Press.
  • Gross, Susan (2012). Developing foreign language fluency, http://susangrosstprs.com/articles/FLUENCYPEALS.pdf
  • Hausknecht, Douglas (1986). The effects of time compressed advertising on brand attitude judgments, University of Akron, Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 1986, pp. 105-110.
  • How to Learn Speed Reading (2012). http://www.wikihow.com/Learn-Speed-Reading) http://www.scribd.com/doc/28656718/Improve-Speaking-Skills
  • Kelch, K. (1985). Modified input as an aid to comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acqui-sition, 7, 1, pp. 81-90
  • Kostenko, N.B. (2007). Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students: Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку Автор/создатель: Борискина О.О., Костенко Н.В.
  • Laver, J. (1995). Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge University Press.
  • McKay, Brett&Kate (2012). Becoming Well-Spoken: How to Minimize Your Uh’s and Um’s, June 14, 2012, 68 Comments in A Man’s Life, Personal Development.
  • Naro, A. (1983). Comments on simplified input and second language acquisition. In Anderson ed.
  • Osbone, D. (2012). Teacher-Talk: A Sociolinguistic Variable http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol37/no2/p10.htm)
  • Owen, D. (1996). Do teachers modify their speech according to the proficiency of their students, Elted, 2, 1.
  • Peterson, E. (2012). Learning how to control your fast rate of speech: http://www.articlesbase.com/self-improvement-articles/learning-how-to-control-your-fast-rate-of-speech-783892.html
  • Roach, P., Arnfield, S., P., Setter, J., Greasley, P. & Horton, D. (1995). Emotional stress and speech tempo variation’, Proceedings of the ESCA/NATO Workshop on Speech Under Stress, Lisbon.
  • Robertson, P. (2002). Teaching English pronunciation skills to the asian learner. A cultural complexity or subsumed piece of cake?, The Asian EFL Journal, http://asian-efl-journal.com/1457/quarterly-journal/2003/06/teaching-english-pronunciation-skills-to-the-asian-learner-a-cultural-complexity-or-subsumed-piece-of-cake/
  • ROS (2012). Rate of Speech, http://www.usingenglish.com/forum/pronunciation-phonetics/103613-ros-rate-speech.html
  • Sason, D. (2012). Improve Speaking Skills -- Tips and Techniques for Speaking and Presentation Skills, http://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/9539-how-to-improve-speaking-skills-in-the-esl-classroom
  • Schnoebelen, T. (2012). The social meaning of tempo, http://www.stanford.edu/~tylers/notes/socioling/Social_meaning_tempo_Schnoebelen_3-23-09.pdf
  • Schötz, S. (2012). Linguistic & paralinguistic phonetic variation in speaker recognition & text-to-speech synthesis, Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil En
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Metin YURTBAŞI>

Yayımlanma Tarihi 24 Temmuz 2015
Başvuru Tarihi 13 Ağustos 2015
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2015, Cilt 0, Sayı 8

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { jef196743, journal = {Journal of Education and Future}, issn = {2146-8249}, address = {}, publisher = {Aydın Yayıncılık}, year = {2015}, volume = {0}, number = {8}, pages = {85 - 102}, title = {Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?}, key = {cite}, author = {Yurtbaşı, Metin} }
APA Yurtbaşı, M. (2015). Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum? . Journal of Education and Future , 0 (8) , 85-102 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jef/issue/18640/196743
MLA Yurtbaşı, M. "Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?" . Journal of Education and Future 0 (2015 ): 85-102 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jef/issue/18640/196743>
Chicago Yurtbaşı, M. "Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?". Journal of Education and Future 0 (2015 ): 85-102
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum? AU - MetinYurtbaşı Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of Education and Future JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 102 VL - 0 IS - 8 SN - 2146-8249- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Education and Future Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum? %A Metin Yurtbaşı %T Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum? %D 2015 %J Journal of Education and Future %P 2146-8249- %V 0 %N 8 %R %U
ISNAD Yurtbaşı, Metin . "Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?". Journal of Education and Future 0 / 8 (Temmuz 2015): 85-102 .
AMA Yurtbaşı M. Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?. JEF. 2015; 0(8): 85-102.
Vancouver Yurtbaşı M. Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?. Journal of Education and Future. 2015; 0(8): 85-102.
IEEE M. Yurtbaşı , "Why should Speech Rate (Tempo) be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum?", Journal of Education and Future, c. 0, sayı. 8, ss. 85-102, Tem. 2015
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