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A Week of Mayhem: The July 30 Insurgency in the Gambia

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 1 - 29, 15.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.38000/juhis.752635

Öz

The paper explains the emergence of political parties in The Gambia before and after independence and how they fared during presidential and parliamentary elections till an insurgency nearly toppled the regime. It also examines the causes of different types of coups, and relates it to the Gambian situation, thereafter a detailed eyewitness account of the insurgency followed. The role played by invading Senegalese forces in quelling the uprising and restoring law and order received attention. The findings show that economic problems, corruption, and carefree attitude of the ruling oligarchy were among the causes of the attempted overthrow.

Kaynakça

  • Africa South of the Sahara1(970-88), Ed. London: Europa Publications.
  • Anyanwu, C. Kinsley (1982), "The Basis of Political Instability in Nigeria. Communication and Change in Sub Sahara Africa." Journal of Black Studies.
  • Bamfo, Napoleon (2013), "The Political and Security Challenges Facing 'ECOWAS' in the Twenty-first Century: Testing the Limits of an Organization's Reputation." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 3, no. 3. www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_3_February_2013/2.pdf.
  • Barata, Kimberley. et. al. (1999), "From Accounting to Accountability: Managing Accounting Records as a Strategic Resource [info DEV 980121-] Report to the World Bank Info. DEV. Programme." International Records Management Trust., http://www.irmt.org/documents/research.
  • Clark, Hunter R. (1985), "Toppling an Unpopular Regime," Time magazine April 15
  • Camara, Amadou (1982), Gambia: Terror and the blood-dimmed tide. The Lawrentian Lawrence University, Appleton Washington
  • Collier, Paul. and Hoeffler, Anke (2005), "Coup Traps: Why Does Africa Have Many Coups D’état? Centre for the Study of African Economics." Preliminary Draft. University of Oxford.,. www.users.ox.ac.uk/~econpco/research/.../Coup-traps.pdf.
  • Decalo, Samuel. (1976), "The Politics of the Personalist Coup." In Coups and Army Rule in Africa, ed. Samuel Decalo. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Dube Arindrajit et al. (2008), "Coup, Corporations, and Classified Information." http://wwweml.berkeley.edu/~webfac/bardhan/e271_f08/suresh.pdf Eynde, Oliver Vanden. (2011), "Coup Friendly Institutions, and A Political Militaries: A Theory of Optimal Military Influence. Prepared for ESPA Dublin.". www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/.../coups.
  • Gambia Bureau of Statistics (2013), Population and Housing Census, Spatial Distribution Chapter 3: Ethnicity and Nationality. https://www.gbos.gov.gm/uploads/census/2013/Spatial-distribution-report_%20Final.pdf
  • Hirori, Taeko, and Omori, Sawa. (2014), "Causes and Triggers of Coup D’état; an Event History Analysis." Politics and Policy 14, no. 01.. https://www.researchgate.net/.../258218400 Hughes, Arnold (1991), "Analysis: The July 30, 1981 Gambian Coup." Available at: https://www.friendsofbasse.org/news/analysis-the-july-30-1981-gambian-coup/
  • Hughes, Arnold (1991), The attempted Gambian coup d’etat of 30 July 1981 The Standard Newspaper Thursday, September 17, 2020 Hughes, Arnold and David, Perfect (2008), "Historical Dictionary of The Gambia." The Scarecrow Press, Inc, 109th ser. www.mybasse.org/news/analysis-the-july-30-1981-gambian-coup/.
  • Janowitz, Morris (1977), Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Philip C. Jessup (1931), Editorial Comment, 77w Estrada Doctrine, 25 AM. Journal of International Law 719.
  • Liebenow, Gus J. (1986), African Politics: Crisis and Challenges. Bloomington, In.: Indiana University Press.
  • Luckham, Robin (1971), "The Nigerian Military: A Sociological Analysis of Authority and Revolt –1960-67." Cambridge University Press.
  • Machiavelli, Nicolo (1532), “The Prince” Available at: https://www.planetebook.com/free-ebooks/the-prince.pdf
  • Molly, Lindsey Molland. The Kornilov. "Affair, A Failed Coup D’état." www.web.mit.edu/.../0825-KornilovAffa.
  • Nelkin, D. (1967), "The Economic and Social Setting of Military Takeovers in Africa." Journal of Asian and African Studies 2:230-99.
  • Nguyen, Phuong (2009) "The 1983 Invasion of Grenada," ESSAI: Vol. 7, Article 36. Available at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai/vol7/iss1/36
  • Nordlinger, Eric A. (1970), "Soldiers in Mufti: The Impact of Military Rule Upon Economic and Social Change in Non-Western States." American Political Science Review (Dec.):1131-98.
  • Omasanjuwa, A, Phebean, J. (2020), Acrimony in Colonial Liberia. Journal of Universal History Studies, 3 (1), 1-38.
  • Omo-bare, Iren, "Military and Civilian Regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Outputs and Outcomes." (1990), LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 5085. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/5085
  • Report of The Commonwealth Observer Group, Commonwealth Secretariat (2006), P. 15. Available at http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/africa/GM/the-gambia-final-report-presidential-elections
  • Sallah, M. Tijan (1990), "Economics, and Politics in the Gambia." Journal of Modern African Studies, 28, no. 04, 621-48.
  • Sarr, Sansudeen (2020), Lawyer Ousainu Darboe’s role in the 1981 coup. Standard Newspaper September 17, 2020.
  • Sawyer, Amos (1992), "The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge." Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco. www.pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABM803.pdf.
  • Svolik, W. Milan. (2009), "Power Sharing and Leadership Dynamics in Authoritarian Regimes." Journal of Political Science 53, no. 02 477-94. https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/files/2015/10/
  • Stepan, Alfred. (1971), "The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil." Princeton University. www.jstor.org/stable/2512168.
  • Sweet, Alec Stone (2007), The Juridical Coup d’État and the Problem of Authority. Special Issue. German Law Review Vol. 08 No. 10.
  • Taylor, K. Richard (2011), "Manual for Non Violent Defence Against Coup D’état.". https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Against-the-Coup-dEtat.pdf
  • Tayyab Mahmud (1994), "Jurisprudence of Successful Treason: Coup d’Etat & (and) Common Law," Cornell International Law Journal: Vol. 27: Iss. 1, Article 2. Available at: http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cilj/vol27/iss1/2
  • Thompson Alex (2010), An introduction to African Politics. Routledge; Taylor and Francis Group London and New york.
  • Thyne, L. C. Layton, and Powell M. Jonathan, (2014), "Coup D’état or Coup D’Autocracy? How Coups Impact Democratization. 1950–2008." Foreign Policy Analysis.,. www.uky.edu/.../thyne_powell_FPA2013.pdf.
  • Quantson, Kofi. Bentum, (2008), "Beyond Frontiers of National Security." The Institute of Economic Affairs Occassional Parers, 37th seris.
  • Welch, Claude E., and Arthur K. Smith, eds. (1974), Military Role and Rule: Perspectives on Civil-Military Relations. North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press.
  • Wiking, Staffan (1983).,Military Coups in Sub-Saharan Africa. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska afrikainstitutat

Bir Kargaşa Haftası: Gambiya’da 30 Temmuz Ayaklanması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 1 - 29, 15.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.38000/juhis.752635

Öz

Bu çalışma bağımsızlık öncesi ve sonrasında Gambiya’daki siyasi partilerin birleşmesini ve neredeyse rejimi deviren bir isyana kadar başkanlık ve parlamento seçimleri boyunca onların nasıl yola çıktığını açıklar. Çalışma aynı zamanda askeri darbelerin farklı çeşitlerinin sebeplerini ve Gambiya’daki durumla alakasını, sonrasında takip eden ayaklanmanın detaylı görgü tanıklığını inceler. Senegal güçlerinin istilasıyla ayaklanmayı bastırma ve teslim alınmış esas vaziyetle kanun ve nizamı yeniden kurma rolü oynandı. Bulgular ekonomik problemler, yolsuzluk ve oligarşi yönetiminin kayıtsız tavrı hükümeti devirme teşebbüsü sebeplerinin arasında gösterir.

Kaynakça

  • Africa South of the Sahara1(970-88), Ed. London: Europa Publications.
  • Anyanwu, C. Kinsley (1982), "The Basis of Political Instability in Nigeria. Communication and Change in Sub Sahara Africa." Journal of Black Studies.
  • Bamfo, Napoleon (2013), "The Political and Security Challenges Facing 'ECOWAS' in the Twenty-first Century: Testing the Limits of an Organization's Reputation." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 3, no. 3. www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_3_February_2013/2.pdf.
  • Barata, Kimberley. et. al. (1999), "From Accounting to Accountability: Managing Accounting Records as a Strategic Resource [info DEV 980121-] Report to the World Bank Info. DEV. Programme." International Records Management Trust., http://www.irmt.org/documents/research.
  • Clark, Hunter R. (1985), "Toppling an Unpopular Regime," Time magazine April 15
  • Camara, Amadou (1982), Gambia: Terror and the blood-dimmed tide. The Lawrentian Lawrence University, Appleton Washington
  • Collier, Paul. and Hoeffler, Anke (2005), "Coup Traps: Why Does Africa Have Many Coups D’état? Centre for the Study of African Economics." Preliminary Draft. University of Oxford.,. www.users.ox.ac.uk/~econpco/research/.../Coup-traps.pdf.
  • Decalo, Samuel. (1976), "The Politics of the Personalist Coup." In Coups and Army Rule in Africa, ed. Samuel Decalo. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Dube Arindrajit et al. (2008), "Coup, Corporations, and Classified Information." http://wwweml.berkeley.edu/~webfac/bardhan/e271_f08/suresh.pdf Eynde, Oliver Vanden. (2011), "Coup Friendly Institutions, and A Political Militaries: A Theory of Optimal Military Influence. Prepared for ESPA Dublin.". www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/.../coups.
  • Gambia Bureau of Statistics (2013), Population and Housing Census, Spatial Distribution Chapter 3: Ethnicity and Nationality. https://www.gbos.gov.gm/uploads/census/2013/Spatial-distribution-report_%20Final.pdf
  • Hirori, Taeko, and Omori, Sawa. (2014), "Causes and Triggers of Coup D’état; an Event History Analysis." Politics and Policy 14, no. 01.. https://www.researchgate.net/.../258218400 Hughes, Arnold (1991), "Analysis: The July 30, 1981 Gambian Coup." Available at: https://www.friendsofbasse.org/news/analysis-the-july-30-1981-gambian-coup/
  • Hughes, Arnold (1991), The attempted Gambian coup d’etat of 30 July 1981 The Standard Newspaper Thursday, September 17, 2020 Hughes, Arnold and David, Perfect (2008), "Historical Dictionary of The Gambia." The Scarecrow Press, Inc, 109th ser. www.mybasse.org/news/analysis-the-july-30-1981-gambian-coup/.
  • Janowitz, Morris (1977), Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Philip C. Jessup (1931), Editorial Comment, 77w Estrada Doctrine, 25 AM. Journal of International Law 719.
  • Liebenow, Gus J. (1986), African Politics: Crisis and Challenges. Bloomington, In.: Indiana University Press.
  • Luckham, Robin (1971), "The Nigerian Military: A Sociological Analysis of Authority and Revolt –1960-67." Cambridge University Press.
  • Machiavelli, Nicolo (1532), “The Prince” Available at: https://www.planetebook.com/free-ebooks/the-prince.pdf
  • Molly, Lindsey Molland. The Kornilov. "Affair, A Failed Coup D’état." www.web.mit.edu/.../0825-KornilovAffa.
  • Nelkin, D. (1967), "The Economic and Social Setting of Military Takeovers in Africa." Journal of Asian and African Studies 2:230-99.
  • Nguyen, Phuong (2009) "The 1983 Invasion of Grenada," ESSAI: Vol. 7, Article 36. Available at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai/vol7/iss1/36
  • Nordlinger, Eric A. (1970), "Soldiers in Mufti: The Impact of Military Rule Upon Economic and Social Change in Non-Western States." American Political Science Review (Dec.):1131-98.
  • Omasanjuwa, A, Phebean, J. (2020), Acrimony in Colonial Liberia. Journal of Universal History Studies, 3 (1), 1-38.
  • Omo-bare, Iren, "Military and Civilian Regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Public Policy Outputs and Outcomes." (1990), LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 5085. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/5085
  • Report of The Commonwealth Observer Group, Commonwealth Secretariat (2006), P. 15. Available at http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/africa/GM/the-gambia-final-report-presidential-elections
  • Sallah, M. Tijan (1990), "Economics, and Politics in the Gambia." Journal of Modern African Studies, 28, no. 04, 621-48.
  • Sarr, Sansudeen (2020), Lawyer Ousainu Darboe’s role in the 1981 coup. Standard Newspaper September 17, 2020.
  • Sawyer, Amos (1992), "The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge." Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco. www.pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABM803.pdf.
  • Svolik, W. Milan. (2009), "Power Sharing and Leadership Dynamics in Authoritarian Regimes." Journal of Political Science 53, no. 02 477-94. https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/files/2015/10/
  • Stepan, Alfred. (1971), "The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil." Princeton University. www.jstor.org/stable/2512168.
  • Sweet, Alec Stone (2007), The Juridical Coup d’État and the Problem of Authority. Special Issue. German Law Review Vol. 08 No. 10.
  • Taylor, K. Richard (2011), "Manual for Non Violent Defence Against Coup D’état.". https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Against-the-Coup-dEtat.pdf
  • Tayyab Mahmud (1994), "Jurisprudence of Successful Treason: Coup d’Etat & (and) Common Law," Cornell International Law Journal: Vol. 27: Iss. 1, Article 2. Available at: http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cilj/vol27/iss1/2
  • Thompson Alex (2010), An introduction to African Politics. Routledge; Taylor and Francis Group London and New york.
  • Thyne, L. C. Layton, and Powell M. Jonathan, (2014), "Coup D’état or Coup D’Autocracy? How Coups Impact Democratization. 1950–2008." Foreign Policy Analysis.,. www.uky.edu/.../thyne_powell_FPA2013.pdf.
  • Quantson, Kofi. Bentum, (2008), "Beyond Frontiers of National Security." The Institute of Economic Affairs Occassional Parers, 37th seris.
  • Welch, Claude E., and Arthur K. Smith, eds. (1974), Military Role and Rule: Perspectives on Civil-Military Relations. North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press.
  • Wiking, Staffan (1983).,Military Coups in Sub-Saharan Africa. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska afrikainstitutat

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası, Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Akpojevbe OMASANJUWA (Sorumlu Yazar)
University of The Gambia
0000-0002-8005-3924
Gambia


Modu Lamın TARRO Bu kişi benim
University of the Gambia
0000-0002-4973-4334
Gambia

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 4 Ekim 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Omasanjuwa, A. & Tarro, M. L. (2021). A Week of Mayhem: The July 30 Insurgency in the Gambia . Journal of Universal History Studies , 4 (1) , 1-29 . DOI: 10.38000/juhis.752635

23283

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 2.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike)


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