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Kabul ve Kararlılık Terapisi Temelli Psikoeğitim Programının Pandemi Sürecinde Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Öz Şefkat Düzeyleri Üzerindeki Etkisi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 24 Sayı: 3, 1651 - 1680, 21.12.2023

Öz

Covid-19 pandemisinin insanların sağlığı ve iyi oluşu üzerinde olumsuz etkileri olmuştur. Öz şefkati geliştirmenin ve öz şefkatin temel bileşenlerini içinde barındıran kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli müdahalelerinin ise bu gibi süreçte insanlara fayda sağladığı bilinmektedir. Bu bağlamda bu araştırmanın amacı, pandemi sürecinde kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli çevrimiçi psikoeğitim programının üniversite öğrencilerinin öz şefkat düzeyleri üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Bu doğrultuda araştırma 2x3’lük öntest- sontest- izleme ölçümlü deney-kontrol gruplu deneysel model ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın veri toplama araçlarını kişisel bilgi formu ve Öz Şefkat Ölçeği (ÖŞÖ) oluşturmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın örneklemini, Covid-19 pandemisi kısıtlamaları nedeniyle 2020–2021 eğitim-öğretim yılında öğrenimlerine uzaktan eğitim yoluyla devam eden ve ilan edilen programa katılmaya gönüllü olan lisans öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Deney ve kontrol grubu katılımcıları kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli psikoeğitim programına seçkisiz olarak atanmıştır. Deney grubu katılımcılarına Zoom uygulaması üzerinden sekiz oturumluk çevrimiçi kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli psikoeğitim programı uygulanırken, kontrol grubundaki katılımcılara herhangi bir müdahalede bulunulmamıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları, kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli çevrimiçi psikoeğitim programına katılan deney grubu katılımcılarının öz şefkat düzeylerinin arttığını ve bu etkinin bir ay sonrasında yapılan izleme sürecinde de kalıcılığını sürdürdüğünü göstermiştir. Deneysel müdahaleye dâhil olmayan kontrol grubu katılımcılarının öz şefkat düzeylerinde ise anlamlı bir farka rastlanmamıştır. Ulaşılan bu bulgular kabul ve kararlılık terapisi temelli çevrimiçi psikoeğitim programının pandemi döneminde eğitimlerine çevrimiçi olarak devam eden üniversite öğrencilerinin öz şefkat düzeylerini arttırmada etkili olduğunu göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Al-Alawi , M. , McCall, R.K. ,Sultan, A., Al Balushi, N. , Al-Mahrouqi , T., Al Ghailani, A., Al-Sabti, H., Al-Maniri, A., Panchatcharam, S. M., & Al-Sinawi, H. (2021). Efficacy of a six-week-long therapist-guided online therapy versus self-help internet-based therapy for covıd-19-ınduced anxiety and depression: open-label, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mental Health, 8,2. https://doi.org/10.2196/26683
  • Amini, P., & Nejad, R. K. (2021). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on marital burnout and self-compassion in unsupervised women under the cover of ngos of Tehran. The Journal of Tolooebehdasht, 20(1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.18502/tbj.v20i1.6186Atalay, Z. (2019). Şefkat. İnkilap.
  • Berman, B. M., & Kurlancheek, K. (2021). The choice point model of acceptance and commitment therapy with ınpatient substance use and co-occurring populations: A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12,758356. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.758356
  • Boland, L., Campbell, D., Fazekas, M., Kitagawa, W., Maclver, L., Rzeczkowska, K., & Gillanders, D. (2021). An experimental investigation of the effects of perspective-taking on emotional discomfort, cognitive fusion and self-compassion. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 20, 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2021.02.004
  • Büyüköztürk, S. (2002). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Pegem A Yayıncılık.
  • Castilho, P., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, J. (2015). Exploring self-criticism: Confirmatory factor analysis of the FSCRS in clinical and nonclinical samples. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 22, 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1881
  • Ghalenoei, S. K., & Mansouri, A. (2020). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on self-compassion and self-criticism in individuals with opioid use disorder. Scientific Quarterly Research on Addiction, 14, 237-254. https://doi.org/10.29252/etiadpajohi.14.57.237
  • Graham, C. (2016). Examining the role of self-compassion in acceptance and commitment therapy with a substance abusing population (Yayın No. 10139387) [Doktora Tezi, Spalding University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Harris, R. (2009). Act made simple. New Harbinger.
  • Harris, R. (2020). Self-compassion: Building blocks and barriers webinar. Paper presented at the webinar of the Contextual Consulting.
  • Hayes, S. C., & Long, D. M. (2013). Contextual behavioral science, evolution and scientific epistemology. New Harbinger.
  • Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J., Bond, F., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006
  • Holle, C., & Ingram, R. (2008). On the psychological hazards of self-criticism. İçinde E. C. Chang (Ed.), Self-criticism and self-enhancement: Theory, research, and clinical implications (ss. 55-71). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/11624-004
  • Jahromi, N. J., & Abudi, A. (‎2019). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (act) on self-‎compassion and psychological well-being of the experienced-infidelity women referring to ‎the counseling centers of Shiraz. Journal of Biochemical Technology, 10, 2.
  • Kantaş, Ö. (2013). İlişki ve kendileşme benlik yönelimlerinin akademisyenlerin iyi-oluş halleri üzerindeki etkisi: Ego ve ekosistem motivasyonu, aşkınlık, öz-şefkat ve tükenmişlik değişkenlerinin rolü [Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi]. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi.
  • Karatepe, H. T., & Yavuz, K. F. (Eds.). (2018). Act'i kolay öğrenmek. Litera Yayıncılık.
  • Kroska, E. B., Roche, A. I., Adamowicz, J. L., & Stegall M. S. (2020). Psychological flexibility in the context of COVID-19 adversity: Associations with distress. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 18, 28-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.07.011
  • Köhle, N., Drossaert, C. H., Kooster, P. M., Schreurs, K. M., Hagedoorn, M., Uden-Kraan, C. F., Leeuw, I. M., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2021). Web-based self-help intervention for partners of cancer patients based on acceptance and commitment therapy and self-compassion training: a randomized controlled trial with automated versus personal feedback. Supportive Care in Cancer, 29, 5115-5125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06051-w
  • Levin, M. E., Krafft, J., An, W., Ong, C. W., & Twohig, M. P. (2021). Preliminary findings on processes of change and moderators for cognitive defusion and restructuring delivered through mobile apps. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 20, 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2021.02.002
  • Marshall, E. J., & Brockman, R. N. (2016). The relationships between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and emotional well-being. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(1), 60-72. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.30.1.60
  • Murphy, L., Parnass, P., Mitchell, D., Hallett, R., Cayley, P., & Seagram, S. (2009). Client satisfaction and outcome comparisons of online and face-to-face counseling methods. British Journal of Social Work, 39, 627-640. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp041
  • Neff, K. D. (2003a). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309032
  • Neff, K. D. (2003b). The development and validitation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223-250. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309027
  • Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28-44. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21923
  • Neff, K. D., & McGehee, P. (2010). Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and Identity, 9, 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860902979307
  • Neff, K., & Tirch, D. (2013). Self compassion and ACT. İçinde T.B. Kashdan, & J. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance and positive psychology (ss. 78-106). New Harbinger.
  • Stoddard, J. A., & Afari, N. (2014). The big book of act metaphors. New Harbinger.
  • Suresh, S. (2021). Self-compassion, stress and health behaviours during the COVID-19 crisis [Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. University of Nevada.
  • Sünbül, Z. A., & Malkoç, A. (2018). A mindful pathway to flourishing: mediatıng effects of self-compassion and valued living in college students. European Journal of Education Studies, 5, 1, 174-185.
  • Tirch, D. D. (2010). Mindfulness as a context for the cultivation of compassion. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2010.3.2.113
  • Tirch, D., Schoendorff, B., & Silberstein, L. R. (2014). The act practitioner's guide to the science of compassion. New Harbinger.
  • Türkçapar, M. H., & Yavuz, K. F. (Eds.). (2016). Mutluluk tuzağı. Litera Yayıncılık. Viskovich, S., & Pakenham, K.I. (2019). Pilot evaluation of a web based acceptance and commitment therapy program to promote mental health skills in university students. Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22848
  • Vowles, K. E., Witkiewitz, K., Sowden, G., & Ashworth, J. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: Evidence of mediation and clinically significant change following an abbreviated interdisciplinary program of rehabilitation. Journal of Pain, 15(1), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2013.10.002
  • Yadavaia, J. E. (2013). Using acceptance and commitment therapy to increase self-compassion: A randomized controlled trial (Yayın No. 3595782) [Doktora Tezi] Doctoral Dissertation). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Warren, R., Smeets, E., & Neff, K. (2016). Being compassionate to oneself is associated with emotional resilience and psychological well-being. Current Psychiatry, 15(12), 19-32.
  • Watkins, C. M., & Blackledge, J. T. (2011). Relationships between self-compassion, mindfulness, and acceptance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Annual Meeting of the Kentucky Academy of Science, Murray, KY.
  • Wilson, K. G., & DuFrene, T. (2009). Mindfulness for two: An acceptance and commitment therapy approach to mindfulness in psychotherapy. New Harbinger.

The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Psychoeducation Program on Self-Compassion Levels of University Students During The Pandemic Period

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 24 Sayı: 3, 1651 - 1680, 21.12.2023

Öz

Covid 19 pandemic has had negative effects on the health and well-being of people. It is known that the development of self-compassion and the interventions based on acceptance and commitment therapy, which includes the basic components of self-compassion, benefit people in such processes. In this context, the aim of this research is to examine the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy based online psychoeducation program on the self-compassion levels of university students during the pandemic process. The research was carried out with a 2x3 pretest-posttest-follow up measure, experiment-control group design. The data collection tools of the research are the personal information form and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The sample of this research consists of undergraduate students who continue their education via distance education in the 2020-2021 academic year due to the restrictions of the Covid-19 pandemic and volunteer to participate in the announced program. Experimental and control group participants were randomly assigned to the acceptance and commitment therapy-based psychoeducation program. An eight-session online acceptance and commitment therapy-based psychoeducation program was applied to the experimental group participants via the Zoom application, and no intervention was made to the participants in the control group. The findings of the study showed that the self-compassion levels of the experimental group participants participating in the online psychoeducation program based on acceptance and commitment therapy increased and this effect maintained permanent during the follow up process one month later. There was no significant difference on the self-compassion levels of the control group participants who were not involved in the experimental intervention. These findings have shown that the online psychoeducation program based on acceptance and commitment therapy was effective in increasing the self-compassion levels of university students who continued their education online during the pandemic process.

Kaynakça

  • Al-Alawi , M. , McCall, R.K. ,Sultan, A., Al Balushi, N. , Al-Mahrouqi , T., Al Ghailani, A., Al-Sabti, H., Al-Maniri, A., Panchatcharam, S. M., & Al-Sinawi, H. (2021). Efficacy of a six-week-long therapist-guided online therapy versus self-help internet-based therapy for covıd-19-ınduced anxiety and depression: open-label, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mental Health, 8,2. https://doi.org/10.2196/26683
  • Amini, P., & Nejad, R. K. (2021). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on marital burnout and self-compassion in unsupervised women under the cover of ngos of Tehran. The Journal of Tolooebehdasht, 20(1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.18502/tbj.v20i1.6186Atalay, Z. (2019). Şefkat. İnkilap.
  • Berman, B. M., & Kurlancheek, K. (2021). The choice point model of acceptance and commitment therapy with ınpatient substance use and co-occurring populations: A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12,758356. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.758356
  • Boland, L., Campbell, D., Fazekas, M., Kitagawa, W., Maclver, L., Rzeczkowska, K., & Gillanders, D. (2021). An experimental investigation of the effects of perspective-taking on emotional discomfort, cognitive fusion and self-compassion. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 20, 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2021.02.004
  • Büyüköztürk, S. (2002). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Pegem A Yayıncılık.
  • Castilho, P., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, J. (2015). Exploring self-criticism: Confirmatory factor analysis of the FSCRS in clinical and nonclinical samples. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 22, 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1881
  • Ghalenoei, S. K., & Mansouri, A. (2020). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on self-compassion and self-criticism in individuals with opioid use disorder. Scientific Quarterly Research on Addiction, 14, 237-254. https://doi.org/10.29252/etiadpajohi.14.57.237
  • Graham, C. (2016). Examining the role of self-compassion in acceptance and commitment therapy with a substance abusing population (Yayın No. 10139387) [Doktora Tezi, Spalding University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Harris, R. (2009). Act made simple. New Harbinger.
  • Harris, R. (2020). Self-compassion: Building blocks and barriers webinar. Paper presented at the webinar of the Contextual Consulting.
  • Hayes, S. C., & Long, D. M. (2013). Contextual behavioral science, evolution and scientific epistemology. New Harbinger.
  • Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J., Bond, F., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006
  • Holle, C., & Ingram, R. (2008). On the psychological hazards of self-criticism. İçinde E. C. Chang (Ed.), Self-criticism and self-enhancement: Theory, research, and clinical implications (ss. 55-71). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/11624-004
  • Jahromi, N. J., & Abudi, A. (‎2019). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (act) on self-‎compassion and psychological well-being of the experienced-infidelity women referring to ‎the counseling centers of Shiraz. Journal of Biochemical Technology, 10, 2.
  • Kantaş, Ö. (2013). İlişki ve kendileşme benlik yönelimlerinin akademisyenlerin iyi-oluş halleri üzerindeki etkisi: Ego ve ekosistem motivasyonu, aşkınlık, öz-şefkat ve tükenmişlik değişkenlerinin rolü [Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi]. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi.
  • Karatepe, H. T., & Yavuz, K. F. (Eds.). (2018). Act'i kolay öğrenmek. Litera Yayıncılık.
  • Kroska, E. B., Roche, A. I., Adamowicz, J. L., & Stegall M. S. (2020). Psychological flexibility in the context of COVID-19 adversity: Associations with distress. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 18, 28-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.07.011
  • Köhle, N., Drossaert, C. H., Kooster, P. M., Schreurs, K. M., Hagedoorn, M., Uden-Kraan, C. F., Leeuw, I. M., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2021). Web-based self-help intervention for partners of cancer patients based on acceptance and commitment therapy and self-compassion training: a randomized controlled trial with automated versus personal feedback. Supportive Care in Cancer, 29, 5115-5125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06051-w
  • Levin, M. E., Krafft, J., An, W., Ong, C. W., & Twohig, M. P. (2021). Preliminary findings on processes of change and moderators for cognitive defusion and restructuring delivered through mobile apps. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 20, 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2021.02.002
  • Marshall, E. J., & Brockman, R. N. (2016). The relationships between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and emotional well-being. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(1), 60-72. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.30.1.60
  • Murphy, L., Parnass, P., Mitchell, D., Hallett, R., Cayley, P., & Seagram, S. (2009). Client satisfaction and outcome comparisons of online and face-to-face counseling methods. British Journal of Social Work, 39, 627-640. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp041
  • Neff, K. D. (2003a). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309032
  • Neff, K. D. (2003b). The development and validitation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223-250. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309027
  • Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28-44. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21923
  • Neff, K. D., & McGehee, P. (2010). Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and Identity, 9, 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860902979307
  • Neff, K., & Tirch, D. (2013). Self compassion and ACT. İçinde T.B. Kashdan, & J. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance and positive psychology (ss. 78-106). New Harbinger.
  • Stoddard, J. A., & Afari, N. (2014). The big book of act metaphors. New Harbinger.
  • Suresh, S. (2021). Self-compassion, stress and health behaviours during the COVID-19 crisis [Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. University of Nevada.
  • Sünbül, Z. A., & Malkoç, A. (2018). A mindful pathway to flourishing: mediatıng effects of self-compassion and valued living in college students. European Journal of Education Studies, 5, 1, 174-185.
  • Tirch, D. D. (2010). Mindfulness as a context for the cultivation of compassion. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2010.3.2.113
  • Tirch, D., Schoendorff, B., & Silberstein, L. R. (2014). The act practitioner's guide to the science of compassion. New Harbinger.
  • Türkçapar, M. H., & Yavuz, K. F. (Eds.). (2016). Mutluluk tuzağı. Litera Yayıncılık. Viskovich, S., & Pakenham, K.I. (2019). Pilot evaluation of a web based acceptance and commitment therapy program to promote mental health skills in university students. Clinical Psychology, 76(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22848
  • Vowles, K. E., Witkiewitz, K., Sowden, G., & Ashworth, J. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: Evidence of mediation and clinically significant change following an abbreviated interdisciplinary program of rehabilitation. Journal of Pain, 15(1), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2013.10.002
  • Yadavaia, J. E. (2013). Using acceptance and commitment therapy to increase self-compassion: A randomized controlled trial (Yayın No. 3595782) [Doktora Tezi] Doctoral Dissertation). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Warren, R., Smeets, E., & Neff, K. (2016). Being compassionate to oneself is associated with emotional resilience and psychological well-being. Current Psychiatry, 15(12), 19-32.
  • Watkins, C. M., & Blackledge, J. T. (2011). Relationships between self-compassion, mindfulness, and acceptance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Annual Meeting of the Kentucky Academy of Science, Murray, KY.
  • Wilson, K. G., & DuFrene, T. (2009). Mindfulness for two: An acceptance and commitment therapy approach to mindfulness in psychotherapy. New Harbinger.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Alan Eğitimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Gizem YETİZ 0000-0002-4623-1168

Evrim ÇETİNKAYA YILDIZ 0000-0001-5924-3136

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 23 Ekim 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 24 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

APA YETİZ, G., & ÇETİNKAYA YILDIZ, E. (2023). Kabul ve Kararlılık Terapisi Temelli Psikoeğitim Programının Pandemi Sürecinde Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Öz Şefkat Düzeyleri Üzerindeki Etkisi. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(3), 1651-1680. https://doi.org/10.29299/kefad.1216722

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