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Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust

Yıl 2021, Cilt 21, Sayı 2, 183 - 195, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.1000472

Öz

Aim of study: The chemical and morphological properties of sapwood and heartwood of stone pine and black locust were determined. Material and methods: Preparation of samples of stone pine and black locust sapwood and heartwood was carried out by adhering to the TAPPI Standard Methods. The chemical properties holocellulose, cellulose, lignin, alpha cellulose, ash, ether, cold and hot water and 1% NaOH solubility percentages were analysed. In order to determine the morphological properties of the woods, the fiber size of the maserated wood samples were measured under a screened visopane microscope. Using the data obtained from fiber sizes, felting ratio, stiffness coefficient, runkel ratio, elasticity classification, Mühlstep coefficient and F factor values were calculated. Main results: From the chemical analysis and morphological measurement results, significant differences were found according to the independent T Test statistical analysis between sapwoods and heartwoods. In addition, the solubility values of heartwoods were found to be lower than that of sapwoods, the chemical and morphological properties of all wood samples coincide with those specified in the literature. Highlights: To investigate the suitability of Stone Pine and Black Locust to pulp and paper production.

Kaynakça

  • Akgün, H.C. (2005). Chemical composition of Anatolian chestnut wood and suitability for pulping. M. Sc. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Bartın, Turkey.
  • Alkan, Ç., Eroğlu, H. & Yaman, B. (2003). Fiber morphology of some natural Angiospermae taxa in Turkey, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Bartın the Faculty of Forestry Journal, 5(5), 102-108.
  • Ataç, Y. (2009). Examination of softwood and hardwood trees ın terms of paper properties of their sapwood and heartwood. Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey.
  • Ataç, Y. & Eroğlu, H. (2013). The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 243-248.
  • Ay, N. & Şahin, H. (1998). An investigation of internal morphological properties of sapwood and heartwood of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis Link.). Turk J. Agric. For, 22, 203-207.
  • Bektaş, İ.,Tutuş, A. & Eroğlu, H. (1999). A study of the of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) for pulp and paper manufacture. Turkish journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23, 589-598.
  • Bektaş, İ., Tutuş, A. & Gültekin, G. (2020). The Effect of Sapwood and Heartwood Differences on Mechanical Properties of Fast-Growing Tree Species. Drvna industrija: Znanstveni časopis za pitanja drvne tehnologije, 71(3), 261-269.
  • Bertaud, F. & Holmbom, B. (2004). Chemical composition of earlywood and latewoods in Norway Spruce heartwood, sapwood and transition wood. Wood Science Technology, 38, 245-256.
  • Bostancı, Ş. (1987). Pulp Production and Bleaching Technology. University Publication No.114, Faculty Publication No.13. Trabzon: Karadeniz Technical University Printing House.
  • Bozkurt, Y. & Erdin, N. (1997). Wood Technology. İstanbul University, Publications of Faculty of Forestry, no. 445, İstanbul.
  • Browning, B.L. (1967). Methods of Chemistry. I, New York, London, Sydney: Interscience Publishers.
  • Casey, J.P. (1961). Cellulose and Paper Chemistry and Chemistry Technology. III. Edition, (2), 581-1249. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publishers Inc.
  • Dadswell, H.E. & Watson, A.J. (1961). Influence of the Morphology of Wood Pulp Fibers on Paper Properties, In: Bloam, F., ed. Formation and Structure of Paper. (2), 537-564. London, England: Technical Section of the British Paper and Board Markers Association.
  • Dunisch, O., Richter, H. G. & Koch, G. (2010). Wood properties of juvenile and mature heartwood in R. Pseudoacacia L. Wood Science and Technology, 44(2), 301-313.
  • El Moussaouiti, M., Barcha, B., Alves, E.F. & Francis, R.C. (2012). Kraft Pulping of Eucalypti, Bioresources, 7 (2), 1558-1568.
  • Erkan, S., Çiçekler, M. & Tutuş, A. (2020). Comparison of Pinus Pinea Heartwood and Sapwood Pulps Obtained by Soda-Potassium Borohydride Method. Düzce University, Journal of Science and Technology, 8(3), 1894-1902.
  • Esteves, B., Gominho, J., Rodrigues, JC., Miranda, I. & Pereira, H. (2005). Pulping yield and delignification kinetics of heartwood and sapwood of maritime pine. J Wood Chem Technol, 25, 217-230.
  • Fengel, D. & Wegener, G. (1989). Wood: Chemistry, ultrastructure, reactions. Walter de Gruyter, New York.
  • Gönültaş, O. (2008). Chemical characterization of cones, wood and needles of Pinus pinea. Msc. Thesis, İstanbul University, Institute of Science, İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Gültekin, G. (2014). Determination of Chemical, Morphological, Anatomical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sapwood and Heartood of Some Softwood and Hardwood. Ph. D. Thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Forest Industry Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.
  • Gümüşkaya, E., Erisir, E., Kırcı, H. & Misir, N. (2011). The Effect of Sodium Borohydride on Alkaline Sulfite Anthraquinone Pulping of Pine (Pinus pinea) Wood. Industrial δ Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 8340-8343.
  • İstek, A., Eroğlu, H. & Gürsoy, S.K. (2008). Fiber and Paper Properties Changes in Relation to age of Black Pine. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 8(1), 61-66.
  • İstek, A.,Tutuş, A. & Gülsoy, S.K. (2009). The Effect of Tree Age on Fiber Morphology of Pinus pinaster and Paper Properties. KSU Journal of Engineering Sciences, 12(1), 1-5.
  • Kırcı, H. (1987). Possibilities of evaluation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. wood in paper industry”, Master Thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, KTU, Trabzon, Turkey.
  • Kırcı, H. (2000). Pulp Industry Lecture Notes. Pub. No:63, KTU, Faculty of Forestry, Trabzon.
  • Kırcı, H. (2006). Pulp Industry Lecture Notes. Publication No. 86,113. Trabzon: KTU, Faculty of Forestry.
  • Kurschner, K. & Hoffer, A. (1993). Cellulose and cellulose derivative, Fresenius, Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 92(3), 145-154.
  • Liukkonen, S., Vehnianinen, A. & Sirvio, J. (2007). Selection of raw material offers new energy-property combinations for mechanical pulp. International Mechanical Pulping Conference, Minnesota, USA, 1-9.
  • Mariana, S., Torres, M., Fernandez, A. & Morales, E. (2005). Effects of Eucalyptus nitens heartwood in kraft pulping. Tappi J 4, 8-10.
  • Özkan, İ. (2006). Production of NaBH4 Addition Kraft Paper Pulp from Populus Tremula L. P Chips. High Engineering Thesis. Zonguldak Karaelmas University Institute of Science. Bartın, Turkey.
  • Pereira, H., Graça, J. & Rodrigues, J.C. (2003). Wood chemistry in relation to quality. In: Barnett JR, Jeronimidis G (eds) wood quality and its biological basis, 53-86. Blackwell, United Kingdom.
  • Rydholm, S.A. (1965). Pulping processes, First Edition, s. 1269. Interscience Publishers.
  • Sjöström, E. (1981). The structure of wood, Chapter 1. Wood Chemistry Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, 1-20.
  • Tank, T. (1980). Fiber and Celluoce Technology. No: 2362/272, s.178. İstanbul: İ.Ü. Faculty of Foresty Publication.
  • Tappi T 203 om-93 (1992). Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-207 om-88 (19929). Water Solubility of Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-211 om-85 (1992). Ash in Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia,I.
  • Tappi T-212 om-88 (1992). One percent Sodium Hydroxide Solubility of Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T 222 om-98 (1992). Lignin of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T 232 cm-85 (1992). Preparation of wood for fiber size determination, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi 246 om-88 (1992). Moisture in pulp, paper and paperboard, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-257 om-85 (1992). Sampling and Preparing wood for Analysis, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • TS 4569 (1985). Determination of solute in wood-ether.
  • Wise, E.L. & Karl, H.L. (1962). Cellulose and Hemicelluloses in Pulp and Paper Science and Technology, 1. Pulp. Earl. C.L. (Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill-Book Co.

Fıstıkçamı ve Yalancı Akasya Öz ve Diri Odunlarının Kimyasal ve Morfolojik Özelliklerinin Araştırılması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 21, Sayı 2, 183 - 195, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.1000472

Öz

Çalışmanın amacı: Fıstıkçamı ve yalancı akasya diri ve öz odunlarının kimyasal ve morfolojik özellikleri tespit etmek. Materyal ve yöntem: Fıstıkçamı ile yalancı akasya diri ve öz odunu örneklerinin hazırlanması ve yapılan kimyasal analiz ve morfolojik ölçümler TAPPI standart yöntemine bağlı kalınarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında, kimyasal özelliklerinden holoselüloz, selüloz, lignin, alfa selüloz, kül oranı ile eter, soğuk su, sıcak su ile %1’lik NaOH çözünürlüğü oranı analiz edildi. Odunların morfolojik özelliklerini belirlemek için, masere edilen odun örneklerinin lif boyutları ekranlı vizopan mikroskopta ölçülmüştür. Lif boyutları ölçümlerinden elde edilen veriler kullanılarak keçeleşme oranı, rijidite katsayısı, runkel oranı, elastikiyet sınıflandırması, mühlstep katsayısı ve F faktörü değerleri hesaplanmıştır. Temel sonuçlar: Kimyasal analiz ve morfolojik ölçüm sonuçlarından, fıstıkçamı ile yalancı akasyanın diri ve öz odunları arasında yapılan bağımsız T Testi istatiktik analizine göre, önemli farklılıkların olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, diri odunlarının çözünürlük değerleri öz odunlara göre daha düşük bulunmuş ve tüm örneklerin kimyasal ve morfolojik özellikleri literatürdeki değerlerle örtüşmektedir. Araştırma vurguları: Fıstıkçamı ve Yalancı Akasya’nın kağıt hamuru ve kağıt üretimine uygunluğunu araştırmak.

Kaynakça

  • Akgün, H.C. (2005). Chemical composition of Anatolian chestnut wood and suitability for pulping. M. Sc. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Bartın, Turkey.
  • Alkan, Ç., Eroğlu, H. & Yaman, B. (2003). Fiber morphology of some natural Angiospermae taxa in Turkey, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Bartın the Faculty of Forestry Journal, 5(5), 102-108.
  • Ataç, Y. (2009). Examination of softwood and hardwood trees ın terms of paper properties of their sapwood and heartwood. Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey.
  • Ataç, Y. & Eroğlu, H. (2013). The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 243-248.
  • Ay, N. & Şahin, H. (1998). An investigation of internal morphological properties of sapwood and heartwood of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis Link.). Turk J. Agric. For, 22, 203-207.
  • Bektaş, İ.,Tutuş, A. & Eroğlu, H. (1999). A study of the of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) for pulp and paper manufacture. Turkish journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23, 589-598.
  • Bektaş, İ., Tutuş, A. & Gültekin, G. (2020). The Effect of Sapwood and Heartwood Differences on Mechanical Properties of Fast-Growing Tree Species. Drvna industrija: Znanstveni časopis za pitanja drvne tehnologije, 71(3), 261-269.
  • Bertaud, F. & Holmbom, B. (2004). Chemical composition of earlywood and latewoods in Norway Spruce heartwood, sapwood and transition wood. Wood Science Technology, 38, 245-256.
  • Bostancı, Ş. (1987). Pulp Production and Bleaching Technology. University Publication No.114, Faculty Publication No.13. Trabzon: Karadeniz Technical University Printing House.
  • Bozkurt, Y. & Erdin, N. (1997). Wood Technology. İstanbul University, Publications of Faculty of Forestry, no. 445, İstanbul.
  • Browning, B.L. (1967). Methods of Chemistry. I, New York, London, Sydney: Interscience Publishers.
  • Casey, J.P. (1961). Cellulose and Paper Chemistry and Chemistry Technology. III. Edition, (2), 581-1249. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publishers Inc.
  • Dadswell, H.E. & Watson, A.J. (1961). Influence of the Morphology of Wood Pulp Fibers on Paper Properties, In: Bloam, F., ed. Formation and Structure of Paper. (2), 537-564. London, England: Technical Section of the British Paper and Board Markers Association.
  • Dunisch, O., Richter, H. G. & Koch, G. (2010). Wood properties of juvenile and mature heartwood in R. Pseudoacacia L. Wood Science and Technology, 44(2), 301-313.
  • El Moussaouiti, M., Barcha, B., Alves, E.F. & Francis, R.C. (2012). Kraft Pulping of Eucalypti, Bioresources, 7 (2), 1558-1568.
  • Erkan, S., Çiçekler, M. & Tutuş, A. (2020). Comparison of Pinus Pinea Heartwood and Sapwood Pulps Obtained by Soda-Potassium Borohydride Method. Düzce University, Journal of Science and Technology, 8(3), 1894-1902.
  • Esteves, B., Gominho, J., Rodrigues, JC., Miranda, I. & Pereira, H. (2005). Pulping yield and delignification kinetics of heartwood and sapwood of maritime pine. J Wood Chem Technol, 25, 217-230.
  • Fengel, D. & Wegener, G. (1989). Wood: Chemistry, ultrastructure, reactions. Walter de Gruyter, New York.
  • Gönültaş, O. (2008). Chemical characterization of cones, wood and needles of Pinus pinea. Msc. Thesis, İstanbul University, Institute of Science, İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Gültekin, G. (2014). Determination of Chemical, Morphological, Anatomical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sapwood and Heartood of Some Softwood and Hardwood. Ph. D. Thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Forest Industry Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.
  • Gümüşkaya, E., Erisir, E., Kırcı, H. & Misir, N. (2011). The Effect of Sodium Borohydride on Alkaline Sulfite Anthraquinone Pulping of Pine (Pinus pinea) Wood. Industrial δ Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 8340-8343.
  • İstek, A., Eroğlu, H. & Gürsoy, S.K. (2008). Fiber and Paper Properties Changes in Relation to age of Black Pine. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 8(1), 61-66.
  • İstek, A.,Tutuş, A. & Gülsoy, S.K. (2009). The Effect of Tree Age on Fiber Morphology of Pinus pinaster and Paper Properties. KSU Journal of Engineering Sciences, 12(1), 1-5.
  • Kırcı, H. (1987). Possibilities of evaluation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. wood in paper industry”, Master Thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, KTU, Trabzon, Turkey.
  • Kırcı, H. (2000). Pulp Industry Lecture Notes. Pub. No:63, KTU, Faculty of Forestry, Trabzon.
  • Kırcı, H. (2006). Pulp Industry Lecture Notes. Publication No. 86,113. Trabzon: KTU, Faculty of Forestry.
  • Kurschner, K. & Hoffer, A. (1993). Cellulose and cellulose derivative, Fresenius, Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 92(3), 145-154.
  • Liukkonen, S., Vehnianinen, A. & Sirvio, J. (2007). Selection of raw material offers new energy-property combinations for mechanical pulp. International Mechanical Pulping Conference, Minnesota, USA, 1-9.
  • Mariana, S., Torres, M., Fernandez, A. & Morales, E. (2005). Effects of Eucalyptus nitens heartwood in kraft pulping. Tappi J 4, 8-10.
  • Özkan, İ. (2006). Production of NaBH4 Addition Kraft Paper Pulp from Populus Tremula L. P Chips. High Engineering Thesis. Zonguldak Karaelmas University Institute of Science. Bartın, Turkey.
  • Pereira, H., Graça, J. & Rodrigues, J.C. (2003). Wood chemistry in relation to quality. In: Barnett JR, Jeronimidis G (eds) wood quality and its biological basis, 53-86. Blackwell, United Kingdom.
  • Rydholm, S.A. (1965). Pulping processes, First Edition, s. 1269. Interscience Publishers.
  • Sjöström, E. (1981). The structure of wood, Chapter 1. Wood Chemistry Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, 1-20.
  • Tank, T. (1980). Fiber and Celluoce Technology. No: 2362/272, s.178. İstanbul: İ.Ü. Faculty of Foresty Publication.
  • Tappi T 203 om-93 (1992). Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-207 om-88 (19929). Water Solubility of Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-211 om-85 (1992). Ash in Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia,I.
  • Tappi T-212 om-88 (1992). One percent Sodium Hydroxide Solubility of Wood and Pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T 222 om-98 (1992). Lignin of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T 232 cm-85 (1992). Preparation of wood for fiber size determination, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi 246 om-88 (1992). Moisture in pulp, paper and paperboard, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • Tappi T-257 om-85 (1992). Sampling and Preparing wood for Analysis, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, I.
  • TS 4569 (1985). Determination of solute in wood-ether.
  • Wise, E.L. & Karl, H.L. (1962). Cellulose and Hemicelluloses in Pulp and Paper Science and Technology, 1. Pulp. Earl. C.L. (Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill-Book Co.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Saniye ERKAN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
KAHRAMANMARAS SUTCU IMAM UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF FOREST
Türkiye


İbrahim BEKTAŞ Bu kişi benim
KAHRAMANMARAS SUTCU IMAM UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF FOREST
Palestine, State of

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 21, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kastorman1000472, journal = {Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty}, issn = {1303-2399}, eissn = {1309-4181}, address = {}, publisher = {Kastamonu Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, pages = {183 - 195}, doi = {10.17475/kastorman.1000472}, title = {Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust}, key = {cite}, author = {Erkan, Saniye and Bektaş, İbrahim} }
APA Erkan, S. & Bektaş, İ. (2021). Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty , 21 (2) , 183-195 . DOI: 10.17475/kastorman.1000472
MLA Erkan, S. , Bektaş, İ. "Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust" . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 21 (2021 ): 183-195 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kastorman/article/1000472>
Chicago Erkan, S. , Bektaş, İ. "Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 21 (2021 ): 183-195
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust AU - Saniye Erkan , İbrahim Bektaş Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.1000472 DO - 10.17475/kastorman.1000472 T2 - Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 183 EP - 195 VL - 21 IS - 2 SN - 1303-2399-1309-4181 M3 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.1000472 UR - https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.1000472 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust %A Saniye Erkan , İbrahim Bektaş %T Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust %D 2021 %J Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty %P 1303-2399-1309-4181 %V 21 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17475/kastorman.1000472 %U 10.17475/kastorman.1000472
ISNAD Erkan, Saniye , Bektaş, İbrahim . "Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 21 / 2 (Eylül 2021): 183-195 . https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.1000472
AMA Erkan S. , Bektaş İ. Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2021; 21(2): 183-195.
Vancouver Erkan S. , Bektaş İ. Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2021; 21(2): 183-195.
IEEE S. Erkan ve İ. Bektaş , "Investigation of Chemical and Morphological Properties of the Sapwood and Heartwoods of Stone Pine and Black Locust", Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, c. 21, sayı. 2, ss. 183-195, Eyl. 2021, doi:10.17475/kastorman.1000472

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