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Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester

Yıl 2018, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 62 - 74, 23.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.409185

Öz

Aim of study: In this study, XRD and Vickers microhardness analyses of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) materials are carried out in detail. Especially, we are focused on the mechanical analysis.

Area of study: Pine wood flour (40 mesh) as lignocellulosic filler obtained from a commercial WPC manufacturer (sema wood) in Tekirdag, Turkey are used.

Material and Methods: Polypropylene, nano TiO2 and coupling agent are used in the experiments. Depending on the nanocomposite groups, granulated polymer, wood flour, nano TiO2 and MAPP are mixed. Then this mixture is compounded in a laboratory scale twin-screw extruder at 40 rpm screw speed.

Main results: According to the obtained hardness results, all of the materials show RISE (Reverse Indentation Size Effect) behavior. Experimental microhardness results are compared with the mathematical models (Meyer's law, Proportional sample Resistance (PSR), Elastic/Plastic Deformation (EPD) and Indentation-Induced Cracking (IIC) models) used in the microhardness analysis of materials in the literature and the most suitable model for microhardness values of materials was determined. According to the models, IIC model is the most suitable to determine the micromechanical properties.

Research highlights: Structural and mechanical properties of WPNs materials are investigated. The increase in the microhardness values of the all sample depends on the increase of applied load. In addition, the microhardness values decrease with increased TiO2 concentration in the samples and microhardness values reach a saturation region at around for the samples.

Kaynakça

  • Awad, R., Abou Aly, A. I., Kamal, M., Anas, M. (2011). Mechanical Properties of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 Substituted by Pr. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn., 24, 1947-1956.
  • Arda, L., Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., Ataoglu, S. (2013). Structural and mechanical properties of transition metals doped ZnMgO nanoparticles. Powder Technology, 235, 479-484.
  • Asikuzun, E., Ozturk, O., L., Arda, Akcan, D., Senol, S.D., Terzioglu, C. (2015). Preparation, structural and micromechanical properties of (Al/Mg) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol–gel process. J. Mat. Sci.: in Elect. 26, 8147–8159.
  • Ahmed, M.A., El-Shennawy, M., Althomali, Y.M., Omar, A.A. (2016). Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nano Particles Incorporation on Mechanical and Physical Properties on Two Different Types of Acrylic Resin Denture Base. World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 6, 111-119.
  • Bull, S.J., Page,T.F., Yoffe, E.H. (1989). An explanation of the indentation size effect in ceramics. Philosophical Magazine Letters, 59, 281-288.
  • Cetinkara, H.A., Yilmazlar, M., Ozturk, O., Nursoy, M., Terzioglu, C. (2009). The influence of cooling rates on microstructure and mechanical properties of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconductors. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series 153, 012038.
  • Candan, Z., Akbulut, T. (2013). Developing environmentally friendly wood composite panels by nanotechnology. BioResources, 8 (3), 3590-3598.
  • Cetin, N., Cetin, N., Harper, D. (2015). Vinyl acetate-modified microcrystalline cellulose-reinforced HDPE composites prepared by twin-screw extrusion. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 39 (1), 39-47.
  • Deka, B.K., Maji, T.K. (2011). Effect of TiO2 and nanoclay on the properties of wood polymer nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42 (12), 2117-2125.
  • Elmustafa, A.A., Stone, D.S. (2003). Nanoindentation and the indentation size effect: Kinetics of deformation and strain gradient plasticity. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 51(2), 357-381.
  • Farhoodi, M., Dadashi, S., Mousavi, S.M.A., Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R., Emam-Djomeh, Z., Oromiehie, A., Hemmati, F. (2012). Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticle Filler on the Properties of PET and PLA Nanocomposites. Polymer (Korea), 36 (6),745-755.
  • Gong, J., Wu, J., Guan, Z. (1999). Examination of the indentation size effect in low-load Vickers hardness testing of ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 19(15), 2625-2631.
  • Graaf, D.D., Braciszewicz, M., Hintzen, H.T., Sopicka-Lizer, M., De With, G. (2004). The Influence of The Composition on (The Load-Dependence of) The Microhardness of Y–;Si–;Al–;O–;N Glasses As Measured By Vickers Indentation. J. Mater. Sci., 39, 2145.
  • Kölemen, U., Uzun, O., Yılmazlar, M., Güçlü, N., Yanmaz, E. (2006). Hardness and microstructural analysis of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2−xSmxCu3Oy polycrystalline superconductors. Journal of alloys and compounds, 415(1), 300-306.
  • Kaymakci, A., Gulec, T., Hosseinihashemi, S.K., Ayrilmis, N. (2017). Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood/ Zeolıte/Plastic Hybrid Composites, Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 19 (3), 339–348.
  • Li, H., Bradt, R.C. (1996). The effect of indentation-induced cracking on the apparent microhardness. J. Mater. Sci., 31, 1065–1070.
  • Lopesa, E.S.N., Cremascoa, A., Afonsob, C.R.M., Caram, R. (2011). Effects of double aging heat treatment on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti–Nb alloys. Materials Characterization, 62, 673-680.
  • Ozturk, O., Cetinkara, H.A., Asikuzun, E., Akdogan, M., Yilmazlar, M., Terzioglu, C. (2011). Investigation of mechanical and superconducting properties of iron diffusion-doped Bi-2223 superconductors. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 22(9), 1501-1508.
  • Ozmen, N., Cetin, N.S., Mengeloglu, F., Birinci, E., Karakus K.K. (2013). Effect of Wood Acetylation with Vinyl Acetate and Acetic Anhydride on the Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites. Bioresources, 8 (1), 753-767.
  • Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., and Yildirim, G. (2013). The role of Lu doping on microstructural and superconducting properties of Bi2Sr2CaLuxCu2Oy superconducting system. J. Mat. Sci.: in Elect., 24, 1274-1281.
  • Okoh, E.T. (2014). Water Absorption Properties of Some Tropical Timber Species. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources, 3 (2), 20-24.
  • Piccardo, C., Magliocco, A. (2013). The Environmental Profile of Wood in the Building Industry Today: Comments on the Results of Some LCA Studies. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 1(6), 122-128.
  • Quinn, J.B., Quinn D.G. (1997). Indentation brittleness of ceramics: a fresh approach. Journal of Materials Science, 32(16), 4331-4346.
  • Sangwal, K., Surowska, B., Blaziak, P. (2002). Analysis Of The Indentatıon Size Effect In The Microhardness Measurement of Some Cobalt-Based Alloys. Mater. Chem. Phys., 77, 511.
  • Sahin, O., Uzun, O., Kölemen, U., Uçar, N. (2007). Dynamic Hardness And Reduced Modulus Determination On The (001) Face Of Β-Sn Single Crystals By A Depth Sensing Indentation Technique. J. Phys. Condens. Matter., 19, 306001.
  • Sahin, O., Uzun, O., Sopicka-Lizer, M., Gocmez, H., Kölemen, U. (2008). Dynamic hardness and elastic modulus calculation of porous SiAlON ceramics using depth-sensing indentation technique. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 28(6), 1235-1242.
  • Tosun, M., Ataoglu, S., Arda, L., Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., Akcan, D., Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Structural and mechanical properties of ZnMgO nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 590, 416-422.
  • Upit, G.P., Varchenya, S.A. (1966). Microhardness of alkali halide crystals. Physica Status Solidi (b), 17(2), 831–835.

Ahşap polimer nanokompozit (WPN) numunelerinin mekanik davranışlarının statik vickers mikro sertlik test cihazı kullanılarak incelenmesi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 62 - 74, 23.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.409185

Öz

Çalışmanın amacı: Bu çalışmada, ahşap polimer nanokompozit (WPN) malzemelerinin XRD ve Vickers mikrosertlik analizleri detaylı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Özellikle mekanik analizler üzerine odaklanılmıştır.

Çalışma alanı: Tekirdağ'da ticari bir WPC üreticisinden (Sema Ahşap) elde edilen lignoselülozik dolgu maddesi olarak çam kerestesi kullanılmıştır.

Materyal ve Yöntem: Deneylerde polipropilen, nano TiO2 ve birleştirme maddesi kullanılmıştır. Nanokompozit gruplara bağlı olarak, granül haline getirilmiş polimer, odun unu, nano TiO2 ve MAPP karıştırılmıştır. Daha sonra bu karışım, 40 rpm'lik vida hızında laboratuar ölçekli çift vidalı bir ekstrüderde birleştirilmiştir.

Temel Sonuçlar: Elde edilen sertlik sonuçlarına göre, tüm materyaller RISE (Ters Çentik Boyutu Etkisi) davranışını göstermektedir. Deneysel sonuçlar, literatürde malzemelerin mikrosertlik analizlerinde kullanılan matematiksel modeller (Meyer Kanunu, Orantılı Numune Direnci (PSR), Elastik/Plastik Deformasyon (EPD) ve Çentici Kaynaklı Yarılma (IIC) modelleri ile karşılaştırılmış ve en uygun model belirlenmiştir. Bu modellere göre, IIC modeli, malzemelerin mikromekanik özelliklerini belirlemek için en uygun modeldir.

Araştırma vurguları: WPN'lerin yapısal ve mekanik özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Tüm numunenin mikrosertlik değerlerindeki artış uygulanan yükün artmasına bağlıdır. Ek olarak, numunelerde TiO2 konsantrasyonun artması ile mikrosertlik değerleri azalmakta ve yaklaşık 1.5 N'de doyma bölgesine ulaşmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Awad, R., Abou Aly, A. I., Kamal, M., Anas, M. (2011). Mechanical Properties of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 Substituted by Pr. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn., 24, 1947-1956.
  • Arda, L., Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., Ataoglu, S. (2013). Structural and mechanical properties of transition metals doped ZnMgO nanoparticles. Powder Technology, 235, 479-484.
  • Asikuzun, E., Ozturk, O., L., Arda, Akcan, D., Senol, S.D., Terzioglu, C. (2015). Preparation, structural and micromechanical properties of (Al/Mg) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol–gel process. J. Mat. Sci.: in Elect. 26, 8147–8159.
  • Ahmed, M.A., El-Shennawy, M., Althomali, Y.M., Omar, A.A. (2016). Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nano Particles Incorporation on Mechanical and Physical Properties on Two Different Types of Acrylic Resin Denture Base. World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 6, 111-119.
  • Bull, S.J., Page,T.F., Yoffe, E.H. (1989). An explanation of the indentation size effect in ceramics. Philosophical Magazine Letters, 59, 281-288.
  • Cetinkara, H.A., Yilmazlar, M., Ozturk, O., Nursoy, M., Terzioglu, C. (2009). The influence of cooling rates on microstructure and mechanical properties of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconductors. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series 153, 012038.
  • Candan, Z., Akbulut, T. (2013). Developing environmentally friendly wood composite panels by nanotechnology. BioResources, 8 (3), 3590-3598.
  • Cetin, N., Cetin, N., Harper, D. (2015). Vinyl acetate-modified microcrystalline cellulose-reinforced HDPE composites prepared by twin-screw extrusion. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 39 (1), 39-47.
  • Deka, B.K., Maji, T.K. (2011). Effect of TiO2 and nanoclay on the properties of wood polymer nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42 (12), 2117-2125.
  • Elmustafa, A.A., Stone, D.S. (2003). Nanoindentation and the indentation size effect: Kinetics of deformation and strain gradient plasticity. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 51(2), 357-381.
  • Farhoodi, M., Dadashi, S., Mousavi, S.M.A., Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R., Emam-Djomeh, Z., Oromiehie, A., Hemmati, F. (2012). Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticle Filler on the Properties of PET and PLA Nanocomposites. Polymer (Korea), 36 (6),745-755.
  • Gong, J., Wu, J., Guan, Z. (1999). Examination of the indentation size effect in low-load Vickers hardness testing of ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 19(15), 2625-2631.
  • Graaf, D.D., Braciszewicz, M., Hintzen, H.T., Sopicka-Lizer, M., De With, G. (2004). The Influence of The Composition on (The Load-Dependence of) The Microhardness of Y–;Si–;Al–;O–;N Glasses As Measured By Vickers Indentation. J. Mater. Sci., 39, 2145.
  • Kölemen, U., Uzun, O., Yılmazlar, M., Güçlü, N., Yanmaz, E. (2006). Hardness and microstructural analysis of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2−xSmxCu3Oy polycrystalline superconductors. Journal of alloys and compounds, 415(1), 300-306.
  • Kaymakci, A., Gulec, T., Hosseinihashemi, S.K., Ayrilmis, N. (2017). Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood/ Zeolıte/Plastic Hybrid Composites, Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 19 (3), 339–348.
  • Li, H., Bradt, R.C. (1996). The effect of indentation-induced cracking on the apparent microhardness. J. Mater. Sci., 31, 1065–1070.
  • Lopesa, E.S.N., Cremascoa, A., Afonsob, C.R.M., Caram, R. (2011). Effects of double aging heat treatment on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti–Nb alloys. Materials Characterization, 62, 673-680.
  • Ozturk, O., Cetinkara, H.A., Asikuzun, E., Akdogan, M., Yilmazlar, M., Terzioglu, C. (2011). Investigation of mechanical and superconducting properties of iron diffusion-doped Bi-2223 superconductors. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 22(9), 1501-1508.
  • Ozmen, N., Cetin, N.S., Mengeloglu, F., Birinci, E., Karakus K.K. (2013). Effect of Wood Acetylation with Vinyl Acetate and Acetic Anhydride on the Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites. Bioresources, 8 (1), 753-767.
  • Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., and Yildirim, G. (2013). The role of Lu doping on microstructural and superconducting properties of Bi2Sr2CaLuxCu2Oy superconducting system. J. Mat. Sci.: in Elect., 24, 1274-1281.
  • Okoh, E.T. (2014). Water Absorption Properties of Some Tropical Timber Species. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources, 3 (2), 20-24.
  • Piccardo, C., Magliocco, A. (2013). The Environmental Profile of Wood in the Building Industry Today: Comments on the Results of Some LCA Studies. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 1(6), 122-128.
  • Quinn, J.B., Quinn D.G. (1997). Indentation brittleness of ceramics: a fresh approach. Journal of Materials Science, 32(16), 4331-4346.
  • Sangwal, K., Surowska, B., Blaziak, P. (2002). Analysis Of The Indentatıon Size Effect In The Microhardness Measurement of Some Cobalt-Based Alloys. Mater. Chem. Phys., 77, 511.
  • Sahin, O., Uzun, O., Kölemen, U., Uçar, N. (2007). Dynamic Hardness And Reduced Modulus Determination On The (001) Face Of Β-Sn Single Crystals By A Depth Sensing Indentation Technique. J. Phys. Condens. Matter., 19, 306001.
  • Sahin, O., Uzun, O., Sopicka-Lizer, M., Gocmez, H., Kölemen, U. (2008). Dynamic hardness and elastic modulus calculation of porous SiAlON ceramics using depth-sensing indentation technique. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 28(6), 1235-1242.
  • Tosun, M., Ataoglu, S., Arda, L., Ozturk, O., Asikuzun, E., Akcan, D., Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Structural and mechanical properties of ZnMgO nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 590, 416-422.
  • Upit, G.P., Varchenya, S.A. (1966). Microhardness of alkali halide crystals. Physica Status Solidi (b), 17(2), 831–835.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Elif AŞIKUZUN (Sorumlu Yazar)


Alperen KAYMAKCI

Yayımlanma Tarihi 23 Mart 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 18, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kastorman409185, journal = {Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty}, issn = {1303-2399}, eissn = {1309-4181}, address = {}, publisher = {Kastamonu Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, pages = {62 - 74}, doi = {10.17475/kastorman.409185}, title = {Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester}, key = {cite}, author = {Aşıkuzun, Elif and Kaymakcı, Alperen} }
APA Aşıkuzun, E. & Kaymakcı, A. (2018). Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty , 18 (1) , 62-74 . DOI: 10.17475/kastorman.409185
MLA Aşıkuzun, E. , Kaymakcı, A. "Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester" . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 18 (2018 ): 62-74 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kastorman/article/409185>
Chicago Aşıkuzun, E. , Kaymakcı, A. "Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 18 (2018 ): 62-74
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester AU - Elif Aşıkuzun , Alperen Kaymakcı Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.409185 DO - 10.17475/kastorman.409185 T2 - Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 62 EP - 74 VL - 18 IS - 1 SN - 1303-2399-1309-4181 M3 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.409185 UR - https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.409185 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester %A Elif Aşıkuzun , Alperen Kaymakcı %T Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester %D 2018 %J Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty %P 1303-2399-1309-4181 %V 18 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17475/kastorman.409185 %U 10.17475/kastorman.409185
ISNAD Aşıkuzun, Elif , Kaymakcı, Alperen . "Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 18 / 1 (Mart 2018): 62-74 . https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.409185
AMA Aşıkuzun E. , Kaymakcı A. Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2018; 18(1): 62-74.
Vancouver Aşıkuzun E. , Kaymakcı A. Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2018; 18(1): 62-74.
IEEE E. Aşıkuzun ve A. Kaymakcı , "Investigation of mechanical behavior of wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNs) samples using static vickers microhardness tester", Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, c. 18, sayı. 1, ss. 62-74, Mar. 2018, doi:10.17475/kastorman.409185

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