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DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 48 Sayı: 1, 86 - 96, 20.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.33483/jfpau.1279257

Öz

Objective: The presence of toxic metals in foods poses a significant risk to human health. Even low-level exposure to these metals can cause various health problems over a long period of time. In this study, we investigated the levels of toxic metals (Li, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Bi) in 34 food supplement samples purchased from pharmacies in Edirne.
Material and Method: The samples were digested using HNO3 in a microwave system and the metal content was analyzed using ICP-MS.
Result and Discussion: Our results showed that none of the food supplements exceeded Turkish authority limits. Only Cd levels of two food supplements (0.431 μg/g and 0.316 μg/g) exceeded WHO guideline limits. We discussed the potential health effects of these metals and their compounds. Our findings suggest the need for increased regulation and monitoring of food supplements to ensure their safety and quality.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Turkish Food Codex (2013). Regulation on Food Supplements. Official Gazette, 28737.
  • 2. Abernethy, D.R., DeStefano, A.J., Cecil T.L., Zaidi K., Williams R.L. (2010). Metal impurities in food and drugs. Pharmaceutical Research, 27(5), 750-755. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Rani, N., Sagar B.P., Shukla S.K. (2013). To investigate and asses why some food/dietary supplements are health hazardous. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 3(1), 65-69. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Akdeniz, A.S., Ozden, S., Alpertunga, B. (2013). Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill, 6(4), 265-269. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Naithani, V., Kakkar, P. (2006). Effect of ecological variation on heavy metal content of some medicinal plants used as herbal tea ingredients in India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 76(2), 285-292. [CrossRef]
  • 6. European Commission (2006). Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, 364, 5-24.
  • 7. Turkish Food Codex (2011). Turkish food codex regulation on contaminants. Official Gazette, 5996.
  • 8. Basaran, B., Pekmezci, H. (2021). An analysis of the changes in food consumption frequencies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: Turkey. Progress in Nutrition, 23(4) e2021218.
  • 9. Basaran, B. (2022). An assessment of heavy metal level in infant formula on the market in Turkey and the hazard index. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 105, 104258. [CrossRef]
  • 10. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Inorganic and organic lead compounds. (2006). Available from: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Inorganic-And-Organic-Lead-Compounds-2006. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 11. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. (2012). Available from: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Arsenic-Metals-Fibres-And-Dusts-2012. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 12. Altundag, H., Yildirim, E., Altintig E. (2019). Determination of some heavy metals by ICP-OES in edible parts of fish from Sapanca Lake and streams. Journal of Chemical Metrology, 13(1), 7-13. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Ahmad, N., Akhtar, M.S., Ahmed, R., Zafar, R., Hussain, S., Ishaqe, M., Naeem, M. (2019). Assessment of heavy metals in vegetables, sewage and soil grown near Babu Sabu Toll Plaza of Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, 20(1), 82-87.
  • 14. Avula, B., Wang, Y.H., Smillie, T.J., Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S., Khan, I.A.J. (2010). Quantitative determination of multiple elements in botanicals and dietary supplements using ICP-MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(16), 8887-8894. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Basaran, B. (2022). Comparison of heavy metal levels and health risk assessment of different bread types marketed in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 108, 104443. [CrossRef]
  • 16. US-EPA Method 200.8: Determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (1994). Available from: https://www.epa.gov/esam/epa-method-2008-determination-trace-elements-waters-and-wastes-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 17. European Pharmacopoeia (2017). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicine & Health Care of the Council of Europe (EDQM), edn, 9, 3104-3105.
  • 18. WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues: World Health Organization. (2007). From https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241594448. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 19. Filipiak-Szok, A., Kurzawa, M., Szlyk, E. (2015). Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 30, 54-58. [CrossRef]
  • 20. Kesebir, S., Üstündağ, M.F., Kavzoğlu, S.Ö. (2011). Lityum zehirlenmesi. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 3(3), 426-445.
  • 21. Voica, C., Roba, C., Iordache A.M. (2021). Lithium levels in food from the Romanian market by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): A pilot study. Analytical Letters 54(1-2), 242-254. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Basaran, B. (2022). Assessment of aluminum via baby foods consumption in Turkey: Estimated early-life dietary exposure and target hazard quotient. Biological Trace Element Research, 200(8), 3892-3901. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Meyers, L.D., Hellwig, J.P., Otten, J.J. (2006). Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements: National Academies Press, Washington DC, 286-414. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Akinyele, I.O., Shokunbi, O.S. (2015). Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes. Food Chemistry 173, 702-708.
  • 25. Nielsen, S.P. (2004). The biological role of strontium. Bone 35(3), 583-588. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Raab, A., Stiboller, M., Gajdosechova, Z., Nelson, J., Feldmann, J. (2016). Element content and daily intake from dietary supplements (nutraceuticals) based on algae, garlic, yeast fish and krill oils-should consumers be worried? Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 53, 49-60. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Cabral-Pinto M.M.S., Chaturvedi, A.K., Shabnam, A.A., Subrahmanyam, G. (2020). Lead toxicity: Health hazards, influence on food chain, and sustainable remediation approaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(7), 2179. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Bradley, B., Singleton, M., Lin Wan Po, A. (1989). Bismuth toxicity-a reassessment. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 14(6), 423-441. [CrossRef]

ICP-MS İLE BAZI GIDA TAKVİYELERİNDEKİ TOKSİK METALLERİN BELİRLENMESİ

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 48 Sayı: 1, 86 - 96, 20.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.33483/jfpau.1279257

Öz

Amaç: Gıdalarda toksik metallerin bulunması insan sağlığı için önemli bir risk oluşturmaktadır. Bu metallerin düşük dozda dahi uzun süreli maruziyeti çeşitli sağlık sorunlarına neden olabilir. Bu çalışmada, Edirne ili eczanelerinden satın alınan 34 gıda takviyesi örneğinde toksik metallerin (Li, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb ve Bi) seviyeleri araştırılmıştır.
Gereç ve Yöntem: Örnekler mikrodalga sistemde HNO3 kullanılarak sindirilmiş ve metal içeriği ICP-MS kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir.
Sonuç ve Tartışma: Sonuçlarımız, hiçbir gıda takviyesinin Türk otorite sınırlarını aşmadığını göstermiştir. Sadece iki gıda takviyesinin Cd seviyeleri (0.431 μg/g ve 0.316 μg/g) Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (WHO) kılavuz sınırlarını aşmıştır. Bu metallerin ve bileşiklerinin potansiyel sağlık etkileri tartışılmıştır. Bulgularımız, gıda takviyelerinin güvenliği ve kalitesinin sağlanması için artan düzenleme ve izleme ihtiyacını göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Turkish Food Codex (2013). Regulation on Food Supplements. Official Gazette, 28737.
  • 2. Abernethy, D.R., DeStefano, A.J., Cecil T.L., Zaidi K., Williams R.L. (2010). Metal impurities in food and drugs. Pharmaceutical Research, 27(5), 750-755. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Rani, N., Sagar B.P., Shukla S.K. (2013). To investigate and asses why some food/dietary supplements are health hazardous. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 3(1), 65-69. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Akdeniz, A.S., Ozden, S., Alpertunga, B. (2013). Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill, 6(4), 265-269. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Naithani, V., Kakkar, P. (2006). Effect of ecological variation on heavy metal content of some medicinal plants used as herbal tea ingredients in India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 76(2), 285-292. [CrossRef]
  • 6. European Commission (2006). Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, 364, 5-24.
  • 7. Turkish Food Codex (2011). Turkish food codex regulation on contaminants. Official Gazette, 5996.
  • 8. Basaran, B., Pekmezci, H. (2021). An analysis of the changes in food consumption frequencies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: Turkey. Progress in Nutrition, 23(4) e2021218.
  • 9. Basaran, B. (2022). An assessment of heavy metal level in infant formula on the market in Turkey and the hazard index. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 105, 104258. [CrossRef]
  • 10. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Inorganic and organic lead compounds. (2006). Available from: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Inorganic-And-Organic-Lead-Compounds-2006. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 11. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. (2012). Available from: https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Arsenic-Metals-Fibres-And-Dusts-2012. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 12. Altundag, H., Yildirim, E., Altintig E. (2019). Determination of some heavy metals by ICP-OES in edible parts of fish from Sapanca Lake and streams. Journal of Chemical Metrology, 13(1), 7-13. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Ahmad, N., Akhtar, M.S., Ahmed, R., Zafar, R., Hussain, S., Ishaqe, M., Naeem, M. (2019). Assessment of heavy metals in vegetables, sewage and soil grown near Babu Sabu Toll Plaza of Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, 20(1), 82-87.
  • 14. Avula, B., Wang, Y.H., Smillie, T.J., Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S., Khan, I.A.J. (2010). Quantitative determination of multiple elements in botanicals and dietary supplements using ICP-MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(16), 8887-8894. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Basaran, B. (2022). Comparison of heavy metal levels and health risk assessment of different bread types marketed in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 108, 104443. [CrossRef]
  • 16. US-EPA Method 200.8: Determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (1994). Available from: https://www.epa.gov/esam/epa-method-2008-determination-trace-elements-waters-and-wastes-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 17. European Pharmacopoeia (2017). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicine & Health Care of the Council of Europe (EDQM), edn, 9, 3104-3105.
  • 18. WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues: World Health Organization. (2007). From https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241594448. Accessed date: 03.10.2023.
  • 19. Filipiak-Szok, A., Kurzawa, M., Szlyk, E. (2015). Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 30, 54-58. [CrossRef]
  • 20. Kesebir, S., Üstündağ, M.F., Kavzoğlu, S.Ö. (2011). Lityum zehirlenmesi. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 3(3), 426-445.
  • 21. Voica, C., Roba, C., Iordache A.M. (2021). Lithium levels in food from the Romanian market by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): A pilot study. Analytical Letters 54(1-2), 242-254. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Basaran, B. (2022). Assessment of aluminum via baby foods consumption in Turkey: Estimated early-life dietary exposure and target hazard quotient. Biological Trace Element Research, 200(8), 3892-3901. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Meyers, L.D., Hellwig, J.P., Otten, J.J. (2006). Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements: National Academies Press, Washington DC, 286-414. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Akinyele, I.O., Shokunbi, O.S. (2015). Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes. Food Chemistry 173, 702-708.
  • 25. Nielsen, S.P. (2004). The biological role of strontium. Bone 35(3), 583-588. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Raab, A., Stiboller, M., Gajdosechova, Z., Nelson, J., Feldmann, J. (2016). Element content and daily intake from dietary supplements (nutraceuticals) based on algae, garlic, yeast fish and krill oils-should consumers be worried? Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 53, 49-60. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Cabral-Pinto M.M.S., Chaturvedi, A.K., Shabnam, A.A., Subrahmanyam, G. (2020). Lead toxicity: Health hazards, influence on food chain, and sustainable remediation approaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(7), 2179. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Bradley, B., Singleton, M., Lin Wan Po, A. (1989). Bismuth toxicity-a reassessment. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 14(6), 423-441. [CrossRef]

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eczacılık ve İlaç Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Çağatay OLTULU 0000-0002-6051-3479

Mustafa DAŞMAN 0000-0003-0556-8845

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 18 Kasım 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Ocak 2024
Gönderilme Tarihi 7 Nisan 2023
Kabul Tarihi 21 Ekim 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 48 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA OLTULU, Ç., & DAŞMAN, M. (2024). DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University, 48(1), 86-96. https://doi.org/10.33483/jfpau.1279257
AMA OLTULU Ç, DAŞMAN M. DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS. Ankara Ecz. Fak. Derg. Ocak 2024;48(1):86-96. doi:10.33483/jfpau.1279257
Chicago OLTULU, Çağatay, ve Mustafa DAŞMAN. “DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS”. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University 48, sy. 1 (Ocak 2024): 86-96. https://doi.org/10.33483/jfpau.1279257.
EndNote OLTULU Ç, DAŞMAN M (01 Ocak 2024) DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University 48 1 86–96.
IEEE Ç. OLTULU ve M. DAŞMAN, “DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS”, Ankara Ecz. Fak. Derg., c. 48, sy. 1, ss. 86–96, 2024, doi: 10.33483/jfpau.1279257.
ISNAD OLTULU, Çağatay - DAŞMAN, Mustafa. “DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS”. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University 48/1 (Ocak 2024), 86-96. https://doi.org/10.33483/jfpau.1279257.
JAMA OLTULU Ç, DAŞMAN M. DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS. Ankara Ecz. Fak. Derg. 2024;48:86–96.
MLA OLTULU, Çağatay ve Mustafa DAŞMAN. “DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS”. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University, c. 48, sy. 1, 2024, ss. 86-96, doi:10.33483/jfpau.1279257.
Vancouver OLTULU Ç, DAŞMAN M. DETERMINATION OF TOXIC METALS IN SOME FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BY ICP-MS. Ankara Ecz. Fak. Derg. 2024;48(1):86-9.

Kapsam ve Amaç

Ankara Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Dergisi, açık erişim, hakemli bir dergi olup Türkçe veya İngilizce olarak farmasötik bilimler alanındaki önemli gelişmeleri içeren orijinal araştırmalar, derlemeler ve kısa bildiriler için uluslararası bir yayım ortamıdır. Bilimsel toplantılarda sunulan bildiriler supleman özel sayısı olarak dergide yayımlanabilir. Ayrıca, tüm farmasötik alandaki gelecek ve önceki ulusal ve uluslararası bilimsel toplantılar ile sosyal aktiviteleri içerir.