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Petrol ve Gaz Politikası: Piyasa Yapısı Politikleşmeyi Neden/Nasıl Etkilemektedir?

Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31, 19 - 37, 01.06.2016

Öz

Uluslararası ilişkiler ve enerji eğilimleri temelden birbirine bağlı olduğu için enerji güvenliği, devletlerin hem iç hem de dış politikalarının ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. Dünya Enerji Ajansı’na göre, fosil yakıtlar – ham petrol, doğal gaz ve kömür- 2013 yılında dünya birincil enerji tüketiminin % 85’ini karşılamıştır. Öte yandan, bu çalışmada sadece ham petrol ve doğal gaz politikaları kıyaslanacak olup sahip olduğu yaygın kullanım alanı ve küresel ekonomi açısından taşıdığı kritik öneme rağmen jeopolitik etkisi daha zayıf olan kömür değerlendirme dışında tutulacaktır. Doğal gaz, değeri yükselerek artan bir enerji kaynağı haline gelmiş durumdadır. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmada, “doğal gaz neden petrolden daha politik bir yakıttır?” sorusuna yanıt aranacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • BP (June 2015). Statistical Review of World Energy. http://www.bp.com/content/dam /bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2015/bp-statistical-review-of- world-energy-2015-full-report.pdf/ 02.08.2015.
  • Business Monitor International (2010). Iran Oil&Gas Report Q3 2010 Includes 10-Years Forecasts to 2019. London.
  • De Micco, Pasquale (October 2014). A cold winter to come? The EU seeks alternatives to Russian gas. Policy Department, Directorate-General for External Policies, PE 536.413. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData /etudes/STUD/2014/536413/ EXPO_STU(2014)536413_EN.pdf/ 12.07.2014.
  • Demirtaş, Özgür (2013). Enerji Piyasalarındaki Son Gelişmeler ve Kaya (Şeyl) Gazı. https://ekonomi.isbank.com.tr/ userfiles/pdf/ar_06_2013.pdf/ 09.09.2015.
  • Dokuzlar, Bircan (2006). Dünya Güç Dengesinde Yeni Silah Doğal Gaz. İstanbul: IQ Yayınları.
  • Ediger, Volkan Ş. (2007). “Yeni Yüzyılın Enerji Güvenliğinde Karşılıklı Bağımlılık Bir Zaruret”. Doğal Gaz, 131: 30-37.
  • EIA (June 19, 2015). “Iran”. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/ analysis_includes /countries_long/Iran/iran.pdf/ 08.07.2015.
  • EIA (2009). International Energy Outlook 2009 - Natural Gas (Report No. DOE/AIA- 0484). www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html/ 02.03.2013.
  • EIA (2015). “Iran”. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/ analysis_includes/ countries_long/Iran/iran.pdf/ 08.07.2015.
  • Emerging Global Energy Security Risks (2007). ECE Energy Series No. 36 Geneva, United Nations. ExxonMobil (2015). The Outlook for http://cdn.exxonmobil.com/~/media/global/reports/outlook-for-energy /2015/ 2015-energy-outlook-presentation.pdf/ 04.08.2015. A View to 2040. ExxonMobil (2010). Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030. www.exxonmobil.com/corporate/files/news_pub_eo_2009.pdf/ 02.04.2013.
  • European Commission (2014). Energy 2020 A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=14096508 06265&uri=CELEX:52010DC0639/ 04.02.2015.
  • European Commission (2015). Energy Union: Making energy more secure, affordable and sustainable.http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/energy-union/indexen.htm/13.07.2015
  • Fattouh, B. (2007). How Secure are Middle East Oil Supplies. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, WPM 33.
  • Goldthau, Andreas (2013). The Politics of Natural Gas Development in the European Union. James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy Rice University.
  • Greeley, Brendan (2014). “Why Fuel Subsidies in Developing Nations Are an Economic Addiction”. http://www.bloomberg. com/bw/articles/2014-03-13/why-fuel-sub sidies-in-developing-nations-are-an-economic-addiction/ 12.07.2015.
  • Haghighi, Sanam Salam (2007). Energy Security: The External Legal Relations of the European Union with Major Oil- and Gas-Supplying Countries. Oregon: Hart Publishing.
  • IEA (2010). World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD/IEA.
  • IEA (2012). Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas. Paris: OECD/IEA.
  • IEA (2013). World Energy Outlook 2013. www.iea.org/Textbase/ npsum/ WEO2013SUM.pdf/ 15.03. 2014.
  • IEA (2014). World Energy Investment Outlook Special Report. www. iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/weio2014.pdf/ 01.12.2014.
  • IEA (2014). World Key Stastics 2014. http://www.iea.org/ publications/ freepublications/publication/keyworld2014.pdf/ 31.06.2015.
  • IEA. “About natural gas”. http://www.iea.org/topics/naturalgas/01.08.2015.
  • IGU (2012). “Wholesafe Gas Price Formation”. http://www.igu.org/sites/default /files/node-page-ield_file/Wholesale%20Gas%20Price%20Formation%202012%20- %20A%20global%20review%20of%20drivers%20and%20regional%20trends.pdf/ 01.08.2015.
  • IGU (2015). “Prospects for Natural Gas: Identifying the key developments that will shape the gas market in 2050”. http://www.igu.org/sites/default/files/node-page- field_file/IGU%20Prospects%20for%20Natural%20Gas%20%28Strategy%20toward s%202050%29.pdf / 01.08. 2015. IGU (2015). World LNG Report- 2015 Edition. http://www.igu.org/sites/default/files/node-page-field_file/IGU- World%20LNG%20Report-2015%20Edition.pdf/ 02.08.2015).
  • Khamehchi , Ehsan, et. al. (2013). “Selection of the Best Efficient Method for Natural Gas Storage at High Capacities Using TOPSIS Method”. Gas Processing Journal, 1(1): 9- 18.
  • Klare, Michael T. (2008). Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet The New Geopolitics of Energy, New York: Metropolitan Books.
  • Luft, Gal, Korin, Anne (2009). Energy Security Challenges for the 21st Century. Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International.
  • Luft, Gal (2011). “The Pipeline Paradox: Why Is the United States Helping Iran Sell Natural Gas?”. Foreign Policy. http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/04/12/the- pipeline-paradox/ 03.08.2015.
  • Özdemir, Volkan (2015). “Avrupa Gaz Piyasası: Uzun Erimli Kontratlar mı, Spot Piyasa mı”. 02.08.2015.
  • http://www.eppen.org/resim/haber_resim/eppen13.pdf/
  • Ratner, M., et. al. (2012). Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42405.pdf/ 05.10.2015. Congressional Research Service.
  • Shaffer, Brenda (2009). Energy Politics. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Shaffer, Brenda (2013). “Natural gas supply stability and foreign policy”, Energy Policy, 56: 114-125
  • Stevens, Paul (September 2010). The History of Gas, POLINARES Working Paper N. 5.
  • Tagliapietra, Simone (2014). Iran after the (Potential) Nuclear Deal: What’s Next for the Country’s Natural Gas Market? Milan: Nota di Lavoro, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Yergin, Daniel (2009). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Free Press.

The Oil and Gas Policy: How/Why the Market-Structure Influences their Politicization

Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31, 19 - 37, 01.06.2016

Öz

Energy trends and international politics are fundamentely interconnected, hence energy security is an integral part of the foreign and national security policies. According to International Energy Agency, fossil fuels –oil, natural gas, and coal- provided for over 85% of total primary energy consumption of world in 2013. On the other hand, this study just compares oil and natural gas policy because of coal carries little geopolitical sensivity, despite its widespread use and critical importance in the global economy. Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource. For this reason, in this study will answer the question, “why natural gas is more political fuel than oil?”

Kaynakça

  • BP (June 2015). Statistical Review of World Energy. http://www.bp.com/content/dam /bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2015/bp-statistical-review-of- world-energy-2015-full-report.pdf/ 02.08.2015.
  • Business Monitor International (2010). Iran Oil&Gas Report Q3 2010 Includes 10-Years Forecasts to 2019. London.
  • De Micco, Pasquale (October 2014). A cold winter to come? The EU seeks alternatives to Russian gas. Policy Department, Directorate-General for External Policies, PE 536.413. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData /etudes/STUD/2014/536413/ EXPO_STU(2014)536413_EN.pdf/ 12.07.2014.
  • Demirtaş, Özgür (2013). Enerji Piyasalarındaki Son Gelişmeler ve Kaya (Şeyl) Gazı. https://ekonomi.isbank.com.tr/ userfiles/pdf/ar_06_2013.pdf/ 09.09.2015.
  • Dokuzlar, Bircan (2006). Dünya Güç Dengesinde Yeni Silah Doğal Gaz. İstanbul: IQ Yayınları.
  • Ediger, Volkan Ş. (2007). “Yeni Yüzyılın Enerji Güvenliğinde Karşılıklı Bağımlılık Bir Zaruret”. Doğal Gaz, 131: 30-37.
  • EIA (June 19, 2015). “Iran”. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/ analysis_includes /countries_long/Iran/iran.pdf/ 08.07.2015.
  • EIA (2009). International Energy Outlook 2009 - Natural Gas (Report No. DOE/AIA- 0484). www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html/ 02.03.2013.
  • EIA (2015). “Iran”. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/ analysis_includes/ countries_long/Iran/iran.pdf/ 08.07.2015.
  • Emerging Global Energy Security Risks (2007). ECE Energy Series No. 36 Geneva, United Nations. ExxonMobil (2015). The Outlook for http://cdn.exxonmobil.com/~/media/global/reports/outlook-for-energy /2015/ 2015-energy-outlook-presentation.pdf/ 04.08.2015. A View to 2040. ExxonMobil (2010). Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030. www.exxonmobil.com/corporate/files/news_pub_eo_2009.pdf/ 02.04.2013.
  • European Commission (2014). Energy 2020 A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=14096508 06265&uri=CELEX:52010DC0639/ 04.02.2015.
  • European Commission (2015). Energy Union: Making energy more secure, affordable and sustainable.http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/energy-union/indexen.htm/13.07.2015
  • Fattouh, B. (2007). How Secure are Middle East Oil Supplies. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, WPM 33.
  • Goldthau, Andreas (2013). The Politics of Natural Gas Development in the European Union. James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy Rice University.
  • Greeley, Brendan (2014). “Why Fuel Subsidies in Developing Nations Are an Economic Addiction”. http://www.bloomberg. com/bw/articles/2014-03-13/why-fuel-sub sidies-in-developing-nations-are-an-economic-addiction/ 12.07.2015.
  • Haghighi, Sanam Salam (2007). Energy Security: The External Legal Relations of the European Union with Major Oil- and Gas-Supplying Countries. Oregon: Hart Publishing.
  • IEA (2010). World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD/IEA.
  • IEA (2012). Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas. Paris: OECD/IEA.
  • IEA (2013). World Energy Outlook 2013. www.iea.org/Textbase/ npsum/ WEO2013SUM.pdf/ 15.03. 2014.
  • IEA (2014). World Energy Investment Outlook Special Report. www. iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/weio2014.pdf/ 01.12.2014.
  • IEA (2014). World Key Stastics 2014. http://www.iea.org/ publications/ freepublications/publication/keyworld2014.pdf/ 31.06.2015.
  • IEA. “About natural gas”. http://www.iea.org/topics/naturalgas/01.08.2015.
  • IGU (2012). “Wholesafe Gas Price Formation”. http://www.igu.org/sites/default /files/node-page-ield_file/Wholesale%20Gas%20Price%20Formation%202012%20- %20A%20global%20review%20of%20drivers%20and%20regional%20trends.pdf/ 01.08.2015.
  • IGU (2015). “Prospects for Natural Gas: Identifying the key developments that will shape the gas market in 2050”. http://www.igu.org/sites/default/files/node-page- field_file/IGU%20Prospects%20for%20Natural%20Gas%20%28Strategy%20toward s%202050%29.pdf / 01.08. 2015. IGU (2015). World LNG Report- 2015 Edition. http://www.igu.org/sites/default/files/node-page-field_file/IGU- World%20LNG%20Report-2015%20Edition.pdf/ 02.08.2015).
  • Khamehchi , Ehsan, et. al. (2013). “Selection of the Best Efficient Method for Natural Gas Storage at High Capacities Using TOPSIS Method”. Gas Processing Journal, 1(1): 9- 18.
  • Klare, Michael T. (2008). Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet The New Geopolitics of Energy, New York: Metropolitan Books.
  • Luft, Gal, Korin, Anne (2009). Energy Security Challenges for the 21st Century. Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International.
  • Luft, Gal (2011). “The Pipeline Paradox: Why Is the United States Helping Iran Sell Natural Gas?”. Foreign Policy. http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/04/12/the- pipeline-paradox/ 03.08.2015.
  • Özdemir, Volkan (2015). “Avrupa Gaz Piyasası: Uzun Erimli Kontratlar mı, Spot Piyasa mı”. 02.08.2015.
  • http://www.eppen.org/resim/haber_resim/eppen13.pdf/
  • Ratner, M., et. al. (2012). Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42405.pdf/ 05.10.2015. Congressional Research Service.
  • Shaffer, Brenda (2009). Energy Politics. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Shaffer, Brenda (2013). “Natural gas supply stability and foreign policy”, Energy Policy, 56: 114-125
  • Stevens, Paul (September 2010). The History of Gas, POLINARES Working Paper N. 5.
  • Tagliapietra, Simone (2014). Iran after the (Potential) Nuclear Deal: What’s Next for the Country’s Natural Gas Market? Milan: Nota di Lavoro, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Yergin, Daniel (2009). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Free Press.

Ayrıntılar

Diğer ID JA57CF84HU
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Azime TELLİ Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31

Kaynak Göster

APA Telli, A. (2016). Petrol ve Gaz Politikası: Piyasa Yapısı Politikleşmeyi Neden/Nasıl Etkilemektedir? . Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , (31) , 19-37 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kosbed/issue/25688/271099

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