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Uluslararası Öğrencilerin Kültürlenme Süreci ve Üniversiteye Uyumları: Türkiye İçin Öneriler

Yıl 2021, Cilt 29, Sayı 1, 210 - 217, 16.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.726563

Öz

Son yıllarda, uluslararası öğrencilerin sayıları dünya çapında giderek artmaktadır, bu sebeple de uluslararası öğrencilerin kültürlenme süreçleri ve üniversiteye uyumları konusunda yaşadıkları sıkıntıların anlaşılması önemlidir. Gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerin uluslararası öğrencilerin üniversiteye uyum gereksinimlerine yönelik yaklaşımları farklı olabilir. Ancak ülkelerin kalkınma durumuna bakılmaksızın, üniversitelerin uluslararası öğrencileri kabul ettikleri göz önüne alındığında, üniversiteye kabul edilen bu öğrencilere gerekli desteği sağlamak için uyum konusunda yaşanan sıkıntıların daha iyi anlaşılması gerekmektedir. Bu ihtiyaca dikkat çekmek ve ihtiyacı gidermek üzere öneriler sunmak için yazılmış bu derlemenin ilk amacı kültürlenme kavramını açıklayarak uluslararası öğrencilerin üniversiteye uyumları ile kültürlenme süreçlerinin arasındaki ilişkiyi vurgulamaktır. İkinci amacı ise, Türkiye'deki uluslararası öğrencilerle yapılan çalışmaları inceleyerek durum değerlendirmesi yapmak ve bazı çelişkili bulguları tartışmaktır. Son olarak da Türkiye'deki uluslararası öğrencilerin uyum ihtiyaçları ve gelişmiş ülkelerdeki üniversitelerin uluslararası öğrencilerine sağladığı destekler göz önünde bulundurularak, Türkiye’deki üniversite politika yapıcılarına, akademisyenlere, akademik danışmanlara ve uluslararası öğrencilerle doğrudan çalışan psikolojik danışmanlar gibi üniversite personeline yönelik uygulanabilir pratik öneriler sunmaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Acar, E. (2016). Faculty perception on international students in Turkey: Benefits and challenges. International Education Studies, 9(5), 1–11.
  • Alpaydin, Y. (2018). Educational experiences of the international students in graduate programs in Turkey. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(2), 89-99.
  • Anderson, J. R., & Guan, Y. (2017). Implicit acculturation and the academic adjustment of Chinese student sojourners in Australia. Australian Psychologist, 53(5), 444–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12332
  • Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1984). Measuring adjustment to college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 179-189.
  • Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual Approaches to Acculturation. In K.M. Chun, P.B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.) Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (pp. 17-39). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Berry, J. W., Poortina, Y. H., Breugelmans, S. M., Chasiotis, A. & Sam, D. L. (2011). Cross-cultural psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • British Council (2019) The shape of global higher education: International comparisons with Europe. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/k006_02_the_shape_of_global_higher_education_in_europe_final_v5_web.pdf
  • Chun, K. M., Organista, P. B. & Marin, G. (2003). Acculturation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Credé, M. m., & Niehorster, S. (2011). Adjustment to college as measured by the student adaptation to college questionnaire: a quantitative review of its structure and relationships with correlates and consequences. Educational Psychology Review, 24(1), 133-165.
  • Cushner, K. & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions. California, U.S.A.: SAGE Publications.
  • Cetinkaya-Yildiz, E., Cakir, S. G., & Kondakci, Y. (2011). Psychological distress among international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 534–539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.04.001
  • Dean, K., & Koeng, A. M. (2019). Cross‐cultural differences and similarities in attribution. Cross-Cultural Psychology, pp.575-597, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • de Araujo, A. A. (2011). Adjustment issues of international students enrolled in American colleges and universities: A review of the literature. Higher Education Studies, 1(1), 2–8.
  • Elemo, A. S., & Türküm, A. S. (2019). The effects of psychoeducational intervention on the adjustment, coping self-efficacy and psychological distress levels of international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 70, 7-18.
  • Eun-Ju, L., Lu, L., & Jeongwoo, J. (2011). Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(7/8), 433-437.
  • Gómez, E., Urzúa, A., & Glass, C. R. (2014). International student adjustment to college: social networks, acculturation, and leisure. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(1), 7-25.
  • Gündüz, M., & Alakbarov, N. (2019). Analysis of social adjustment factors of international students in Turkey. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1155-1171, Doi: 10.32674/jis.v9i4.917.
  • International Institute of Education. (2019). Open doors 2019. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data
  • Kang, S. (2006). Measurement of acculturation, scale formats, and language competence. journal of cross-cultural psychology, 37(6), 669.
  • Kağnıcı, D. Y. (2012). The role of multicultural personality in predicting university adjustment of international students in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(2), 174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-012-9149-5
  • Kondakci, Y. (2011). Student mobility reviewed: Attraction and satisfaction of international students in Turkey. Higher Education, 62(5), 573.
  • Khoo, P. L. S., Abu-rasain, M. H. & Hornby, G. (1994) Counselling foreign students: A review of strategies, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7:2, 117-131.
  • Lapoint, S. O., & Soysa, C. K. (2014). Great Expectations: Perfectionism and Residence Status Predict College Adjustment. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19(3), 98-107.
  • Li, L., & Peng, W. (2019). Transitioning through social media: International students’ SNS use, perceived social support, and acculturative stress. Computers in Human Behavior. 98, 69-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.011
  • Lin, J-C., & Yi, J. K. (1996). Asian international students’ adjustment: Issues and program suggestions. College Student Journal, 31, 71-78.
  • Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. J. (2003). Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(2), 137-157.
  • Mori, S. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137-144.
  • Mrekajova, E. (2017). Friendship networks of international students attending long-term programs in turkey: Implications and a need for intervention. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 4(2), 26-38.
  • Özoglu, M., Gür, B. S., & Coskun, I. (2015). Factors influencing international students’ choice to study in turkey and challenges they experience in Turkey. Research in Comparative and International Education, 10(2), 223–237.
  • Pedersen, E. R., Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., & Lee, C. M. (2011). Measuring sojourner adjustment among American students studying abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 881–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.06.003
  • Poyrazli, S., & Lopez, M. D. (2007). An exploratory study of perceived discrimination and homesickness: a comparison of international students and american students. Journal of Psychology, 141(3), 263-280.
  • Quan, L., Zhen, R., Yao, B., & Zhou, X. (2014). The effects of loneliness and coping style on academic adjustment among college freshmen. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(6), 969-978.
  • Ranney, J. D., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2012). Computer-mediated communication with distant friends: Relations with adjustment during students' first semester in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 848-861.
  • Sam, D. L. & Berry, J.W. (2006). Acculturation psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Saygın, S., & Hasta, D. (2018). Göç, Kültürleşme ve Uyum. Current Approaches in Psychiatry / Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar, 10(3), 302–323. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.364115
  • Smith, R., & Khawaja, N. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699-713.
  • Sodowsky, G. R., & Plake, B. S. (1992). A study of acculturation differences among international people and suggestions for sensitivity to within-group differences. Journal of Counseling & Development, 7153-59.
  • Sümer, S., Poyrazli, S., & Grahame, K. (2008). Predictors of depression and anxiety among international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(4), 429-437.
  • Trimble, J. E. (2003). Introduction: Social change and acculturation. In K.M. Chun, P.B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.) Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (pp. 17-39). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Uddin, M., R., Mamun, A., Soumana, A., O., & Khan, M. (2017). Factors and Predictors of International Student’s Satisfaction in Turkey. Educational Process: International Journal, 6(2), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2017.62.4
  • UNICEF (2020). Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow
  • Watson, J. C., & Lenz, A. S. (2018). Development and evaluation of the inventory of new college student adjustment. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 0, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025118759755
  • Wilton, L., & Constantine, M. G. (2003). Length of residence, cultural adjustment difficulties, and psychological distress symptoms in Asian and Latin America international college students. Journal of College Counseling, 6(2), 177-186.
  • Wu, H., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International Student’s Challenge and Adjustment to College. Education Research International, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/202753
  • Yu, Q., Foroudi, P., & Gupta, S. (2019). Far apart yet close by: Social media and acculturation among international students in the UK. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 145, 493-502.

International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey

Yıl 2021, Cilt 29, Sayı 1, 210 - 217, 16.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.726563

Öz

The international student population is increasing gradually around the world as a result, international students require more attention in terms of their adjustment needs and acculturation experiences. Developed and developing countries' approaches to addressing international student adjustment needs can be different, yet regardless of the country's development status, colleges accept international students. Therefore, a greater understanding of acculturation and adjustment to college issues of international students is needed to provide optimal support for these students. To address this need, the first purpose of this article is determined as providing an overview of the concept of acculturation and its relation to international student college adjustment issues. Second, studies conducted with international students in Turkey reviewed and some conflicted findings were discussed. Third, considering the adjustment needs of international students in Turkey, practical suggestions presented for university policymakers, academics, advisors, as well as college employees working with international students such as counselors from university counseling centers.

Kaynakça

  • Acar, E. (2016). Faculty perception on international students in Turkey: Benefits and challenges. International Education Studies, 9(5), 1–11.
  • Alpaydin, Y. (2018). Educational experiences of the international students in graduate programs in Turkey. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(2), 89-99.
  • Anderson, J. R., & Guan, Y. (2017). Implicit acculturation and the academic adjustment of Chinese student sojourners in Australia. Australian Psychologist, 53(5), 444–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12332
  • Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1984). Measuring adjustment to college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 179-189.
  • Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual Approaches to Acculturation. In K.M. Chun, P.B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.) Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (pp. 17-39). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Berry, J. W., Poortina, Y. H., Breugelmans, S. M., Chasiotis, A. & Sam, D. L. (2011). Cross-cultural psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • British Council (2019) The shape of global higher education: International comparisons with Europe. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/k006_02_the_shape_of_global_higher_education_in_europe_final_v5_web.pdf
  • Chun, K. M., Organista, P. B. & Marin, G. (2003). Acculturation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Credé, M. m., & Niehorster, S. (2011). Adjustment to college as measured by the student adaptation to college questionnaire: a quantitative review of its structure and relationships with correlates and consequences. Educational Psychology Review, 24(1), 133-165.
  • Cushner, K. & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions. California, U.S.A.: SAGE Publications.
  • Cetinkaya-Yildiz, E., Cakir, S. G., & Kondakci, Y. (2011). Psychological distress among international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 534–539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.04.001
  • Dean, K., & Koeng, A. M. (2019). Cross‐cultural differences and similarities in attribution. Cross-Cultural Psychology, pp.575-597, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • de Araujo, A. A. (2011). Adjustment issues of international students enrolled in American colleges and universities: A review of the literature. Higher Education Studies, 1(1), 2–8.
  • Elemo, A. S., & Türküm, A. S. (2019). The effects of psychoeducational intervention on the adjustment, coping self-efficacy and psychological distress levels of international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 70, 7-18.
  • Eun-Ju, L., Lu, L., & Jeongwoo, J. (2011). Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(7/8), 433-437.
  • Gómez, E., Urzúa, A., & Glass, C. R. (2014). International student adjustment to college: social networks, acculturation, and leisure. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(1), 7-25.
  • Gündüz, M., & Alakbarov, N. (2019). Analysis of social adjustment factors of international students in Turkey. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1155-1171, Doi: 10.32674/jis.v9i4.917.
  • International Institute of Education. (2019). Open doors 2019. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data
  • Kang, S. (2006). Measurement of acculturation, scale formats, and language competence. journal of cross-cultural psychology, 37(6), 669.
  • Kağnıcı, D. Y. (2012). The role of multicultural personality in predicting university adjustment of international students in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(2), 174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-012-9149-5
  • Kondakci, Y. (2011). Student mobility reviewed: Attraction and satisfaction of international students in Turkey. Higher Education, 62(5), 573.
  • Khoo, P. L. S., Abu-rasain, M. H. & Hornby, G. (1994) Counselling foreign students: A review of strategies, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7:2, 117-131.
  • Lapoint, S. O., & Soysa, C. K. (2014). Great Expectations: Perfectionism and Residence Status Predict College Adjustment. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19(3), 98-107.
  • Li, L., & Peng, W. (2019). Transitioning through social media: International students’ SNS use, perceived social support, and acculturative stress. Computers in Human Behavior. 98, 69-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.011
  • Lin, J-C., & Yi, J. K. (1996). Asian international students’ adjustment: Issues and program suggestions. College Student Journal, 31, 71-78.
  • Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. J. (2003). Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(2), 137-157.
  • Mori, S. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137-144.
  • Mrekajova, E. (2017). Friendship networks of international students attending long-term programs in turkey: Implications and a need for intervention. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 4(2), 26-38.
  • Özoglu, M., Gür, B. S., & Coskun, I. (2015). Factors influencing international students’ choice to study in turkey and challenges they experience in Turkey. Research in Comparative and International Education, 10(2), 223–237.
  • Pedersen, E. R., Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., & Lee, C. M. (2011). Measuring sojourner adjustment among American students studying abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 881–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.06.003
  • Poyrazli, S., & Lopez, M. D. (2007). An exploratory study of perceived discrimination and homesickness: a comparison of international students and american students. Journal of Psychology, 141(3), 263-280.
  • Quan, L., Zhen, R., Yao, B., & Zhou, X. (2014). The effects of loneliness and coping style on academic adjustment among college freshmen. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(6), 969-978.
  • Ranney, J. D., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2012). Computer-mediated communication with distant friends: Relations with adjustment during students' first semester in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 848-861.
  • Sam, D. L. & Berry, J.W. (2006). Acculturation psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Saygın, S., & Hasta, D. (2018). Göç, Kültürleşme ve Uyum. Current Approaches in Psychiatry / Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar, 10(3), 302–323. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.364115
  • Smith, R., & Khawaja, N. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699-713.
  • Sodowsky, G. R., & Plake, B. S. (1992). A study of acculturation differences among international people and suggestions for sensitivity to within-group differences. Journal of Counseling & Development, 7153-59.
  • Sümer, S., Poyrazli, S., & Grahame, K. (2008). Predictors of depression and anxiety among international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(4), 429-437.
  • Trimble, J. E. (2003). Introduction: Social change and acculturation. In K.M. Chun, P.B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.) Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (pp. 17-39). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Uddin, M., R., Mamun, A., Soumana, A., O., & Khan, M. (2017). Factors and Predictors of International Student’s Satisfaction in Turkey. Educational Process: International Journal, 6(2), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2017.62.4
  • UNICEF (2020). Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow
  • Watson, J. C., & Lenz, A. S. (2018). Development and evaluation of the inventory of new college student adjustment. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 0, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025118759755
  • Wilton, L., & Constantine, M. G. (2003). Length of residence, cultural adjustment difficulties, and psychological distress symptoms in Asian and Latin America international college students. Journal of College Counseling, 6(2), 177-186.
  • Wu, H., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International Student’s Challenge and Adjustment to College. Education Research International, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/202753
  • Yu, Q., Foroudi, P., & Gupta, S. (2019). Far apart yet close by: Social media and acculturation among international students in the UK. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 145, 493-502.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Nesime CAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6448-1275
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Ocak 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 29, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { kefdergi726563, journal = {Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi}, eissn = {2147-9844}, address = {Aktekke Mah. Kastamonu eğitim Fakültesi Kastamonu}, publisher = {Kastamonu Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, number = {1}, pages = {210 - 217}, doi = {10.24106/kefdergi.726563}, title = {International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Can, Nesime} }
APA Can, N. (2021). International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey . Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi , 29 (1) , 210-217 . DOI: 10.24106/kefdergi.726563
MLA Can, N. "International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey" . Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi 29 (2021 ): 210-217 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefdergi/issue/59781/726563>
Chicago Can, N. "International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey". Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi 29 (2021 ): 210-217
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey AU - Nesime Can Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.726563 DO - 10.24106/kefdergi.726563 T2 - Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 210 EP - 217 VL - 29 IS - 1 SN - -2147-9844 M3 - doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.726563 UR - https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.726563 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey %A Nesime Can %T International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey %D 2021 %J Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi %P -2147-9844 %V 29 %N 1 %R doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.726563 %U 10.24106/kefdergi.726563
ISNAD Can, Nesime . "International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey". Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi 29 / 1 (Ocak 2021): 210-217 . https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.726563
AMA Can N. International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi. 2021; 29(1): 210-217.
Vancouver Can N. International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi. 2021; 29(1): 210-217.
IEEE N. Can , "International Students' Acculturation and Adjustment to College: Suggestions for Turkey", Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, c. 29, sayı. 1, ss. 210-217, Oca. 2021, doi:10.24106/kefdergi.726563

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