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Social Media Strategies of The European Union Bodies: A Comparison With Turkey's Experience

Yıl 2016, Cilt 15, Sayı 4, 1119 - 1130, 28.10.2016
https://doi.org/10.21547/jss.265501

Öz

The aim of this research is to explain and bring forward social media strategies of the European Union bodies and compare with the Turkish experience in terms of Turkey’s accession process to the EU. Social media is critical for governments and institutions regarding informing citizens and allowing youth involvement in politics. In this context, strengths and weaknesses of social media strategies (perspectives) of EU and Turkish government will be brought into question. Documents published by EU and Turkey on social media, statements of politicians and social media experts, examples of social media campaigns and quantitative data on EU social media accounts will be the main resources of this research. The main finding is that social media can enhance citizen involvement/participation in politics and improve democracy if strategies would be based on not just informing but interacting with citizens. As long as those strategies of governments/institutions include professionalism, inventiveness, and transparency.

Kaynakça

  • 2015-2018 Information Society Strategy and Action Plan. (2015) Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development Information Society Department Publication.
  • Castells, M. (2011). The rise of the network society: The information age: Economy, society, and culture. (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Chalmers, A. W.,& Shotton, P. A. (2015). Changing the Face of Advocacy? Explaining Interest Organizations’ Use of Social Media Strategies. Political Communication, 1-18.
  • Communication Handbook for the EU Agencies. (2013). Retrieved from http://europa.eu/agencies/documents/2013-12-10_communication_handbook_en.pdf
  • Davies, Ron. (2014) Social Media in Election Campaigning. European Parliament Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/bibliotheque/briefing/2014/140709/LDM_BRI(2014)140709_REV1_EN.pdf
  • Delancray, C.,& Lorthiois, L. (2014) From Social Media to Social Activation in the EU.Retrieved from http://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/lu/Documents/public-sector/lu-social-media-social-activation-eu-31102014.pdf
  • Digital Agenda for Europe: Europe 2020 Strategy. (2016). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/europe-2020-strategy
  • Dogramaci E.,& Radcliffe D. (2015). Digital News Report: How Turkey Uses Social Media. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/essays/2015/how-turkey-uses-social-media/
  • EC Digital transformation. (2013). The EU Internet Handbook: Information Providers Guide. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/basics/web_rationalisation/index_en.htm
  • European Commission Turkey Report. (2013). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/brochures/turkey_2013.pdf
  • European Commission Turkey Report. (2015). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2015/20151110_report_turkey.pdf
  • European Union Communication Strategy. (2014). Republic of Turkey Ministry for EU Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.ab.gov.tr/files/5%20Ekim/iletisim_stratejisi_eng_kapak_eklenmis.pdf
  • Hanganu, A. (2014). Interview: David Tunney, Head of Social Media for the EEAS. Digital Diplomacy. Retrieved from http://digitaldiplomacy.ro/interview-david-tunney-head-social-media-eeas-traditional-diplomacy-transformed-social-media-online-communication/?lang=en
  • Hansen, D., Shneiderman B., & and Smith M. A. (2010). Analyzing social media networks with NodeXL: Insights from a connected world. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats9.htm
  • Kaplan, G. (2014).The European Union Online: An Analysis of the European Commission’s Online Political Communication
  • Karantzeni, D.,& G. Gouscos, D. (2013). eParticipation in the EU: Re-focusing on social media and young citizens for reinforcing European identity. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7(4), 477-500.
  • Karkin, N., Koseoglu, O., & Sobaci, M. Z. (2015). Social Media Policy in Turkish Municipalities: Disparity Between Awareness and Implementation. In Social Media for Government Services (pp. 97-113). Springer International Publishing.
  • Kim, S. K., Park, M. J., & Rho, J. J. (2015). Effect of the Government’s Use of Social Media on the Reliability of the Government: Focus on Twitter. Public Management Review, 17(3), 328-355.
  • Koskinen, K. (2013). Social media and the institutional illusions of EU communication. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 23(1), 80-92.
  • Lilleker, D.,& Koc-Michalska, K. (2013). MEPs online: Understanding communication strategies for remote representatives.
  • Lister, M. (2009). New media: A critical introduction. Taylor & Francis.
  • Michailidou, A. (2008). Democracy and new media in the European Union: communication or participation deficit?. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 4(4), 346-368.
  • OECD. (2016). The Governance of Inclusive Growth: An Overview of Country Initiatives.
  • Owens, K. (2016). Putting the Social Back in Social Media. European Association of Communication Directors. Retrieved from http://www.eacd-online.eu/insights/blog/putting-social-back-social-media
  • Podkalicka, A., & Shore, C. (2010). Communicating Europe? EU Communication policy and cultural politics. Public Communication in the European Union: History, Perspectives and Challenges Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 93-112.
  • Roginsky, S. (2014). Social networking sites: an innovative communications on Europe? Analysis in the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council. Media and Communication on Europe, 91-112.
  • Sarıtaş, A., & Aydın, E. E. (2015). Elections and Social Media. Public Affairs and Administration: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Chapter 15. 314-328.
  • Social Media Guidelines for all European Commission Staff. (2016) European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/docs/guidelines_social_media_en.pdf
  • Spanier, B. (2012). Europe, anyone?. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.
  • Taşkıran, H.B. (2016). Government Public Relations in Turkey: Social Media Usage of Turkish Ministries in Relationship Building. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies. 6/1: 48-63.
  • Turkey’s New European Union Strategy: “Determination in the Political Reform Process, Continuity in Socio-Economic Trasnformation, Effectiveness in Communication” (2014) Retrieved from http://www.ab.gov.tr/files/5%20Ekim/turkeys_new_eu_strategy.pdf
  • Unwin, T. (2012). Social media and democracy: Critical reflections. Background Paper for Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference, Colombo.
  • Uysal, N., Schroeder, J., & Taylor, M. (2012). Social media and soft power: Positioning Turkey’s image on Twitter. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 5(3), 338-359.
  • Vesnic-Alujevic, L. (2013). Members of the European Parliament Online: The use of social media in political marketing. Wilfried Martens Center for European Studies.

Yıl 2016, Cilt 15, Sayı 4, 1119 - 1130, 28.10.2016
https://doi.org/10.21547/jss.265501

Öz

Kaynakça

  • 2015-2018 Information Society Strategy and Action Plan. (2015) Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development Information Society Department Publication.
  • Castells, M. (2011). The rise of the network society: The information age: Economy, society, and culture. (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Chalmers, A. W.,& Shotton, P. A. (2015). Changing the Face of Advocacy? Explaining Interest Organizations’ Use of Social Media Strategies. Political Communication, 1-18.
  • Communication Handbook for the EU Agencies. (2013). Retrieved from http://europa.eu/agencies/documents/2013-12-10_communication_handbook_en.pdf
  • Davies, Ron. (2014) Social Media in Election Campaigning. European Parliament Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/bibliotheque/briefing/2014/140709/LDM_BRI(2014)140709_REV1_EN.pdf
  • Delancray, C.,& Lorthiois, L. (2014) From Social Media to Social Activation in the EU.Retrieved from http://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/lu/Documents/public-sector/lu-social-media-social-activation-eu-31102014.pdf
  • Digital Agenda for Europe: Europe 2020 Strategy. (2016). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/europe-2020-strategy
  • Dogramaci E.,& Radcliffe D. (2015). Digital News Report: How Turkey Uses Social Media. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/essays/2015/how-turkey-uses-social-media/
  • EC Digital transformation. (2013). The EU Internet Handbook: Information Providers Guide. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/basics/web_rationalisation/index_en.htm
  • European Commission Turkey Report. (2013). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/brochures/turkey_2013.pdf
  • European Commission Turkey Report. (2015). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2015/20151110_report_turkey.pdf
  • European Union Communication Strategy. (2014). Republic of Turkey Ministry for EU Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.ab.gov.tr/files/5%20Ekim/iletisim_stratejisi_eng_kapak_eklenmis.pdf
  • Hanganu, A. (2014). Interview: David Tunney, Head of Social Media for the EEAS. Digital Diplomacy. Retrieved from http://digitaldiplomacy.ro/interview-david-tunney-head-social-media-eeas-traditional-diplomacy-transformed-social-media-online-communication/?lang=en
  • Hansen, D., Shneiderman B., & and Smith M. A. (2010). Analyzing social media networks with NodeXL: Insights from a connected world. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats9.htm
  • Kaplan, G. (2014).The European Union Online: An Analysis of the European Commission’s Online Political Communication
  • Karantzeni, D.,& G. Gouscos, D. (2013). eParticipation in the EU: Re-focusing on social media and young citizens for reinforcing European identity. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7(4), 477-500.
  • Karkin, N., Koseoglu, O., & Sobaci, M. Z. (2015). Social Media Policy in Turkish Municipalities: Disparity Between Awareness and Implementation. In Social Media for Government Services (pp. 97-113). Springer International Publishing.
  • Kim, S. K., Park, M. J., & Rho, J. J. (2015). Effect of the Government’s Use of Social Media on the Reliability of the Government: Focus on Twitter. Public Management Review, 17(3), 328-355.
  • Koskinen, K. (2013). Social media and the institutional illusions of EU communication. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 23(1), 80-92.
  • Lilleker, D.,& Koc-Michalska, K. (2013). MEPs online: Understanding communication strategies for remote representatives.
  • Lister, M. (2009). New media: A critical introduction. Taylor & Francis.
  • Michailidou, A. (2008). Democracy and new media in the European Union: communication or participation deficit?. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 4(4), 346-368.
  • OECD. (2016). The Governance of Inclusive Growth: An Overview of Country Initiatives.
  • Owens, K. (2016). Putting the Social Back in Social Media. European Association of Communication Directors. Retrieved from http://www.eacd-online.eu/insights/blog/putting-social-back-social-media
  • Podkalicka, A., & Shore, C. (2010). Communicating Europe? EU Communication policy and cultural politics. Public Communication in the European Union: History, Perspectives and Challenges Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 93-112.
  • Roginsky, S. (2014). Social networking sites: an innovative communications on Europe? Analysis in the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council. Media and Communication on Europe, 91-112.
  • Sarıtaş, A., & Aydın, E. E. (2015). Elections and Social Media. Public Affairs and Administration: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Chapter 15. 314-328.
  • Social Media Guidelines for all European Commission Staff. (2016) European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/docs/guidelines_social_media_en.pdf
  • Spanier, B. (2012). Europe, anyone?. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.
  • Taşkıran, H.B. (2016). Government Public Relations in Turkey: Social Media Usage of Turkish Ministries in Relationship Building. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies. 6/1: 48-63.
  • Turkey’s New European Union Strategy: “Determination in the Political Reform Process, Continuity in Socio-Economic Trasnformation, Effectiveness in Communication” (2014) Retrieved from http://www.ab.gov.tr/files/5%20Ekim/turkeys_new_eu_strategy.pdf
  • Unwin, T. (2012). Social media and democracy: Critical reflections. Background Paper for Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference, Colombo.
  • Uysal, N., Schroeder, J., & Taylor, M. (2012). Social media and soft power: Positioning Turkey’s image on Twitter. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 5(3), 338-359.
  • Vesnic-Alujevic, L. (2013). Members of the European Parliament Online: The use of social media in political marketing. Wilfried Martens Center for European Studies.

Ayrıntılar

Konular İletişim
Bölüm İletişim
Yazarlar

Fatih ÇÖMLEKÇİ
GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4811-5558


Serhat GÜNEY
GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Ekim 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Kasım 2016
Kabul Tarihi 26 Ekim 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 15, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Çömlekçi, F. & Güney, S. (2016). Social Media Strategies of The European Union Bodies: A Comparison With Turkey's Experience . Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences , 15 (4) , 1119-1130 . DOI: 10.21547/jss.265501

Cited By

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