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PAKİSTAN DEVLETİNİN KURULUŞ SÜRECİNDE ALİGARH EKOLÜ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 49, 284 - 293, 30.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.17498/kdeniz.862267

Öz

XVIII. Yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren Hint alt kıtasında tamamen İngilizlerin kontrolünde olan yeni bir yönetim yapısı ve politik anlayış gelişmiştir. İngiliz hükümetinin uyguladığı olumsuz politikalar bölgedeki Müslüman liderleri, İslam kimliğini koruma ve dini hayata yön verme konusunda faaliyete geçmeye sevk etmiştir. Buna bağlı olarak gelişen fikrî hareketlilik neticesinde Hint Müslümanları çeşitli görüşler ve bu görüşler çerçevesinde oluşan ekoller doğrultusunda “ihya” sürecine girmişlerdir. Bu yeniden ihya, eğitim-öğretim alanındaki yansımalarının sonucu olarak Müslüman halkın büyük bir kesimi medreselerde yürütülen geleneksel öğretime ağırlık vermeyi tercih ederken, diğer kısmı da modern öğretim kurumlarına yönelerek üniversiteler, yüksekokullar, araştırma merkezleri açmışlardır. Bu yeniden yapılanma sürecinde Aligarh Ekolü, Hint alt kıtasındaki Müslümanlarının geleceğini güven altına almak amacıyla İngilizlerle iyi geçinme siyasetini ve kurumlarda modernleşmeye gidilmesi gerektiğini benimsemiştir. Ekol’ün kurmuş olduğu eğitim merkezleri Pakistan'ın kurulmasında rol oynayan kadroların yetiştiği merkez olmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • BOLİTHO, H. (1954), Jinnah Creator of Pakistan, London.
  • CHAGHTAi, M. (2009), Historic Struggle for Pakistan ( 1857- 1947), (Translated., R.A. Khan), Lahore.
  • DAUÎ, Z. (1995), Pakistan ve Hindistanda Hadis Çalışmaları, İstanbul.
  • DESAİ, A.R. (1966), Social Bankround of India Nationalism, Bombay.
  • DÜZGÜN, Ş.A., (1997),Seyyid Ahmed Han ve Entellektüel Modernizmi, Ankara.
  • FORREST, G.W. (2000), The Indian Mutiny 1857-58 III., Calcutta.
  • GEORGE, K. (1985), British Administration During The Revolt of 1857, New Delhi.
  • GHOSH, S.C. (1977), Development of University Education 1916-1920 II., Sterling Publishers, New Delhi,(s.96-223).
  • GOPAL, R. (1854), Indian Muslims a Polıtıcal Hıstory (1858-1947) , Lahore.
  • RAHMAMİ B.M.R. HASSAAN,(1959) The Educational Movemenet of Sir Ahmed Han 1858-1898, London University, London.
  • HAQ, S.M., (1968), The Great Revolution of 1957, Karachi.
  • HUNTER, S.W.W. (1871), The Indian Musalmans, London.
  • HUNTER, W.W. (1987), History of India VII, (nşr. W.Jackson), New Delhi.
  • HUSAİN, Y. (1967), Selected Documents from the Aligarh Archives, Asia Publishing House, Aligarh.
  • HUSSAİN, M.H. (1970), Syed Ahmed Khan: Pioneer of Muslim Resurgence, Lahor.
  • INNES, A.D, (1985), A Short History of The British in India, New Delhi.
  • KHAN, S. (2017), Sir Syed & Aligarh Movement a Bicentenary Bibliography I., Educational Publishing House, Delhi.
  • MALLESON, G. B. (1999), The İndian Mutiny of 1857, New Delhi.
  • MUHAMMAD,S. (1976), Sir Syed Ahmad Khan A Political Biography, Lahore.
  • NATESAN, G.A. (1981), Eminent Mussalmans, Neeraj Publishing House, New Delhi.
  • Pakistan Publications, (1968), Struglgle for Independence, Turkey and Pakistan Karachi.
  • PANİKKAR, K.M. (1947), Asia and Western Dominance, London, s. 111-128.
  • QURESHİ, I.H. (1957), History of the Freedom Movement I. Karachi.
  • RIZA, A. (1982), Batının Doğu Politikasının Ahlâken İflası, (nşr., Z.Ebûzziya), İstanbul.
  • SAXENA, V.K. (1985), Muslims and the Indian National Congress (1884-1924), Delhi.
  • SHARMA,K. (1985), Role of Muslims in Indian Politics (1857-1947), New Delhi.
  • SHERWANİ, L. A. (1996), The Founder of Pakistan, Karachi.
  • SMİTH, W. C. (1943), Modern İslam in India a Social Analysis, Minerva Book Shop , Lahore.

“ШКОЛА ОЛИГАРХОВ” ПРИ СОЗДАНИИ ПАКИСТАНСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВА

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 49, 284 - 293, 30.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.17498/kdeniz.862267

Öz

Со второй половины XVIII-го века на Индийском субконтиненте, который полностью находился под британским контролем, возникла новая административная структура и политическое понимание. Негативная политика, проводимая британским правительством, побудила мусульманских лидеров региона принять меры по защите своей исламской идентичности и управлению своей духовной жизни. В результате интеллектуальной деятельности индийские мусульмане вступили в процесс “возрождения” с различными взглядами и школами. В результате этого и размышленя в области образования большая часть мусульманского населения предпочла сосредоточиться на традиционное обучении в медресе, в то время как другая часть обратилась в современные учебные заведения и открыла университеты, колледжи и исследовательские центры. План, разработанная при участии многих лидеров, по повышению уровня осведомленности, просвещения и обучения и инициированная Сайидом Ахмедом Ханом против политики колониализма, проводимого британцами в Индии, называется “школой олигархов”. В этом процессе реструктуризации “школа олигархов” взяла курс на лад с британцами и модернизацию институтов, чтобы обеспечить будущее мусульман на индийском субконтиненте. Если мусульмане не вмешивались бы в политику, они не добились бы политических, религиозных и культурных успехов против индусов и британцев. Те, кто получил образование в олигархском колледже или университете, основоположником которого был Сайид Ахмед Хан, сыграли определенную роль в интеллектуальной жизни движения мусульман Южной Азии за независимость. В этом контексте, благодаря этому университету, среди мусульман смогли появиться многие образованные и политические лидеры, которые сыграли важную роль в политической истории Пакистана, Индии и Бангладеша.

Kaynakça

  • BOLİTHO, H. (1954), Jinnah Creator of Pakistan, London.
  • CHAGHTAi, M. (2009), Historic Struggle for Pakistan ( 1857- 1947), (Translated., R.A. Khan), Lahore.
  • DAUÎ, Z. (1995), Pakistan ve Hindistanda Hadis Çalışmaları, İstanbul.
  • DESAİ, A.R. (1966), Social Bankround of India Nationalism, Bombay.
  • DÜZGÜN, Ş.A., (1997),Seyyid Ahmed Han ve Entellektüel Modernizmi, Ankara.
  • FORREST, G.W. (2000), The Indian Mutiny 1857-58 III., Calcutta.
  • GEORGE, K. (1985), British Administration During The Revolt of 1857, New Delhi.
  • GHOSH, S.C. (1977), Development of University Education 1916-1920 II., Sterling Publishers, New Delhi,(s.96-223).
  • GOPAL, R. (1854), Indian Muslims a Polıtıcal Hıstory (1858-1947) , Lahore.
  • RAHMAMİ B.M.R. HASSAAN,(1959) The Educational Movemenet of Sir Ahmed Han 1858-1898, London University, London.
  • HAQ, S.M., (1968), The Great Revolution of 1957, Karachi.
  • HUNTER, S.W.W. (1871), The Indian Musalmans, London.
  • HUNTER, W.W. (1987), History of India VII, (nşr. W.Jackson), New Delhi.
  • HUSAİN, Y. (1967), Selected Documents from the Aligarh Archives, Asia Publishing House, Aligarh.
  • HUSSAİN, M.H. (1970), Syed Ahmed Khan: Pioneer of Muslim Resurgence, Lahor.
  • INNES, A.D, (1985), A Short History of The British in India, New Delhi.
  • KHAN, S. (2017), Sir Syed & Aligarh Movement a Bicentenary Bibliography I., Educational Publishing House, Delhi.
  • MALLESON, G. B. (1999), The İndian Mutiny of 1857, New Delhi.
  • MUHAMMAD,S. (1976), Sir Syed Ahmad Khan A Political Biography, Lahore.
  • NATESAN, G.A. (1981), Eminent Mussalmans, Neeraj Publishing House, New Delhi.
  • Pakistan Publications, (1968), Struglgle for Independence, Turkey and Pakistan Karachi.
  • PANİKKAR, K.M. (1947), Asia and Western Dominance, London, s. 111-128.
  • QURESHİ, I.H. (1957), History of the Freedom Movement I. Karachi.
  • RIZA, A. (1982), Batının Doğu Politikasının Ahlâken İflası, (nşr., Z.Ebûzziya), İstanbul.
  • SAXENA, V.K. (1985), Muslims and the Indian National Congress (1884-1924), Delhi.
  • SHARMA,K. (1985), Role of Muslims in Indian Politics (1857-1947), New Delhi.
  • SHERWANİ, L. A. (1996), The Founder of Pakistan, Karachi.
  • SMİTH, W. C. (1943), Modern İslam in India a Social Analysis, Minerva Book Shop , Lahore.

ALİGARH SCHOOL İN THE ESTABLİSHMENT PROCESS OF THE PAKİSTAN STATE

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 49, 284 - 293, 30.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.17498/kdeniz.862267

Öz

From the second half of the 18th century, a new governing structure and political understanding developed under the control of the British in the Indian subcontinent. The negative policies implemented by the British government prompted the Muslim ulama in the region to take action in protecting the Islamic identity and directing religious life. As a result of the intellectual mobility that developed accordingly, Indian Muslims entered the process of revival in line with various opinions and cults formed within the framework of these views. As a result of the reflections in the field of education and training, a large part of the Muslim population preferred to focus on traditional education carried out in madrasahs, in the other part, they turned to modern education institutions and opened universities, colleges and research centers.In this reconstruction process, Aligarh school adopted the politics of good living with the British to secure the future of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent and the modernisation of institutions. The education centers school built were the centre of the staff who played role in the establishment of Pakistan

Kaynakça

  • BOLİTHO, H. (1954), Jinnah Creator of Pakistan, London.
  • CHAGHTAi, M. (2009), Historic Struggle for Pakistan ( 1857- 1947), (Translated., R.A. Khan), Lahore.
  • DAUÎ, Z. (1995), Pakistan ve Hindistanda Hadis Çalışmaları, İstanbul.
  • DESAİ, A.R. (1966), Social Bankround of India Nationalism, Bombay.
  • DÜZGÜN, Ş.A., (1997),Seyyid Ahmed Han ve Entellektüel Modernizmi, Ankara.
  • FORREST, G.W. (2000), The Indian Mutiny 1857-58 III., Calcutta.
  • GEORGE, K. (1985), British Administration During The Revolt of 1857, New Delhi.
  • GHOSH, S.C. (1977), Development of University Education 1916-1920 II., Sterling Publishers, New Delhi,(s.96-223).
  • GOPAL, R. (1854), Indian Muslims a Polıtıcal Hıstory (1858-1947) , Lahore.
  • RAHMAMİ B.M.R. HASSAAN,(1959) The Educational Movemenet of Sir Ahmed Han 1858-1898, London University, London.
  • HAQ, S.M., (1968), The Great Revolution of 1957, Karachi.
  • HUNTER, S.W.W. (1871), The Indian Musalmans, London.
  • HUNTER, W.W. (1987), History of India VII, (nşr. W.Jackson), New Delhi.
  • HUSAİN, Y. (1967), Selected Documents from the Aligarh Archives, Asia Publishing House, Aligarh.
  • HUSSAİN, M.H. (1970), Syed Ahmed Khan: Pioneer of Muslim Resurgence, Lahor.
  • INNES, A.D, (1985), A Short History of The British in India, New Delhi.
  • KHAN, S. (2017), Sir Syed & Aligarh Movement a Bicentenary Bibliography I., Educational Publishing House, Delhi.
  • MALLESON, G. B. (1999), The İndian Mutiny of 1857, New Delhi.
  • MUHAMMAD,S. (1976), Sir Syed Ahmad Khan A Political Biography, Lahore.
  • NATESAN, G.A. (1981), Eminent Mussalmans, Neeraj Publishing House, New Delhi.
  • Pakistan Publications, (1968), Struglgle for Independence, Turkey and Pakistan Karachi.
  • PANİKKAR, K.M. (1947), Asia and Western Dominance, London, s. 111-128.
  • QURESHİ, I.H. (1957), History of the Freedom Movement I. Karachi.
  • RIZA, A. (1982), Batının Doğu Politikasının Ahlâken İflası, (nşr., Z.Ebûzziya), İstanbul.
  • SAXENA, V.K. (1985), Muslims and the Indian National Congress (1884-1924), Delhi.
  • SHARMA,K. (1985), Role of Muslims in Indian Politics (1857-1947), New Delhi.
  • SHERWANİ, L. A. (1996), The Founder of Pakistan, Karachi.
  • SMİTH, W. C. (1943), Modern İslam in India a Social Analysis, Minerva Book Shop , Lahore.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tarih
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Çiğdem KIRANŞAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İNÖNÜ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7116-5548
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Ocak 2021
Kabul Tarihi 5 Mart 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 49

Kaynak Göster

APA Kıranşan, Ç. (2021). PAKİSTAN DEVLETİNİN KURULUŞ SÜRECİNDE ALİGARH EKOLÜ . Karadeniz Uluslararası Bilimsel Dergi , 1 (49) , 284-293 . DOI: 10.17498/kdeniz.862267