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Kapsayıcı Eğitim ve Ekolojik Model

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, 16 - 28, 31.12.2020

Öz

İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirgesi’ne göre temel bir insan hakkı olarak kabul edilen eğitim, Salamanca Bildirisi (UNESCO, 1994) ile sosyal adalet ve eşitlik kavramlarını içermeye başlamıştır. Bu bildiriye göre eğitim, öğrencilerin bireysel farklılıklarına ve bu farklılıkların getirdiği ihtiyaçlara odaklanan bir yapıya sahip olmalıdır. Günümüzde okulların mevcudu gittikçe çeşitlilik kazanmakta ve farklı ihtiyaçlara sahip olan daha fazla sayıda öğrenci eğitim sürecinde yer almaktadır. Bu durumda eğitimin herkes için eşit bir şekilde sunulması evrensel olarak kabul edilen bir gerçektir. Fakat bu eğitimin nasıl sağlanacağı konusu hala tartışılmaktadır. Bireyleri içinde bulundukları politik ve sosyo-ekonomik sistemleri de içerisine katarak inceleyen ve ihtiyaçlarına yanıt vermeyi hedef alan ekolojik model bu anlamda iyi bir referans çerçevesi oluşturmaktadır. Kapsayıcı eğitimin ekolojisi ise öğrencileri değerli ve katılımcı bireyler olarak değerlendirirken sistemlerin eğitim süreci üzerindeki etkilerini de inceler. Bu çalışmada kapsayıcı eğitim ekolojik model bakış açısıyla sunulmaktadır. Bu bağlamda kapsayıcı eğitim ve ekolojik modellerin özellikleri açıklanarak ekolojik modelin sistemleri kapsayıcı eğitim bakış açısı ile anlatılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ainscow, M. (2002). Understanding the development of inclusive schools. London: Falmer Press.
  • Ainscow, M., Dyson, A., Goldrick, S., ve West, M. (2012). Developing equitable education systems. Abington, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Anderson, J., Boyle, C., ve Deppeler, J. (2014). The ecology of inclusive education: Reconceptualising Bronfenbrenner. In H. Zhang and P. Chan (Eds.), Equality in Education: Fairness and Inclusion(pp. 24-38). Australia: Brill and Sense
  • Birleşmiş Milletler (1948). İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirgesi. http://www.unicankara.org.tr/doc_pdf/h_rigths_turkce.pdf adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Black- Hawkings, K. (2010). The Framework for Participation: A research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools. International Journal of Research & Method in Education,33(1), 21-40. doi:10.1080/17437271003597907
  • Boyle, C., Topping, K., Jindal-Snape, D., ve Norwich, B. (2012). The importance of peer-support for teaching staff when including children with special educational needs. School Psychology International, 3 3(2), 167–184.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1970). Children and parents (pp. 241–255). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Gonski, D. (2011). Review of school funding: Final report. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Retrieved from http://www.schoolfunding.gov.au/review
  • Deppeler, J. (2013) Developing equitable practices in schools: Professional collaboration in research. In P. Jones (Ed), Bringing insider perspectives into inclusive teacher learning: Potentials and challenges for educational professionals. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Demir, M. K., ve Açar, S. (2010). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin kaynaştırma eğitimine ilişkin düşünceleri. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30,3 749-770.
  • OECD. (2020), Secondary graduation rate (indicator). doi: 10.1787/b858e05b-en (Accessed on 11 December 2020)
  • Özel, D. (2018). Examining Needs and Issues of Refugee- Receiving Schools in Turkey from the Perspectives of School Counselors (Unpublished master's thesis). Ankara, Middle East Technical University.
  • Rashid, N., ve Tikly, L. (2010). Inclusion and diversity in education: Guidelines for inclusion and diversity in schools. Martinez Campos, Madrid: British Council.
  • Saraç, T., ve Çolak, A. (2012). Kaynaştırma uygulamaları sürecinde ilköğretim öğretmenlerinin karşılaştıkları sorunlara ilişkin görüş ve öneriler. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 8, 1 13-28.
  • Slee, R. ve Allan, J. (2001). Excluding the included: A reconsideration of inclusive education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 11:2, 173- 192, doi: 10.1080/09620210100200073
  • Stubbs, S. (2008). Inclusive Education: Where there are few resources(I. Lewis, Ed.). Norway, Oslo: The Atlas Alliance.
  • Tahir, K. Doelger, B. ve Hynes, M. (2019). A case study on the ecology of inclusive education in the United States. Journal for Leadership and Instruction, 18(1), 17-24.
  • Lynch, P., ve S. McCall. 2007. The role of the itinerant teachers. Community Eye Health Journal 20, no. 62: 26–7
  • UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Salamanca, Spain: World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality.
  • UNESCO (2017). A Guide for Ensuring Inclusion and Equity in Education. Paris: UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000248254
  • UNICEF (2004). The State of the World’s Children 2004. Childhood under threat. New York: UNICEF.
  • Zorbaz, O. ve Özer, A. (2020). Okul terk riskini etkileyen öğrenci özellikleri, bir okuldan diğerine fark var mıdır?. Eğitim ve Bilim, 45, 191- 210.

Inclusive Education and Ecological Model

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, 16 - 28, 31.12.2020

Öz

Education, which is accepted as a fundamental human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, started to include the concepts of social justice and equality with the Salamanca Declaration (UNESCO, 1994). According to this statement, education should have a structure that focuses on the individual differences of students and the needs brought about by these differences. Today, the structure of schools becomes more diverse and more students with different needs take part in the education process. In this case, it is a universally accepted fact that education is offered equally for all. However, the issue of how to provide this education is still debated. The ecological model, on the other hand, examines individuals by including their political and socio-economic systems and responds to their needs. The ecology of inclusive education examines the effects of systems on the education process while evaluating students as valuable and participatory individuals. In this study, inclusive education is presented from an ecological model perspective. In this context, by explaining the features of inclusive education and ecological models, the systems of the ecological model are explained with an inclusive education perspective.

Kaynakça

  • Ainscow, M. (2002). Understanding the development of inclusive schools. London: Falmer Press.
  • Ainscow, M., Dyson, A., Goldrick, S., ve West, M. (2012). Developing equitable education systems. Abington, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Anderson, J., Boyle, C., ve Deppeler, J. (2014). The ecology of inclusive education: Reconceptualising Bronfenbrenner. In H. Zhang and P. Chan (Eds.), Equality in Education: Fairness and Inclusion(pp. 24-38). Australia: Brill and Sense
  • Birleşmiş Milletler (1948). İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirgesi. http://www.unicankara.org.tr/doc_pdf/h_rigths_turkce.pdf adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Black- Hawkings, K. (2010). The Framework for Participation: A research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools. International Journal of Research & Method in Education,33(1), 21-40. doi:10.1080/17437271003597907
  • Boyle, C., Topping, K., Jindal-Snape, D., ve Norwich, B. (2012). The importance of peer-support for teaching staff when including children with special educational needs. School Psychology International, 3 3(2), 167–184.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1970). Children and parents (pp. 241–255). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Gonski, D. (2011). Review of school funding: Final report. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Retrieved from http://www.schoolfunding.gov.au/review
  • Deppeler, J. (2013) Developing equitable practices in schools: Professional collaboration in research. In P. Jones (Ed), Bringing insider perspectives into inclusive teacher learning: Potentials and challenges for educational professionals. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Demir, M. K., ve Açar, S. (2010). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin kaynaştırma eğitimine ilişkin düşünceleri. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30,3 749-770.
  • OECD. (2020), Secondary graduation rate (indicator). doi: 10.1787/b858e05b-en (Accessed on 11 December 2020)
  • Özel, D. (2018). Examining Needs and Issues of Refugee- Receiving Schools in Turkey from the Perspectives of School Counselors (Unpublished master's thesis). Ankara, Middle East Technical University.
  • Rashid, N., ve Tikly, L. (2010). Inclusion and diversity in education: Guidelines for inclusion and diversity in schools. Martinez Campos, Madrid: British Council.
  • Saraç, T., ve Çolak, A. (2012). Kaynaştırma uygulamaları sürecinde ilköğretim öğretmenlerinin karşılaştıkları sorunlara ilişkin görüş ve öneriler. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 8, 1 13-28.
  • Slee, R. ve Allan, J. (2001). Excluding the included: A reconsideration of inclusive education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 11:2, 173- 192, doi: 10.1080/09620210100200073
  • Stubbs, S. (2008). Inclusive Education: Where there are few resources(I. Lewis, Ed.). Norway, Oslo: The Atlas Alliance.
  • Tahir, K. Doelger, B. ve Hynes, M. (2019). A case study on the ecology of inclusive education in the United States. Journal for Leadership and Instruction, 18(1), 17-24.
  • Lynch, P., ve S. McCall. 2007. The role of the itinerant teachers. Community Eye Health Journal 20, no. 62: 26–7
  • UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Salamanca, Spain: World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality.
  • UNESCO (2017). A Guide for Ensuring Inclusion and Equity in Education. Paris: UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000248254
  • UNICEF (2004). The State of the World’s Children 2004. Childhood under threat. New York: UNICEF.
  • Zorbaz, O. ve Özer, A. (2020). Okul terk riskini etkileyen öğrenci özellikleri, bir okuldan diğerine fark var mıdır?. Eğitim ve Bilim, 45, 191- 210.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Derleme Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Dilara ÖZEL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1250-599X
Türkiye


Evrim ÇETİNKAYA YILDIZ>
AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Özel, D. & Çetinkaya Yıldız, E. (2020). Kapsayıcı Eğitim ve Ekolojik Model . Journal of Inclusive Education in Research and Practice , 1 (2) , 16-28 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jierp/issue/59335/839964