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Prediction of the effects of the current regime on Ship’s Maneuvering at the Strait of Istanbul

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2, 611 - 629, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35674/kent.1098026

Öz

The Turkish Straits System or Sea Area consists of the Strait of İstanbul, the Strait of Canakkale, and the Sea of Marmara. The Turkish Straits are also among the busiest natural waterways in the world. Local and international maritime trade increases maritime traffic by connecting Asia and Europe continents. This study shows that the Turkish Straits are a former river valley drowned by the sea at the end of the tertiary period and affects different and demanding marine sciences situations like water currents to the ships and seafarers during navigation. Throughout history, many hazardous collisions and marine accidents happened at the Turkish Straits famously like an Independenta in 1979 and lately Vitaspirit in 2018. Suppose we need to look deeply at many reasons for all collisions, and technical and natural effects. This study tries to find the answer to natural effects that could control by human reflex and eligible technical types of equipment at the Turkish Straits? The end of the study shows that natural effects could predict with technical equipment, and seafarers could control all effects with regular education and awareness. The result is that if all straits could measure and survey deeply and continuously seasonal and could service real on time ships, seafarers could control their ships to natural effects. Thus, while the seas will be protected, it will also positively affect city/urban life in the coastal areas.

Kaynakça

  • Akten, N. (2004). Analysis of Shipping Casualties in the Bosphorus, Journal of Navigation, 57(3), 345-356.
  • Akyüz, E., Arslan Ö., İncaz, S. (2018). CHAPTER VI – Convention Relating to Prevention of Oil Spill, Oil Spill Along with the Turkish Strait Sea Area; Accident, Environmental Pollution, Socio-Economic Impacts, and Protection, TÜDAV.
  • Arslan, O., Turan, O. (2009). “Analytical Investigation of Marine Casualties at the Strait of Istanbul with SWOT–AHP Method.” Maritime Policy & Management 36 (2), 131–145.
  • Başar,E., Kose,E., Guneroglu, A. (2015). Finding risky areas for oil spillage after tanker accidents at Istanbul strait. Environment and Pollution, 27(4), 388-400,
  • Basar, E., Sivri, N., Uğurlu, Ö., & Sönmez, V. Z. (2018). Potential impacts of oil spill damage around the planned oil rigs at the Black Sea. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 47(11), 2198–2206.
  • Bayazıt, M., Sümer, M. (1982). Oceanographic and Hydrographic Study of the Bosphorus. İTÜ, T.B.T.A.K. Report No: 28 (in Turkish).
  • Beşiktepe, Ş., Özsoy, E. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1993). Filling of the Sea of Marmara by the Dardanelles Lower Layer Inflow. Deep-Sea Res. 40: 1815-1838.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Sur, H.I., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oğuz, T. et al. (1994). The circulation and hydrography of the Sea of Marmara. Progress in Oceanography 34 (4): 285-333.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş., Sur, H.İ., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oğuz, T. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1994). The Circulation and Hydrography of the Sea of Marmara. Prog. Oceanogr. 34: 285-334.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Mutlu, E., Okyar, M., Özsoy, S.T. and A. Yılmaz. (2000). The sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits System. In: National Marine Research and monitoring program, Mediterranean Sea, Marmara Sea, Turkish Straits system, Black Sea and the atmosphere sub-projects The Period 1995-1999, Synthesis Report İ. Salihoğlu and E. Mutlu (Ed.). Ankara, Turkey: TÜBİTAK. 143–238 pp. (In Turkish).
  • Birpınar, M.E., Talu, G.F. & Gönençgil, B. (2009). Environmental effects of maritime traffic on the İstanbul Strait. Environment Monitoring Assessment, 152, 13-23
  • Can, S., Çelik, F., Yılmaz, H., Satır, T., & Bak, O. A. (2007). The Case Studies for Oil Spill Simulation in Istanbul Strait. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 16(11), 1517-1522.
  • Çeçen, K., Beyazıt, M., Sümer, M., Güclüer, S., Doğusal, M. and H. Yüce, (1981). Oceanographic and hydraulic investigations of the Bosphorus: Section I, Final Report, submitted to the Irrigation Unit of the Turkish Scientific and Technical, Research Council, İstanbul Technical University. İstanbul. 166 pp.
  • Chachi, J. (2019). A weighted least squares fuzzy regression for crisp input-fuzzy output data. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 27(4), 739–748.
  • Demyshev, S.G., Dovgaya, S.V. (2007). Numerical experiment aimed at modeling the hydrophysical fields in the Sea of Marmara with regard for Bosporus and Dardanelles. Phys Oceanogr 17, 141–153
  • Dorrell R.M., Peakall J., Sumner E.J., Parsons D.R., S.E. Darby, R.B. Wynn, E. Özsoy, D. Tezcan. (2016).’’ Flow dynamics and mixing processes in hydraulic jump arrays: Implications for channel-lobe transition zones, Marine Geology, Volume 381, Pages 181-193, ISSN 0025-3227
  • D’Urso, P., & Massari, R. (2013). Weighted Least Squares and Least Median Squares estimation for the fuzzy linear regression analysis. Metron, 71, 279–306
  • Ferraro, M., & Giordani, P. (2013). A proposal of robust regression for random fuzzy sets. In R. Kruse (Ed.), Synergies of soft computing and statistics (pp. 115–123).
  • Farmer, D.M. and L. Armi. (1986). Maximal two-layer exchange over a sill and through the combination of a sill and contraction with the barotropic flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 164: 53-76
  • Gregg, M.C., Özsoy, E. and M.A. Latif. (1999). Quasi-Steady Exchange Flow in the Bosphorus, Geophysical Research Letters, 26: 83-86.
  • Gregg, M.C. and E. Özsoy, (1999). Mixing on the Black Sea Shelf North of the Bosphorus, Geophysical Research Letters 26: 1869-1872.
  • Gregg, M.C. and E. Özsoy. (2002). Flow, Water Mass Changes, and Hydraulics in the Bosphorus. Journal of Geophys. Res. 107 (C3), 1
  • İncaz, S., Alkan., G.B. (2008) Studies of marine chemical pollution at Turkish Straits and Sea of Marmara, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(5). 4037-4040,
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W. J., Book, J. W., and Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011), On flow variability in the Bosphorus Strait, Journal of Geophys. Res., 116, C08038, doi:10.1029/2010JC006861
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011a). On flow variability in the Bosphorus Strait. Journal of Geophys. Research-Oceans, 116 (C8).
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011b). Observed volume fluxes in the Bosphorus Strait. Geophysical Research Letters, 38 (21).
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2012). Observations on the characteristics of the exchange flow in the Dardanelles Strait, Journal of Geophys. Research-Oceans, 117.
  • Latif, M.A., Özsoy, E., Oğuz, T. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1991). Observations of the Mediterranean inflow into the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 38 (2): 711–723.
  • Örs, H. (2003), Oil Transport in the Turkish Straits System: A Simulation of Contamination in the Istanbul Strait. Energy Sources, 25(11), 1043-1052
  • Özsoy, E., Di Iorio, D., Gregg, M. and J. Backhaus. (2001). Mixing in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea Continental Shelf: Observations and a Model of the Dense Water Outflow. J. Mar. Sys. 31: 99-135.
  • Pazarcı H. (2015). Uluslararası Hukuk. s. 724, Ankara, Turhan Kitabevi Yayınları.
  • Sözer, A. and E. Özsoy. (2002). A three-dimensional model of Bosphorus strait dynamics, in The 2nd Meeting on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, Villefranche, 15th- 19th, 207-210 pp.
  • Sözer, A. (2013). Numerical Modeling of the Bosphorus Exchange Flow Dynamics. Ph.D. thesis. pp..Institute of Marine Sciences of the Middle East Technical University. Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Turkey.
  • Taşlıgil, N., (2004). Boğazı’nın Ulaşım Coğrafyası Açısından Önemi. Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi 10: 1-18.
  • Third United Nations, Conference on the Standardisation of Geographical Names, (1979). UN Publications.
  • Tolmazin, D. (1985). Changing Coastal Oceanography of the Black Sea, II. Mediterranean Effluent. Prog. Oceanogr. 15: 277-316.
  • T.R. Ministry of Infrastrucure and Transportation Statistics Access date: 28.03.2022, URL, (https://denizcilikistatistikleri.uab.gov.tr/turk-bogazlari-gemi-gecis-istatistikleri)
  • Turkish Navy, Office of Navigation. (2009). Hydrography and Oceanography, Turkish Straits Oceanographic Atlas, TN Publications
  • Uğurlu, Ö., Erol, S., Başar, E. (2015). The analysis of life safety and economic loss in marine accidents occurring in the Turkish Straits. Maritime Policy and Management, 43(3), 356-370.
  • Uğurlu, Ö., Köse.E, Yıldırım, U., Yüksekyıldız, E. (2015). Marine accident analysis for collision and grounding in oil tanker using FTA method. Maritime Policy and Management, 42(2), 163-185.
  • Usluer, H.B., Alkan, G. B. (2016). Importance of the Marine Science and Charting about Environmental Planning, Management and Policies at the Turkish Straits, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research.
  • Usluer, H.B. (2021). Environmental Management Planning and Policies of Marine Pollution at the Strait of Canakkale (Dardanelle), European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Vol.5(1), pp.55-62.
  • Usluer, H.B., Ph.D. Thesis. (2016). ’’Investigation About Benefits of Effective using vessel Traffic System-VTS at the Turkish Straits’’pg. 58-83,2016
  • Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A. and E. Özsoy. (1990). On the Physical Oceanography of the Turkish Straits In: L.J. Pratt (Ed) The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, NATO/ASI Series, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 25-60 pp.
  • Yıldız, S., Sönmez, V.Z., Uğurlu, Ö., Sivri, N., Loughney, S., Wang, J. (2021). Modeling of possible tanker accident oil spills in the Istanbul Strait in order to demonstrate the dispersion and toxic effects of oil pollution, Environmental Monitoring Assesment, 193(8), 538-547.
  • Yüce, H. (1996). Mediterranean water in the Strait of İstanbul (Bosphorus) and the Black Sea exit. Estuarine. Coastal and Shelf Science 43 (5): 597–616

Akıntı Rejiminin İstanbul Boğazındaki Gemi Manevralarına Etkisinin Tahminlenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2, 611 - 629, 15.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.35674/kent.1098026

Öz

Türk Boğazları Sistemi veya Deniz Alanı; İstanbul, Çanakkale Boğazları ve Marmara Denizi'nden oluşur. Türk Boğazları aynı zamanda dünyanın en işlek doğal su yolları arasındadır. Ulusal ve uluslararası deniz ticareti, Asya ve Avrupa kıtalarını birbirine bağlayarak deniz trafiğini artırmaktadır. Bu çalışma, Türk Boğazlarının deniz tarafından dolmuş eski bir nehir vadisi olduğunu, akıntılar gibi farklı ve zorlu deniz şartlarının gemilere seyir esnasında nasıl etkilediğini göstermektedir. Tarih boyunca, Türk Boğazlarında 1979'da Independenta ve son olarak da 2018'de Vitaspirit gibi ünlü birçok tehlikeli çarpışma ve deniz kazaları meydana gelmiştir. Tüm çatışmaların teknik ve doğal etkilerine derinlemesine bakılması gerekmektedir. Ayrıca çalışma da insan refleksi ile teknik ve doğal etkilerin nasıl kontrol altına alınabileceğini araştırmaktadır. Doğal etkilerin teknik olarak tahmin edilebileceğini ve denizcilerin düzenli eğitim ve farkındalıkla tüm etkileri kontrol altına alabileceklerini göstermektedir. Sonuç olarak, mevsimsel ve sürekli olarak deniz bilimleri ölçülebilir ve denizcilere gerçek zamanlı hizmet verebilirse, doğal etkiler kontrol edebilir, denizler korunurken kıyı kesimlerinde şehir/kent yaşamını da olumlu etkileyecektir.

Kaynakça

  • Akten, N. (2004). Analysis of Shipping Casualties in the Bosphorus, Journal of Navigation, 57(3), 345-356.
  • Akyüz, E., Arslan Ö., İncaz, S. (2018). CHAPTER VI – Convention Relating to Prevention of Oil Spill, Oil Spill Along with the Turkish Strait Sea Area; Accident, Environmental Pollution, Socio-Economic Impacts, and Protection, TÜDAV.
  • Arslan, O., Turan, O. (2009). “Analytical Investigation of Marine Casualties at the Strait of Istanbul with SWOT–AHP Method.” Maritime Policy & Management 36 (2), 131–145.
  • Başar,E., Kose,E., Guneroglu, A. (2015). Finding risky areas for oil spillage after tanker accidents at Istanbul strait. Environment and Pollution, 27(4), 388-400,
  • Basar, E., Sivri, N., Uğurlu, Ö., & Sönmez, V. Z. (2018). Potential impacts of oil spill damage around the planned oil rigs at the Black Sea. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 47(11), 2198–2206.
  • Bayazıt, M., Sümer, M. (1982). Oceanographic and Hydrographic Study of the Bosphorus. İTÜ, T.B.T.A.K. Report No: 28 (in Turkish).
  • Beşiktepe, Ş., Özsoy, E. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1993). Filling of the Sea of Marmara by the Dardanelles Lower Layer Inflow. Deep-Sea Res. 40: 1815-1838.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Sur, H.I., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oğuz, T. et al. (1994). The circulation and hydrography of the Sea of Marmara. Progress in Oceanography 34 (4): 285-333.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş., Sur, H.İ., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oğuz, T. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1994). The Circulation and Hydrography of the Sea of Marmara. Prog. Oceanogr. 34: 285-334.
  • Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Mutlu, E., Okyar, M., Özsoy, S.T. and A. Yılmaz. (2000). The sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits System. In: National Marine Research and monitoring program, Mediterranean Sea, Marmara Sea, Turkish Straits system, Black Sea and the atmosphere sub-projects The Period 1995-1999, Synthesis Report İ. Salihoğlu and E. Mutlu (Ed.). Ankara, Turkey: TÜBİTAK. 143–238 pp. (In Turkish).
  • Birpınar, M.E., Talu, G.F. & Gönençgil, B. (2009). Environmental effects of maritime traffic on the İstanbul Strait. Environment Monitoring Assessment, 152, 13-23
  • Can, S., Çelik, F., Yılmaz, H., Satır, T., & Bak, O. A. (2007). The Case Studies for Oil Spill Simulation in Istanbul Strait. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 16(11), 1517-1522.
  • Çeçen, K., Beyazıt, M., Sümer, M., Güclüer, S., Doğusal, M. and H. Yüce, (1981). Oceanographic and hydraulic investigations of the Bosphorus: Section I, Final Report, submitted to the Irrigation Unit of the Turkish Scientific and Technical, Research Council, İstanbul Technical University. İstanbul. 166 pp.
  • Chachi, J. (2019). A weighted least squares fuzzy regression for crisp input-fuzzy output data. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 27(4), 739–748.
  • Demyshev, S.G., Dovgaya, S.V. (2007). Numerical experiment aimed at modeling the hydrophysical fields in the Sea of Marmara with regard for Bosporus and Dardanelles. Phys Oceanogr 17, 141–153
  • Dorrell R.M., Peakall J., Sumner E.J., Parsons D.R., S.E. Darby, R.B. Wynn, E. Özsoy, D. Tezcan. (2016).’’ Flow dynamics and mixing processes in hydraulic jump arrays: Implications for channel-lobe transition zones, Marine Geology, Volume 381, Pages 181-193, ISSN 0025-3227
  • D’Urso, P., & Massari, R. (2013). Weighted Least Squares and Least Median Squares estimation for the fuzzy linear regression analysis. Metron, 71, 279–306
  • Ferraro, M., & Giordani, P. (2013). A proposal of robust regression for random fuzzy sets. In R. Kruse (Ed.), Synergies of soft computing and statistics (pp. 115–123).
  • Farmer, D.M. and L. Armi. (1986). Maximal two-layer exchange over a sill and through the combination of a sill and contraction with the barotropic flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 164: 53-76
  • Gregg, M.C., Özsoy, E. and M.A. Latif. (1999). Quasi-Steady Exchange Flow in the Bosphorus, Geophysical Research Letters, 26: 83-86.
  • Gregg, M.C. and E. Özsoy, (1999). Mixing on the Black Sea Shelf North of the Bosphorus, Geophysical Research Letters 26: 1869-1872.
  • Gregg, M.C. and E. Özsoy. (2002). Flow, Water Mass Changes, and Hydraulics in the Bosphorus. Journal of Geophys. Res. 107 (C3), 1
  • İncaz, S., Alkan., G.B. (2008) Studies of marine chemical pollution at Turkish Straits and Sea of Marmara, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(5). 4037-4040,
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W. J., Book, J. W., and Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011), On flow variability in the Bosphorus Strait, Journal of Geophys. Res., 116, C08038, doi:10.1029/2010JC006861
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011a). On flow variability in the Bosphorus Strait. Journal of Geophys. Research-Oceans, 116 (C8).
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2011b). Observed volume fluxes in the Bosphorus Strait. Geophysical Research Letters, 38 (21).
  • Jarosz, E., Teague, W.J., Book, J.W., Beşiktepe, Ş. (2012). Observations on the characteristics of the exchange flow in the Dardanelles Strait, Journal of Geophys. Research-Oceans, 117.
  • Latif, M.A., Özsoy, E., Oğuz, T. and Ü. Ünlüata. (1991). Observations of the Mediterranean inflow into the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 38 (2): 711–723.
  • Örs, H. (2003), Oil Transport in the Turkish Straits System: A Simulation of Contamination in the Istanbul Strait. Energy Sources, 25(11), 1043-1052
  • Özsoy, E., Di Iorio, D., Gregg, M. and J. Backhaus. (2001). Mixing in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea Continental Shelf: Observations and a Model of the Dense Water Outflow. J. Mar. Sys. 31: 99-135.
  • Pazarcı H. (2015). Uluslararası Hukuk. s. 724, Ankara, Turhan Kitabevi Yayınları.
  • Sözer, A. and E. Özsoy. (2002). A three-dimensional model of Bosphorus strait dynamics, in The 2nd Meeting on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, Villefranche, 15th- 19th, 207-210 pp.
  • Sözer, A. (2013). Numerical Modeling of the Bosphorus Exchange Flow Dynamics. Ph.D. thesis. pp..Institute of Marine Sciences of the Middle East Technical University. Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Turkey.
  • Taşlıgil, N., (2004). Boğazı’nın Ulaşım Coğrafyası Açısından Önemi. Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi 10: 1-18.
  • Third United Nations, Conference on the Standardisation of Geographical Names, (1979). UN Publications.
  • Tolmazin, D. (1985). Changing Coastal Oceanography of the Black Sea, II. Mediterranean Effluent. Prog. Oceanogr. 15: 277-316.
  • T.R. Ministry of Infrastrucure and Transportation Statistics Access date: 28.03.2022, URL, (https://denizcilikistatistikleri.uab.gov.tr/turk-bogazlari-gemi-gecis-istatistikleri)
  • Turkish Navy, Office of Navigation. (2009). Hydrography and Oceanography, Turkish Straits Oceanographic Atlas, TN Publications
  • Uğurlu, Ö., Erol, S., Başar, E. (2015). The analysis of life safety and economic loss in marine accidents occurring in the Turkish Straits. Maritime Policy and Management, 43(3), 356-370.
  • Uğurlu, Ö., Köse.E, Yıldırım, U., Yüksekyıldız, E. (2015). Marine accident analysis for collision and grounding in oil tanker using FTA method. Maritime Policy and Management, 42(2), 163-185.
  • Usluer, H.B., Alkan, G. B. (2016). Importance of the Marine Science and Charting about Environmental Planning, Management and Policies at the Turkish Straits, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research.
  • Usluer, H.B. (2021). Environmental Management Planning and Policies of Marine Pollution at the Strait of Canakkale (Dardanelle), European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Vol.5(1), pp.55-62.
  • Usluer, H.B., Ph.D. Thesis. (2016). ’’Investigation About Benefits of Effective using vessel Traffic System-VTS at the Turkish Straits’’pg. 58-83,2016
  • Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A. and E. Özsoy. (1990). On the Physical Oceanography of the Turkish Straits In: L.J. Pratt (Ed) The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, NATO/ASI Series, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 25-60 pp.
  • Yıldız, S., Sönmez, V.Z., Uğurlu, Ö., Sivri, N., Loughney, S., Wang, J. (2021). Modeling of possible tanker accident oil spills in the Istanbul Strait in order to demonstrate the dispersion and toxic effects of oil pollution, Environmental Monitoring Assesment, 193(8), 538-547.
  • Yüce, H. (1996). Mediterranean water in the Strait of İstanbul (Bosphorus) and the Black Sea exit. Estuarine. Coastal and Shelf Science 43 (5): 597–616

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mühendislik, Ortak Disiplinler, Çevre Mühendisliği, Kentsel Çalışmalar, Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Hasan Bora USLUER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZCİLİK MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0001-8988-9288
Türkiye


Güler ALKAN>
MERSİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZCİLİK FAKÜLTESİ, DENİZ ULAŞTIRMA İŞLETME MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5052-111X
Türkiye


Osman TURAN Bu kişi benim
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0003-1877-8462
United Kingdom

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Usluer, H. B. , Alkan, G. & Turan, O. (2022). Prediction of the effects of the current regime on Ship’s Maneuvering at the Strait of Istanbul . Kent Akademisi , 15 (2) , 611-629 . DOI: 10.35674/kent.1098026

International Refereed and Indexed Journal of Urban Culture and Management

Kent Kültürü ve Yönetimi Uluslararası Hakemli İndeksli Dergi