Öğretim Uygulaması
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İLKÖĞRETİM 3. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN 21. YÜZYIL BECERİLERİNİN GELİŞTİRİLMESİ: PROJE TABANLI ÖĞRETİM TASARIMI

Yıl 2022, Cilt 23, Sayı 3, 2290 - 2323, 31.12.2022

Öz

Bu araştırmada, proje tabanlı öğretimi, sorgulama sürecinde ilkokul öğrencilerinin yirmi birinci yüzyıl becerileri kazanmaları için pedagojik bir yaklaşım olarak uygulamak ve elde edilen ampirik sonuçları raporlamak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma karma yöntem araştırmasına uygun olarak tasarlanmış olup, nicel ve nitel veri toplama tekniklerinden bir arada faydalanılmıştır. İlkokul üçüncü sınıfa devam eden 36 öğrencinin katıldığı araştırma, 2018-2019 eğitim öğretim yılında yapılmıştır. Uygulama öncesinde ve sonrasında çalışma grubuna Yaratıcılık Ölçeği (Ne kadar yaratıcısınız?) ve Çocuklar İçin Üst Bilişsel Farkındalık Ölçeği (ÜBFÖ-Ç) B Formu uygulanmıştır. Uygulama sonrasında ayrıca, Bireysel Öz Değerlendirme Rubriği Grup Değerlendirme Rubriği uygulanmış ve öğrencilerle bireysel görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Öğretim tasarımı disiplinlerarası bir yaklaşımlar Hayat Bilgisi, Matematik ve Türkçe dersleri için, bu derslerin kazanımları dikkate alınarak hazırlanmıştır. Uygulama haftada 5 saat olmak üzere dört hafta sürmüştür. Verileri üzerinde yapılan analizlere göre öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünme becerilerinde bir değişiklik olmamıştır. Bununla birlikte Üst Bilişsel Farkındalık düzeylerinde anlamlı düzeyde artış olmuştur. Öğrenciler uygulama sonunda düşünme, tasarlama, araştırma yapma, yaratıcı düşünme, hayal gücü, tasarlama ve dikkat gibi bilişsel becerilere daha fazla vurgu yapmış olsalar bile işbirliği, yardımlaşma, arkadaşlık, özgüven ve grupla çalışma gibi sosyal becerilerinde geliştiğini ifade etmişlerdir. Bireysel ve grup değerlendirme formlarına dayalı olarak da öğrencilerin büyük çoğunluğunun kendilerinden beklenen performansı gösterdiği anlaşılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Aksoy, B. (2004). Problem based learning approach in geography teaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Ananiadou, K. & Claro, M. (2009). 21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries. OECD education working papers, No. 41, OECD Publishing.
  • Anitha, D., Jeyamala, C., & Kavitha, D. (2018). Assessing and Enhancing Creativity in a Laboratory Course with Project Based Learning. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 32(2), 67-74.
  • Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House, 83(2), 39-43.
  • Black, R. (2009). English-language learners, fan communities, and 21st-century skills. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(8), 688–697.
  • Blakey, E., & Spence, S. (1990). Developing metacognition. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.
  • Borekci, C. (2018). Supporting learners’ metacognitive and self regulation skills in project based learning process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Balıkesir University, Balıkesir.
  • Boss, S., Larmer, J., & Mergendoller, J. R. (2012). PBL for 21st century success: Teaching critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity. Buck Institute for Education.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, K. E., Akgün, E. Ö., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2014). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (18. Baskı). Ankara:Pegem Akademi.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.
  • Çeliker, H. (2012) Science and technology course in the unit of 'solar system and beyond: Space puzzle' the effect of project based learning applications on student achievements, creative thinking and their attitudes towards science and technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,. Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir.
  • David, J. (2008). What research says about project-based learning? Educational Leadership, 65, 80–82.
  • Dunlop, J. C., & Grabinger, R. S. (1996). Rich environment for the active learning in the higher education.In B. G. Wilson (Ed.), Constructing learning environments: Case studies in instructional design (pp.: 65-82).Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
  • Dunning, J. H. (2000). Regions, globalization, and the knowledge economy: Issues stated. In J. H. Dunning (Ed.), Regions, globalization, and the knowledge-based economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ersoy, R. (2013). The effect of the project-based learning approach in biology education on secondary school students' metacognitive awareness and critical thinking tendencies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Fleming, S. M., & Frith, C. D. (2014). The cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. London, UK: Springer.
  • Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change. Routledge. Harada, V., Kirio, C., & Yamamoto, S. (2008). Collaborating for project-based learning in grades 9-12. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Inc.
  • Husamah, H. (2015). Blended project based learning: Metacognitive awareness of biology education new students. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(4), 274-281.
  • Isbell, R. T. and Raines S. C. (2003). Creativity and The Arts with Young Children. Canada: Thomson Delmar Learning Printed.
  • Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26. doi: 10.3102/0013189X033007014
  • Jones, B. F., Rasmussen, C. M., & Moffitt, M. C. (1997). Real-life problem solving: A collaborative approach to interdisciplinary learning. American Psychological Association.
  • Karakelle, S., & Saraç, S. (2007). Çocuklar için üst bilişsel farkındalık ölçeği (ÜBFÖ-Ç) A ve B formları: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 10(20), 87-103.
  • Krauss, J., & Boss, S. (2013). Thinking through project-based learning: Guiding deeper inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Kuhlthau, C., Maniotes, L., & Caspari, A. (2015). Guided inquiry: Learning in the twenty-first century (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
  • Lawanto, O. (2010). Students' metacognition during an engineering design project. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 23(2), 117-136.
  • Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2012). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, NJ: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Lou, S. J., Chou, Y. C., Shih, R. C., & Chung, C. C. (2017). A study of creativity in CaC2 steamship-derived STEM project-based learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(6), 2387-2404.
  • McDonald, M., Kazemi, E., & Kavanagh, S. S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education a call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 378–386.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.: SAGE.
  • Moursund, D. G. (1999). Project-based learning using information technology. Eugene, OR: International Society For Technology In Education.
  • Nickerson, R. S. (1999). Enhancing creativity. In Sternberg, R.-J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
  • OECD (2008). 21st Century Learning: Research, Innovation and Policy, Directions from recent OECD analyses. CERI International Conference Learning in the 21st Century: Research, Innovation and Policy, OECD, Paris. http://www. oecd. org/dataoecd/39/8/40554299. Pdf.
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction, 1, 15-51.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into practice, 41(4), 219-225.
  • Ravitz, J., Hixson, N., English, M., & Mergendoller, J. (2012). Using project based learning to teach 21st century skills: Findings from a statewide initiative. In American Educational Research Association Conference, Vancouver, Canada (Vol. 16).
  • Rawlinson, J. G. (2017). Creative thinking and brainstorming. Routledge.
  • Savery, J.R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 9-20.
  • Schneider W. (2010) Metacognition and memory development in childhood and adolescence. Waters, H. S. E., & Schneider,
  • W. E. (2010). Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction. Guilford Press.
  • Schneider, W., & Pressley, M. (2013). Memory development between two and twenty. Psychology Press.
  • Sperling, R. A., Howard, B. C., Miller, L. A., & Murphy, C. (2002). Measures of children's knowledge and regulation of cognition. Contemporary educational psychology, 27(1), 51-79.
  • Sternberg, R. J. ve Lubart, T. I. (1999) The Concept Of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.) Handbook of Creativity, pp. 3-16. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Talat, A., & Chaudhry, H. F. (2014). The effect of PBL and 21st century skills on students’ creativity and competitiveness in private schools. The Lahore Journal of Business, Spring, 2(2), 89-114
  • Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning. https://www.asec.purdue.edu/lct/HBCU/documents/AReviewofResearchofProject-BasedLearning.pdf
  • Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. ve Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considirations. Metacognition Learning, 1, 3-14.
  • Von Kotze, A., & Cooper, L. (2000). Exploring the transformative potential of project-based learning in university adult education. Studies in the Education of Adults, 32(2), 212-228.
  • Whetton, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (2002). Answers to exercises taken from developing management skills. Northwestern University.
  • White, B. Y., & Frederiksen, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and instruction, 16(1), 3-118.
  • Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (1990). Educational measurement and testing (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

DEVELOPING THE 21st CENTURY SKILLS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL 3rd GRADE STUDENTS: APPLYING PROJECT-BASED EDUCATION

Yıl 2022, Cilt 23, Sayı 3, 2290 - 2323, 31.12.2022

Öz

The purpose of this study was to apply project-based teaching as a pedagogical approach for primary school students to acquire twenty-first century skills in the inquiry process and to report the empirical results obtained. The research was designed in accordance with mixed methods research, and quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques were used together. The study, in which 36 students attending the third grade of primary school participated, was conducted in the 2018-2019 academic year. Before and after the application, the Creativity Scale (How creative are you?) and the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (MAI-C) B Form were applied to the study group. After the application, Individual Self-Evaluation Rubric and Group Evaluation Rubric were also applied and individual interviews were held with the students. Instructional design has been prepared with an interdisciplinary approach for Life Sciences, Mathematics and Turkish courses, taking into account the achievements of these courses. The application lasted for four weeks, 5 hours a week. According to the analysis made on the data, there was no change in the creative thinking skills of the students. Nevertheless, there was a significant increase in their Metacognitive Awareness levels. Although the students emphasized more cognitive skills such as thinking, designing, researching, creative thinking, imagination, designing and attention at the end of the application, they stated that they improved in their social skills such as cooperation, cooperation, friendship, self-confidence and working in a group. Based on the individual and group evaluation forms, it is understood that the majority of the students demonstrate the expected performance from them.

Kaynakça

  • Aksoy, B. (2004). Problem based learning approach in geography teaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Ananiadou, K. & Claro, M. (2009). 21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries. OECD education working papers, No. 41, OECD Publishing.
  • Anitha, D., Jeyamala, C., & Kavitha, D. (2018). Assessing and Enhancing Creativity in a Laboratory Course with Project Based Learning. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 32(2), 67-74.
  • Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House, 83(2), 39-43.
  • Black, R. (2009). English-language learners, fan communities, and 21st-century skills. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(8), 688–697.
  • Blakey, E., & Spence, S. (1990). Developing metacognition. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.
  • Borekci, C. (2018). Supporting learners’ metacognitive and self regulation skills in project based learning process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Balıkesir University, Balıkesir.
  • Boss, S., Larmer, J., & Mergendoller, J. R. (2012). PBL for 21st century success: Teaching critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity. Buck Institute for Education.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, K. E., Akgün, E. Ö., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2014). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (18. Baskı). Ankara:Pegem Akademi.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.
  • Çeliker, H. (2012) Science and technology course in the unit of 'solar system and beyond: Space puzzle' the effect of project based learning applications on student achievements, creative thinking and their attitudes towards science and technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,. Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir.
  • David, J. (2008). What research says about project-based learning? Educational Leadership, 65, 80–82.
  • Dunlop, J. C., & Grabinger, R. S. (1996). Rich environment for the active learning in the higher education.In B. G. Wilson (Ed.), Constructing learning environments: Case studies in instructional design (pp.: 65-82).Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
  • Dunning, J. H. (2000). Regions, globalization, and the knowledge economy: Issues stated. In J. H. Dunning (Ed.), Regions, globalization, and the knowledge-based economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ersoy, R. (2013). The effect of the project-based learning approach in biology education on secondary school students' metacognitive awareness and critical thinking tendencies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Fleming, S. M., & Frith, C. D. (2014). The cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. London, UK: Springer.
  • Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change. Routledge. Harada, V., Kirio, C., & Yamamoto, S. (2008). Collaborating for project-based learning in grades 9-12. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Inc.
  • Husamah, H. (2015). Blended project based learning: Metacognitive awareness of biology education new students. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(4), 274-281.
  • Isbell, R. T. and Raines S. C. (2003). Creativity and The Arts with Young Children. Canada: Thomson Delmar Learning Printed.
  • Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26. doi: 10.3102/0013189X033007014
  • Jones, B. F., Rasmussen, C. M., & Moffitt, M. C. (1997). Real-life problem solving: A collaborative approach to interdisciplinary learning. American Psychological Association.
  • Karakelle, S., & Saraç, S. (2007). Çocuklar için üst bilişsel farkındalık ölçeği (ÜBFÖ-Ç) A ve B formları: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 10(20), 87-103.
  • Krauss, J., & Boss, S. (2013). Thinking through project-based learning: Guiding deeper inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Kuhlthau, C., Maniotes, L., & Caspari, A. (2015). Guided inquiry: Learning in the twenty-first century (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
  • Lawanto, O. (2010). Students' metacognition during an engineering design project. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 23(2), 117-136.
  • Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2012). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, NJ: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Lou, S. J., Chou, Y. C., Shih, R. C., & Chung, C. C. (2017). A study of creativity in CaC2 steamship-derived STEM project-based learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(6), 2387-2404.
  • McDonald, M., Kazemi, E., & Kavanagh, S. S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education a call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 378–386.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.: SAGE.
  • Moursund, D. G. (1999). Project-based learning using information technology. Eugene, OR: International Society For Technology In Education.
  • Nickerson, R. S. (1999). Enhancing creativity. In Sternberg, R.-J.: Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press.
  • OECD (2008). 21st Century Learning: Research, Innovation and Policy, Directions from recent OECD analyses. CERI International Conference Learning in the 21st Century: Research, Innovation and Policy, OECD, Paris. http://www. oecd. org/dataoecd/39/8/40554299. Pdf.
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction, 1, 15-51.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into practice, 41(4), 219-225.
  • Ravitz, J., Hixson, N., English, M., & Mergendoller, J. (2012). Using project based learning to teach 21st century skills: Findings from a statewide initiative. In American Educational Research Association Conference, Vancouver, Canada (Vol. 16).
  • Rawlinson, J. G. (2017). Creative thinking and brainstorming. Routledge.
  • Savery, J.R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 9-20.
  • Schneider W. (2010) Metacognition and memory development in childhood and adolescence. Waters, H. S. E., & Schneider,
  • W. E. (2010). Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction. Guilford Press.
  • Schneider, W., & Pressley, M. (2013). Memory development between two and twenty. Psychology Press.
  • Sperling, R. A., Howard, B. C., Miller, L. A., & Murphy, C. (2002). Measures of children's knowledge and regulation of cognition. Contemporary educational psychology, 27(1), 51-79.
  • Sternberg, R. J. ve Lubart, T. I. (1999) The Concept Of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.) Handbook of Creativity, pp. 3-16. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Talat, A., & Chaudhry, H. F. (2014). The effect of PBL and 21st century skills on students’ creativity and competitiveness in private schools. The Lahore Journal of Business, Spring, 2(2), 89-114
  • Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning. https://www.asec.purdue.edu/lct/HBCU/documents/AReviewofResearchofProject-BasedLearning.pdf
  • Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. ve Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considirations. Metacognition Learning, 1, 3-14.
  • Von Kotze, A., & Cooper, L. (2000). Exploring the transformative potential of project-based learning in university adult education. Studies in the Education of Adults, 32(2), 212-228.
  • Whetton, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (2002). Answers to exercises taken from developing management skills. Northwestern University.
  • White, B. Y., & Frederiksen, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and instruction, 16(1), 3-118.
  • Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (1990). Educational measurement and testing (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Bengisu KOYUNCU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MIMAR SINAN FINE ARTS UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2927-0613
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 20 Mayıs 2022
Kabul Tarihi 8 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 23, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Koyuncu, B. (2022). DEVELOPING THE 21st CENTURY SKILLS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL 3rd GRADE STUDENTS: APPLYING PROJECT-BASED EDUCATION . Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 23 (3) , 2290-2323 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/72994/1119202

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