Araştırma Makalesi
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Evaluation of Patient Falls Reported through the Electronic Incident Reporting System

Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 2, 101 - 105, 30.06.2022

Öz

Objective: This research was performed in order to evaluate inpatient falls, which were reported through the electronic incident reporting system in a university hospital.

Methods: This research is a descriptive, retrospective study. The population of the study consists of the incident reporting registry, which was reported through the electronic incident reporting system between January 1, 2015, and June 30, 2017, in a university hospital in Istanbul, regarding the falls of 159 inpatients. In the research, no additional sample selection was made and the entire population was regarded as the sample. Institution permission and ethics committee approval was received before conducting the research. In the analysis of the data, “World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety and Severity Scale of Harm” was used to describe the severity of injury for patients.

Results: The fall rate of patients among all reports was found to be 10.6%. It was determined that 73.6% of the patients were in the adult group, while 26.4% of them were in the pediatric group. It was identified that the patients fell mostly while being mobilized (78.6%) and in the ward (56%). When the factors that induced the fall of patients were examined; it was detected that 39% of the patients fell due to loss of balance-weakness, while 25.2% of them fell because of dizziness and 5.7% of them due to wet/slippery floor. It was noticed that any factors that caused patients to fall were not specified in 16.4% of the incident reports. It was determined that 34.6% of the patients were not injured, whereas 45.9% of them were harmed mildly and 1.9% of them were harmed severely by cause of falling.

Conclusion: It has been found out that the patients fell mostly due to loss of balance, weakness, and dizziness during being mobilized in the ward. Incident reporting systems, which include all the information needed about patient falls, can provide an opportunity for corrective action for incidents that may occur due to falls.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Smith CM. Origin and uses of primum non nocere above all, do no harm! J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45(4):371-377. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. National Academies Press (US); 2000.
  • 3. Nightingale F. Notes on Hospitals. 3rd ed. London: Savill and Edwards; 1863.
  • 4. Mahajan RP. Critical incident reporting and learning. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(1):69-75. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Makary MA, Daniel M. Medical error-the third leading cause of death in the US. BMJ. 2016;353:i2139. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Campbell B. Patient falls: Preventable, not inevitable. Nurs Made Incredibly Easy. 2016;14(1):14-18. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Cox J, Thomas-Hawkins C, Pajarillo E, DeGennaro S, Cadmus E, Martinez M. Factors associated with falls in hospitalized adult patients. Appl Nurs Res. 2015;28(2):78-82. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Dykes PC, I-Ching EH, Soukup JR, Chang F, Lipsitz S. A case control study to improve accuracy of an electronic fall prevention toolkit. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012:170-179.
  • 9. Dykes PC, Carroll DL, Hurley A, et al. Fall prevention in acute care hospitals: A randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2010;304(17):1912- 1918. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Bradley SM, Karani R, McGinn T, Wisnivesky J. Predictors of serious injury among hospitalized patients evaluated for falls. J Hosp Med. 2010;5(2):63-68. [CrossRef]
  • 11. World Health Organization. Falls. Available at: https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/falls (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 12. Radecki B, Reynolds S, Kara A. Inpatient fall prevention from the patient's perspective: A qualitative study. Appl Nurs Res. 2018;43:114-119. [CrossRef]
  • 13. National Health Service. The incidence and costs of inpatient falls in hospital. 2017. Available at: https://improvement.nhs.uk/document s/1473/Falls_summary_July2017.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 14. Weil TP. Patient falls in hospitals: An increasing problem. Geriatr Nurs. 2015;36(5):342-347. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Miake-Lye IM, Hempel S, Ganz DA, Shekelle PG. Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: A systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(5 Pt 2):390-396. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Lakatos BE, Capasso V, Mitchell MT, et al. Falls in the general hospital: Association with delirium, advanced age, and specific surgical procedures. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(3):218-226. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Donaldson LJ, Panesar SS, Darzi A. Patient-safety-related hospital deaths in England: Thematic analysis of incidents reported to a National Database, 2010-2012. PLOS Med. 2014;11(6):e1001667. [CrossRef]
  • 18. World Health Organization. Falls. Available at: https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/falls. (Erişim Tarihi: 26.04.2021)
  • 19. International Joint Commission. Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Hospitals (Including Standards for Academic Medical Centers Hospitals). 6th ed. USA: Joint Commission Resources; 2017:52-54.
  • 20. Lerdal A, Sigurdsen LW, Hammerstad H, Granheim TI, Risk Study Research Group, Gay CL. Associations between patient symptoms and falls in an acute care hospital: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Nurs. 2018;27(9-10):1826-1835. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Gray-Miceli D, Quigley PA. Fall prevention: Assessment, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. In: Boltz M., Capezuti E., Fulmer T., Zwicker D., eds. Evidence-Based Geriatric Nursing Protocols for Best Practice. Fouth Edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2011:268-297.
  • 22. Gong Y. Data consistency in a voluntary medical incident reporting system. J Med Syst. 2011;35(4):609-615. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Wåhlin C, Kvarnström S, Öhrn A, Nilsing Strid EN. Patient and healthcare worker safety risks and injuries. Learning from incident reporting. Eur J Physiother. 2020;22(1):44-50. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Macrae C. The problem with incident reporting. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016;25(2):71-75. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Noble DJ, Pronovost PJ. Underreporting of patient safety incidents reduces health care’s ability to quantify and accurately measure harm reduction. J Patient Saf. 2010;6(4):247-250. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Lin CC, Shih CL, Liao HH, Wung CHY. Learning from Taiwan patientsafety reporting system. Int J Med Inform. 2012;81(12):834-841. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Pham JC, Girard T, Pronovost PJ. What to do with healthcare incident reporting systems. J Public Health Res. 2013;2(3):154-159. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Hutchinson A, Young TA, Cooper KL, et al. Trends in healthcare incident reporting and relationship to safety and quality data in acute hospitals: Results from the National Reporting and Learning System. Qual Saf Health Care. 2009;18(1):5-10. [CrossRef]
  • 29. World Health Organization. Conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety. Version 1.1 [Final Technical Report]; 2009:17-18.
  • 30. Joint Commission Online. Quality and Safety. Department of Corporate Communications; 2019. Available at: https://www.jointcommissi on.org/-/media/tjc/documents/newsletters/jc_online_march_13. pdf?db=web&hash=485D2234576F126624CAA4A17C97AD59 (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 31. Verzuri A, Kundisova L, Serafini A, Gentile AM, Nante N. Risk factors of hospital patient falls. Eur J Public Health. 2016;26(suppl_1):492. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Abadi MBH, Hesam A, Hamed A, Mohammad GF, Mohammad G. The association of nursing workloads, organizational, and individual factors with adverse patient outcome. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017;19(4):1-14.
  • 33. İstanbullu İ, Yıldız H, Zora H. Kartal Yavuz Selim Devlet Hastanesi’nde uygulanan güvenlik raporlama sisteminin geliştirilmesine yönelik bir araştırma. Sağlıkta Kalite Performans Derg. 2012;4:3-14.
  • 34. Çakmak C, Konca M, Teleş M. Türkiye Ulusal Güvenlik Raporlama Sistemi (GRS) üzerinden tıbbi hataların değerlendirilmesi. Hacettepe Sağlık İdaresi Derg. 2018;21(3):423-448.
  • 35. Barbosa ADS, Chaves EHB, Ribeiro RG, Quadros DV, Suzuki LM, Magalhães AMM. Characterization of the adult patients’ falling incidents in a university hospital. Rev Gaúcha Enferm. 2019;40(spe):e20180303. [CrossRef]
  • 36. Magota C, Sawatari H, Ando SI, et al. Seasonal ambient changes influence inpatient falls. Age Ageing. 2017;46(3):513-517. [CrossRef]
  • 37. AlSowailmi BA, AlAkeely MH, AlJutaily HI, Alhasoon MA, Omair A, AlKhalaf HA. Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized children’s hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2018;38(3):225-229. [CrossRef]
  • 38. Anderson DC, Postler T, Dam TD. Epidemiology of hospital system patient falls: A retrospective analysis. Am J Med Qual. 2015;31(5):1-6
  • 39. Hignett S, Sands G, Griffiths P. Exploring the contributory factors for un-witnessed in-patient falls from the National Reporting and Learning System database. Research letter. Age Ageing. 2011;40(1):135-138. [CrossRef]
  • 40. Tsai LY, Campbell M, Chen CJ, Hsieh RK, Chien HH, Tsai JM. Falls and related injuries in hospitalized patients with cancer in Taiwan. J Nurs Res. 2016;00(0):1-9.
  • 41. Tzeng HM. Understanding the prevalence of inpatient falls associated with toileting in adult acute care settings. J Nurs Care Qual. 2010;25(1):22-30. [CrossRef]
  • 42. Watson BJ, Salmoni AW, Zecevic AA. Falls in an acute care hospital as reported in the adverse event management system. J Hosp Admin. 2015;4(4):84-91. [CrossRef]
  • 43. Melin CM. Reducing falls in the inpatient hospital setting. Int J EvidBased Healthc. 2017;15:000-000.
  • 44. Gardner LA, Bray PJ, Finley E, et al. Standardizing falls reporting: Using data from adverse event reporting to drive quality improvement. J Patient Saf. 2019;15(2):135-142. [CrossRef]
  • 45. Mei YY, Marquard J, Jacelon C, DeFeo AL. Designing and evaluating an electronic patient falls reporting system: Perspectives for the implementation of health information technology in long-term residential care facilities. Int J Med Inform. 2013;82(11):e294-e306. [CrossRef]
  • 46. Whitehurst JM, Cozart H, Leonard D, et al. Tailoring ‘‘Best-of-Breed’’ safety classification for patient fall voluntary reporting. J Patient Saf. 2010;6(3):192-198. [CrossRef]
  • 47. Levinson DR. Hospital Incident Reporting Systems Do Not Capture Most Patient Harm. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/issue/hospital-incident-reporting-systems-do-not-capture-most-patient-harm (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 48. Barış VK, İntepeler ŞS. Hasta düşmelerinin önlenmesinde teknoloji kullanımı. Sağlık Hemşirelik Yönetimi Derg. 2017;1(4):29-39.

Elektronik Olay Bildirim Sistemi Üzerinden Raporlanan Hasta Düşmelerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 2, 101 - 105, 30.06.2022

Öz

Amaç: Bu araştırma, bir üniversite hastanesinde elektronik olay bildirim sistemi üzerinden raporlanan yatan hasta düşmelerinin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır.

Yöntemler: Tanımlayıcı tipte restrospektif bir araştırmadır. Çalışmanın evrenini İstanbul’da yer alan bir üniversite hastanesinde 01.01.2015-30.06.2017 tarihleri arasında elektronik olay bildirim sistemi üzerinden raporlanan 159 yatan hasta düşmesiyle ilgili olay bildirim kaydı oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada örneklem seçimine gidilmemiş ve evrenin tümü örnekleme alınmıştır. Araştırma öncesi kurum izni ve etik kurul onayı alınmıştır. Verilerin analizinde, olayların hastalar üzerindeki zarar derecesi için “Dünya Sağlık Örgütü Hasta Güvenliği Uluslararası Sınıflandırma Sistemi Zarar Dereceleri” kullanılmıştır.

Bulgular: Hasta düşmelerinin bütün bildirimler içerisindeki oranının %10,6 olduğu saptanmıştır. Hastaların %73,6’sının yetişkin, %26,4’ünün pediatrik grupta yer aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Hastaların en fazla mobilize olurken (%78,6) ve oda içerisinde (%56) düştüğü belirlenmiştir. Hastaların düşmesini tetikleyen unsurlar değerlendirildiğinde; %39’unun denge kaybı-güçsüzlük, %25,2’sinin baş dönmesi, %5,7’sinin ıslak/kaygan zemin nedeniyle düştüğü saptanmıştır. Olay bildirimlerin %16,4’ünde hastaların düşmesini tetikleyen herhangi bir unsurun belirtilmediği görülmüştür. Düşme neticesinde hastaların %34,6’sının herhangi bir zarar görmediği, %45,9’unun hafif zarar, %1,9’unun şiddetli zarar gördüğü tespit edilmiştir.

Sonuç: Hastaların en fazla oda içerisinde, mobilize olurken, denge kaybı-güçsüzlük ve baş dönmesi nedeniyle düştüğü tespit edilmiştir Hasta düşmeleriyle ilgili ihtiyaç duyulan bütün bilgileri içeren olay bildirim sistemleri, düşme kaynaklı yaşanabilecek olaylar için düzeltici eylem fırsatı sunabilir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Smith CM. Origin and uses of primum non nocere above all, do no harm! J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45(4):371-377. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. National Academies Press (US); 2000.
  • 3. Nightingale F. Notes on Hospitals. 3rd ed. London: Savill and Edwards; 1863.
  • 4. Mahajan RP. Critical incident reporting and learning. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(1):69-75. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Makary MA, Daniel M. Medical error-the third leading cause of death in the US. BMJ. 2016;353:i2139. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Campbell B. Patient falls: Preventable, not inevitable. Nurs Made Incredibly Easy. 2016;14(1):14-18. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Cox J, Thomas-Hawkins C, Pajarillo E, DeGennaro S, Cadmus E, Martinez M. Factors associated with falls in hospitalized adult patients. Appl Nurs Res. 2015;28(2):78-82. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Dykes PC, I-Ching EH, Soukup JR, Chang F, Lipsitz S. A case control study to improve accuracy of an electronic fall prevention toolkit. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012:170-179.
  • 9. Dykes PC, Carroll DL, Hurley A, et al. Fall prevention in acute care hospitals: A randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2010;304(17):1912- 1918. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Bradley SM, Karani R, McGinn T, Wisnivesky J. Predictors of serious injury among hospitalized patients evaluated for falls. J Hosp Med. 2010;5(2):63-68. [CrossRef]
  • 11. World Health Organization. Falls. Available at: https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/falls (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 12. Radecki B, Reynolds S, Kara A. Inpatient fall prevention from the patient's perspective: A qualitative study. Appl Nurs Res. 2018;43:114-119. [CrossRef]
  • 13. National Health Service. The incidence and costs of inpatient falls in hospital. 2017. Available at: https://improvement.nhs.uk/document s/1473/Falls_summary_July2017.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 14. Weil TP. Patient falls in hospitals: An increasing problem. Geriatr Nurs. 2015;36(5):342-347. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Miake-Lye IM, Hempel S, Ganz DA, Shekelle PG. Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: A systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(5 Pt 2):390-396. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Lakatos BE, Capasso V, Mitchell MT, et al. Falls in the general hospital: Association with delirium, advanced age, and specific surgical procedures. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(3):218-226. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Donaldson LJ, Panesar SS, Darzi A. Patient-safety-related hospital deaths in England: Thematic analysis of incidents reported to a National Database, 2010-2012. PLOS Med. 2014;11(6):e1001667. [CrossRef]
  • 18. World Health Organization. Falls. Available at: https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/falls. (Erişim Tarihi: 26.04.2021)
  • 19. International Joint Commission. Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Hospitals (Including Standards for Academic Medical Centers Hospitals). 6th ed. USA: Joint Commission Resources; 2017:52-54.
  • 20. Lerdal A, Sigurdsen LW, Hammerstad H, Granheim TI, Risk Study Research Group, Gay CL. Associations between patient symptoms and falls in an acute care hospital: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Nurs. 2018;27(9-10):1826-1835. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Gray-Miceli D, Quigley PA. Fall prevention: Assessment, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. In: Boltz M., Capezuti E., Fulmer T., Zwicker D., eds. Evidence-Based Geriatric Nursing Protocols for Best Practice. Fouth Edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2011:268-297.
  • 22. Gong Y. Data consistency in a voluntary medical incident reporting system. J Med Syst. 2011;35(4):609-615. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Wåhlin C, Kvarnström S, Öhrn A, Nilsing Strid EN. Patient and healthcare worker safety risks and injuries. Learning from incident reporting. Eur J Physiother. 2020;22(1):44-50. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Macrae C. The problem with incident reporting. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016;25(2):71-75. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Noble DJ, Pronovost PJ. Underreporting of patient safety incidents reduces health care’s ability to quantify and accurately measure harm reduction. J Patient Saf. 2010;6(4):247-250. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Lin CC, Shih CL, Liao HH, Wung CHY. Learning from Taiwan patientsafety reporting system. Int J Med Inform. 2012;81(12):834-841. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Pham JC, Girard T, Pronovost PJ. What to do with healthcare incident reporting systems. J Public Health Res. 2013;2(3):154-159. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Hutchinson A, Young TA, Cooper KL, et al. Trends in healthcare incident reporting and relationship to safety and quality data in acute hospitals: Results from the National Reporting and Learning System. Qual Saf Health Care. 2009;18(1):5-10. [CrossRef]
  • 29. World Health Organization. Conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety. Version 1.1 [Final Technical Report]; 2009:17-18.
  • 30. Joint Commission Online. Quality and Safety. Department of Corporate Communications; 2019. Available at: https://www.jointcommissi on.org/-/media/tjc/documents/newsletters/jc_online_march_13. pdf?db=web&hash=485D2234576F126624CAA4A17C97AD59 (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 31. Verzuri A, Kundisova L, Serafini A, Gentile AM, Nante N. Risk factors of hospital patient falls. Eur J Public Health. 2016;26(suppl_1):492. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Abadi MBH, Hesam A, Hamed A, Mohammad GF, Mohammad G. The association of nursing workloads, organizational, and individual factors with adverse patient outcome. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2017;19(4):1-14.
  • 33. İstanbullu İ, Yıldız H, Zora H. Kartal Yavuz Selim Devlet Hastanesi’nde uygulanan güvenlik raporlama sisteminin geliştirilmesine yönelik bir araştırma. Sağlıkta Kalite Performans Derg. 2012;4:3-14.
  • 34. Çakmak C, Konca M, Teleş M. Türkiye Ulusal Güvenlik Raporlama Sistemi (GRS) üzerinden tıbbi hataların değerlendirilmesi. Hacettepe Sağlık İdaresi Derg. 2018;21(3):423-448.
  • 35. Barbosa ADS, Chaves EHB, Ribeiro RG, Quadros DV, Suzuki LM, Magalhães AMM. Characterization of the adult patients’ falling incidents in a university hospital. Rev Gaúcha Enferm. 2019;40(spe):e20180303. [CrossRef]
  • 36. Magota C, Sawatari H, Ando SI, et al. Seasonal ambient changes influence inpatient falls. Age Ageing. 2017;46(3):513-517. [CrossRef]
  • 37. AlSowailmi BA, AlAkeely MH, AlJutaily HI, Alhasoon MA, Omair A, AlKhalaf HA. Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized children’s hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2018;38(3):225-229. [CrossRef]
  • 38. Anderson DC, Postler T, Dam TD. Epidemiology of hospital system patient falls: A retrospective analysis. Am J Med Qual. 2015;31(5):1-6
  • 39. Hignett S, Sands G, Griffiths P. Exploring the contributory factors for un-witnessed in-patient falls from the National Reporting and Learning System database. Research letter. Age Ageing. 2011;40(1):135-138. [CrossRef]
  • 40. Tsai LY, Campbell M, Chen CJ, Hsieh RK, Chien HH, Tsai JM. Falls and related injuries in hospitalized patients with cancer in Taiwan. J Nurs Res. 2016;00(0):1-9.
  • 41. Tzeng HM. Understanding the prevalence of inpatient falls associated with toileting in adult acute care settings. J Nurs Care Qual. 2010;25(1):22-30. [CrossRef]
  • 42. Watson BJ, Salmoni AW, Zecevic AA. Falls in an acute care hospital as reported in the adverse event management system. J Hosp Admin. 2015;4(4):84-91. [CrossRef]
  • 43. Melin CM. Reducing falls in the inpatient hospital setting. Int J EvidBased Healthc. 2017;15:000-000.
  • 44. Gardner LA, Bray PJ, Finley E, et al. Standardizing falls reporting: Using data from adverse event reporting to drive quality improvement. J Patient Saf. 2019;15(2):135-142. [CrossRef]
  • 45. Mei YY, Marquard J, Jacelon C, DeFeo AL. Designing and evaluating an electronic patient falls reporting system: Perspectives for the implementation of health information technology in long-term residential care facilities. Int J Med Inform. 2013;82(11):e294-e306. [CrossRef]
  • 46. Whitehurst JM, Cozart H, Leonard D, et al. Tailoring ‘‘Best-of-Breed’’ safety classification for patient fall voluntary reporting. J Patient Saf. 2010;6(3):192-198. [CrossRef]
  • 47. Levinson DR. Hospital Incident Reporting Systems Do Not Capture Most Patient Harm. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/issue/hospital-incident-reporting-systems-do-not-capture-most-patient-harm (Erişim Tarihi: 14.04.2020).
  • 48. Barış VK, İntepeler ŞS. Hasta düşmelerinin önlenmesinde teknoloji kullanımı. Sağlık Hemşirelik Yönetimi Derg. 2017;1(4):29-39.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri, Hemşirelik
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Yasemin ASLAN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
BANDIRMA ONYEDİ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SAĞLIK YÖNETİMİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-6292-2332
Türkiye


Mehveş TARIM Bu kişi benim
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0001-6292-2332
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 25, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

AMA Aslan Y. , Tarım M. Elektronik Olay Bildirim Sistemi Üzerinden Raporlanan Hasta Düşmelerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Nursology. 2022; 25(2): 101-105.