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Terapötik Oto-Fotografi: Terapötik Fotoğrafçılık ve Benlik Kavramına İlişkin Bir Uygulama

Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 48, 406 - 450, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18691/kulturveiletisim.895982

Öz

Fotoğraf; benliğe ilişkin bilgi edinme, öz-saygıyı artırma, öznel iyilik halini geliştirme, öz-farkındalık kazandırma gibi amaçlarla terapötik bir araç olarak kullanılabilmektedir. Fotoğrafın terapötik bir araç olarak kullanıldığı tekniklerden biri “terapötik fotoğrafçılık” teknikleridir. Fotoğrafın terapötik bir araç olarak gücünün sınanmasını amaçlayan bu araştırma, alanı tartışmaya açarak terapötik fotoğrafçılığın benlik kavramıyla ilişkisi bağlamında detaylı bir inceleme girişiminde bulunmaktadır. Araştırma, literatüre, terapötik fotoğrafçılık uygulamalarında kullanılacak farklı yönergeleri içeren yeni bir yöntem kazandırması ve fotoğrafçılığı, iletişim ve psikoloji disiplinleri çerçevesinde ele alarak disiplinlerarası bir yaklaşım ortaya koyması bakımından önem taşımaktadır. Araştırmada, terapötik fotoğrafçılığın bir ifade aracı olarak gücü ve benlik hakkında bilgi sağlama açısından rolü sorgulanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda benlik kavramıyla ilişkili bir foto-gözlem metodu olan oto-fotografi, terapötik fotoğrafçılık için bir uygulama yöntemi olarak ele alınmıştır. Terapötik fotoğrafçılık ve oto-fotografiyi birlikte ele alan bu yaklaşım “terapötik oto-fotografi” olarak adlandırılmıştır. 27 üniversite öğrencisi ile gerçekleştirilen bu çalışma, katılımcıların “Sen kimsin?” sorusunu fotoğraflarla yanıtlamalarını ve bu fotoğraflar hakkındaki derinlemesine görüşmeleri içeren bir uygulama sürecini kapsamaktadır. Uygulamadan sonra katılımcıların sunduğu fotoğraflar içerik olarak analiz edilerek fotografik benlik kavramı kategorileri oluşturulmuştur. Bu kategoriler de derinlemesine görüşmeler temelinde benlik kavramıyla ilişkili yönelimler çerçevesinde gruplandırılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, terapötik oto-fotografinin, benlik hakkında detaylı bilgiler elde etmeye olanak tanıyan güçlü bir ifade aracı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bu bağlamda terapötik oto-fotografinin, soyut fikirleri somutlaştırmaya yardımcı olarak sözel ifadeyi kolaylaştırdığı; rahat, etkili ve açıklayıcı bir iletişim biçimine imkan sağladığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Uygulama; düşünme, hatırlama, bağlantı kurma, çağrışım gibi bellekle ilişkili bilişsel işlemler yoluyla görsel bilginin işlendiği, aktif bir zihinsel araştırma ve sorgulama sürecine yol açmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda terapötik oto-fotografinin, kendini açma, açığa çıkarma, rahatlama ve içe bakışa katkı sağlayan terapötik işlevleri de ortaya koyulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Apa Dictionary of Psychology (t.y.). “Therapeutic.” https://dictionary.apa.org. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Arnett, Jeffrey J. (2000). “Emerging Adulthood: A Theory of Development from the Late Teens Through the Twenties.” American Psychologist, 55(5): 469-480.
  • Aronson, Wilson, vd. (2012). Sosyal Psikoloji. İstanbul: Kaknüs.
  • Arslan, Özge (2020). “19.Yüzyıl Erken Dönem Psikiyatri Fotoğrafçılığının Gelişimi ve Hugh Welch Diamond.” Sanat ve Tasarım Dergisi, 25: 65-83.
  • Bakırcıoğlu, Rasim (2012). Ansiklopedik Eğitim ve Psikoloji Sözlüğü. Ankara: Anı.
  • Benjamin, Walter (2015/2019). Fotoğraf Yazıları. Çev., Burcu Halaç ve Tevfik Turan. İstanbul: Kolektif.
  • Berman, Linda (1993). Beyond the Smile: The Therapeutic Use of the Photograph. London: Routledge.
  • British Photography. britishphotography.org. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Combs, Jeanne M. ve Ziller, Robert C. (1977). “Photographic Self-concept of Counselees.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24(5): 452-455.
  • Cooley, Charles H. (1902). “Human Nature and the Social Order.” The Social Self içinde. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 168-210.
  • Decoster, Vaughn A. ve Dickerson, James (2014). “The Therapeutic Use of Photography in Clinical Social Work: Evidence-based Best Practices.” Social Work in Mental Health, 12(1): 1-19.
  • Diamond, Hugh W. (1856/2010). “On the Application of Photography to the Physiognomic and Mental Phenomena of Insanity.” Psicoart, 1(2010): 1-14.
  • Didi-Huberman, Georges (2003). Invention of Hysteria Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière. London: The MIT Press Cambridge.
  • Dollinger, Stephen J. ve Clancy, Stephanie M. (1993). “Identity, Self, and Personality: II. Glimpses Through the Autophotographic Eye.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6): 1064-1071.
  • Gibson, Neil (2017). “Therapeutic Photography: Enhancing Patient Communication.” Journal of Kidney Care, 2(1): 46- 47.
  • Gibson, Neil (2018). Therapeutic Photography: Enhancing Self-esteem, Self-efficacy and Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley.
  • Gibson, Neil (2021). Kişisel İletişim (26 Haziran).
  • Gilman, Sander L. (1976). The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and Psychiatric Photography. Vermont: Echopoint.
  • Gerrig, Richard J. ve Zimbardo, Philip G. (2012). Psikoloji ve Yaşam: Psikolojiye Giriş. Çev., Gamze Sart. Ankara: Nobel.
  • Glover-Graf, Noreen M. ve Miller, Eva (2006). “The Use of Phototherapy in Group Treatment for Persons Who are Chemically Dependent.” Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 49(3): 166-181.
  • Halkola, Ulla (2011). “Introduction” Phototherapyeurope: Learning And Healing with Phototherapy Handbook. Ulla Halkola, Tarja Koffert, Leena, Koulu, Mari Krappala, Del Loewenthal, Carmine Parrella ve Pirkko Pehunen (der.) içinde. University of Turku: Publications of the Brahea Centre for Training and Development. 4-8.
  • Hartley, Lucy (2001). “A Science of Mind? Theories of Nature, Theories of Man?” Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University.15-43.
  • Hood, Bruce (2014). Benlik Yanılsaması: Sosyal Beyin, Kimliği Nasıl Oluşturur? Çev., Eyüphan Özdemir. İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • James, William (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.
  • Kağıtçıbaşı, Çiğdem ve Cemalcılar, Zeynep (2014). Dünden Bugüne İnsan ve İnsanlar: Sosyal Psikolojiye Giriş (16.Baskı). İstanbul: Evrim.
  • Koretsky, Pam (2001). “Using Photography in a Therapeutic Setting with Seniors.” Afterimage, 29(3): 8.
  • Krauss, David A. (1983). “Reality, Photography And Psychotherapy.” Phototherapy in Mental Health. David A. Krauss ve Jerry L. Fyrear (der.) içinde. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas. 41-56.
  • Leary, Mark R. ve Tangney, June P. (2003). “The Self as an Organizing Construct in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.” Handbook of Self and Identity. Mark R. Leary ve June P. Tangney (der.) içinde. New York: Guildford. 3-14.
  • Marshall, Gordon (1999). Sosyoloji Sözlüğü. Çev., Osman Akınhay ve Derya Kömürcü. Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat.
  • Mead, George H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society. Illinois: The University of Chicago.
  • Noland, C. M. (2006). “Auto-Photography as Research Practice: Identity and Self-Esteem Research.” Journal of Research Practice, 2(1): 1-19.
  • Nunez, Cristina (2009). “The Self-portrait as a Powerful Tool for Self-therapy.” European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 11(1): 51- 61.
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries (t.y.). “Therapeutic.” https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Özdamar, Gülbin (2009). “Jo Spence ve Fototerapi.” Fotografya, 22.
  • Patrick, Neil (2016). “Photos of Female Asylum Patients by a Victorian Psychiatrist Who Used Photography to Analyze Mental Disorders.” www.thevintagenews.com. Erişim tarihi: 19.11.2019.
  • Peljhan, Matej ve Zelić, Anita (2015).“Phototherapy-Overview and New Perspectives.” Phototherapy: From Concepts to Practices. Matej Peljhan (der.) içinde. CIRIUS: Center za izobraževanje, rehabilitacijo in usposabljanje Kamnik. 15-69.
  • Phototherapy-centre. https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 23.12.2019
  • Prag, Hillary ve Vogel, Gwen (2013). “Therapeutic Photography: Fostering Posttraumatic Growth in Shan Adolescent Refugees in Northern Thailand.” Fostering Posttraumatic Growth with Therapeutic Photography Intervention, 11(1): 37-51.
  • Ryan, Joseph F. (2012). “Photography as a Tool of Awareness.” The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 44(1): 92- 97.
  • Stangor, Charles (2013). Principles of Social Psychology. Washington: Saylor Foundation.
  • Stevens, Rene ve Spears, Evans H. (2009). “Incorporating Photography as a Therapeutic Tool in Counseling.” Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 4(1): 3-16.
  • Taylor, Peplau, vd. (2007). Sosyal Psikoloji. Çev., Ali Dönmez. Ankara: İmge.
  • Weiser, Judy (1975). “Photography as a Verb.” The B.C. Photographer, 2: 33-36.
  • Weiser, Judy (1984). “Phototherapy-becoming Visually Literate About Oneself or, “Phototherapy??? What’s Phototherapy???” Phototherapy Journal, 4(2): 2-7.
  • Weiser, Judy (1999). PhotoTherapy Techniques: Exploring the Secrets of Personal Snapshots and Family Albums. Vancouver: PhotoTherapy Centre.
  • Weiser, Judy (2002). “Phototherapy Techniques: Exploring Secrets of Personal Snapshots and Family Albums.” Child & Family, 5(3): 16-25.
  • Weiser, Judy (2005). “Remembering Jo Spence: A Brief Personal and Professional Memoir.” Jo Spence Autobiographical Photography. Hiroko Hagiwara (der.) içinde. Osaka: Shinsuisha. 240-248.
  • Weiser, Judy (2014). “Comparing PhotoTherapy and Art Therapy.” https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 20.12. 2019.
  • Weiser, Judy (2015). “History and Development.” https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 19.11.2019.
  • Weiser, Judy (2021). Kişisel İletişim (20 Mayıs).
  • Worth, Sol ve Adair, John (1972). Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication And Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Ziller, Robert C. (1990). Photographing the Self. London: Sage.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Lewis, Douglas (1981). “Orientations: Self, Social, and Environmental Percepts Through Auto-Photography.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7(2): 338-343.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Rorer, Brett A. (1985). “Shyness‐Environment Interaction: A View from the Shy Side Through Auto‐photography.” Journal of Personality, 53 (4): 626-639.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Smith, Dale E. (1977). “A Phenomenological Utilization of Photographs.” Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 7(2): 172-185.

Therapeutic Auto-Photography: An Application of Therapeutic Photography and Self-Concept

Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 48, 406 - 450, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18691/kulturveiletisim.895982

Öz

Photography can be used for therapeutic purposes such as acquiring knowledge about the self, increasing self-esteem, improving subjective well-being, and raising self-awareness. Such techniques are often called “therapeutic photography,” where photography is used as a therapeutic tool. This research, which aims to test the power of photography as a therapeutic tool, attempts a detailed examination of the context of the relationship between therapeutic photography and self-concept. The research has importance in terms of introducing a new method to the literature that includes different procedures to be used in therapeutic photography practices and presenting an interdisciplinary approach by considering photography within the framework of the disciplines of communication and psychology. In this research, the power of therapeutic photography as a means of expression and its role in providing information about the self are explored. Auto-photography, which is a photo-observation method related to self-concept, has accordingly been considered as an application method for therapeutic photography. This approach, utilizing both therapeutic photography and auto-photography, has been termed “therapeutic auto-photography.” This study, which was carried out with 27 university students, comprised two steps. First, students were asked to answer the question “Who are you?” with photographs, and then in-depth interviews were conducted using these photographs to guide the self exploration. After the application process, content analysis was conducted with the photographs presented by the participants and photographic self-concept categories were created. These categories were also classified and evaluated within the framework of orientations related to self-concept based on in-depth interviews. The results suggest that therapeutic auto-photography is a powerful tool of expression that facilitates obtaining detailed information about the self. In this context, it was concluded that therapeutic auto-photography facilitates verbal expression by assisting with concretization and enables a comfortable, effective, and explanatory communication style. The application leads to active mental exploration and an inquiry process in which visual information is processed through memory-related cognitive processes such as thinking, remembering, connecting, and associating. In addition, this research has revealed the therapeutic functions of therapeutic auto-photography, which contribute to self-disclosure, revelation, relief, and introspection.

Kaynakça

  • Apa Dictionary of Psychology (t.y.). “Therapeutic.” https://dictionary.apa.org. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Arnett, Jeffrey J. (2000). “Emerging Adulthood: A Theory of Development from the Late Teens Through the Twenties.” American Psychologist, 55(5): 469-480.
  • Aronson, Wilson, vd. (2012). Sosyal Psikoloji. İstanbul: Kaknüs.
  • Arslan, Özge (2020). “19.Yüzyıl Erken Dönem Psikiyatri Fotoğrafçılığının Gelişimi ve Hugh Welch Diamond.” Sanat ve Tasarım Dergisi, 25: 65-83.
  • Bakırcıoğlu, Rasim (2012). Ansiklopedik Eğitim ve Psikoloji Sözlüğü. Ankara: Anı.
  • Benjamin, Walter (2015/2019). Fotoğraf Yazıları. Çev., Burcu Halaç ve Tevfik Turan. İstanbul: Kolektif.
  • Berman, Linda (1993). Beyond the Smile: The Therapeutic Use of the Photograph. London: Routledge.
  • British Photography. britishphotography.org. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Combs, Jeanne M. ve Ziller, Robert C. (1977). “Photographic Self-concept of Counselees.” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24(5): 452-455.
  • Cooley, Charles H. (1902). “Human Nature and the Social Order.” The Social Self içinde. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 168-210.
  • Decoster, Vaughn A. ve Dickerson, James (2014). “The Therapeutic Use of Photography in Clinical Social Work: Evidence-based Best Practices.” Social Work in Mental Health, 12(1): 1-19.
  • Diamond, Hugh W. (1856/2010). “On the Application of Photography to the Physiognomic and Mental Phenomena of Insanity.” Psicoart, 1(2010): 1-14.
  • Didi-Huberman, Georges (2003). Invention of Hysteria Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière. London: The MIT Press Cambridge.
  • Dollinger, Stephen J. ve Clancy, Stephanie M. (1993). “Identity, Self, and Personality: II. Glimpses Through the Autophotographic Eye.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6): 1064-1071.
  • Gibson, Neil (2017). “Therapeutic Photography: Enhancing Patient Communication.” Journal of Kidney Care, 2(1): 46- 47.
  • Gibson, Neil (2018). Therapeutic Photography: Enhancing Self-esteem, Self-efficacy and Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley.
  • Gibson, Neil (2021). Kişisel İletişim (26 Haziran).
  • Gilman, Sander L. (1976). The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and Psychiatric Photography. Vermont: Echopoint.
  • Gerrig, Richard J. ve Zimbardo, Philip G. (2012). Psikoloji ve Yaşam: Psikolojiye Giriş. Çev., Gamze Sart. Ankara: Nobel.
  • Glover-Graf, Noreen M. ve Miller, Eva (2006). “The Use of Phototherapy in Group Treatment for Persons Who are Chemically Dependent.” Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 49(3): 166-181.
  • Halkola, Ulla (2011). “Introduction” Phototherapyeurope: Learning And Healing with Phototherapy Handbook. Ulla Halkola, Tarja Koffert, Leena, Koulu, Mari Krappala, Del Loewenthal, Carmine Parrella ve Pirkko Pehunen (der.) içinde. University of Turku: Publications of the Brahea Centre for Training and Development. 4-8.
  • Hartley, Lucy (2001). “A Science of Mind? Theories of Nature, Theories of Man?” Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture içinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University.15-43.
  • Hood, Bruce (2014). Benlik Yanılsaması: Sosyal Beyin, Kimliği Nasıl Oluşturur? Çev., Eyüphan Özdemir. İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • James, William (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.
  • Kağıtçıbaşı, Çiğdem ve Cemalcılar, Zeynep (2014). Dünden Bugüne İnsan ve İnsanlar: Sosyal Psikolojiye Giriş (16.Baskı). İstanbul: Evrim.
  • Koretsky, Pam (2001). “Using Photography in a Therapeutic Setting with Seniors.” Afterimage, 29(3): 8.
  • Krauss, David A. (1983). “Reality, Photography And Psychotherapy.” Phototherapy in Mental Health. David A. Krauss ve Jerry L. Fyrear (der.) içinde. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas. 41-56.
  • Leary, Mark R. ve Tangney, June P. (2003). “The Self as an Organizing Construct in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.” Handbook of Self and Identity. Mark R. Leary ve June P. Tangney (der.) içinde. New York: Guildford. 3-14.
  • Marshall, Gordon (1999). Sosyoloji Sözlüğü. Çev., Osman Akınhay ve Derya Kömürcü. Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat.
  • Mead, George H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society. Illinois: The University of Chicago.
  • Noland, C. M. (2006). “Auto-Photography as Research Practice: Identity and Self-Esteem Research.” Journal of Research Practice, 2(1): 1-19.
  • Nunez, Cristina (2009). “The Self-portrait as a Powerful Tool for Self-therapy.” European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 11(1): 51- 61.
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries (t.y.). “Therapeutic.” https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. Erişim tarihi: 20.11.2020.
  • Özdamar, Gülbin (2009). “Jo Spence ve Fototerapi.” Fotografya, 22.
  • Patrick, Neil (2016). “Photos of Female Asylum Patients by a Victorian Psychiatrist Who Used Photography to Analyze Mental Disorders.” www.thevintagenews.com. Erişim tarihi: 19.11.2019.
  • Peljhan, Matej ve Zelić, Anita (2015).“Phototherapy-Overview and New Perspectives.” Phototherapy: From Concepts to Practices. Matej Peljhan (der.) içinde. CIRIUS: Center za izobraževanje, rehabilitacijo in usposabljanje Kamnik. 15-69.
  • Phototherapy-centre. https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 23.12.2019
  • Prag, Hillary ve Vogel, Gwen (2013). “Therapeutic Photography: Fostering Posttraumatic Growth in Shan Adolescent Refugees in Northern Thailand.” Fostering Posttraumatic Growth with Therapeutic Photography Intervention, 11(1): 37-51.
  • Ryan, Joseph F. (2012). “Photography as a Tool of Awareness.” The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 44(1): 92- 97.
  • Stangor, Charles (2013). Principles of Social Psychology. Washington: Saylor Foundation.
  • Stevens, Rene ve Spears, Evans H. (2009). “Incorporating Photography as a Therapeutic Tool in Counseling.” Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 4(1): 3-16.
  • Taylor, Peplau, vd. (2007). Sosyal Psikoloji. Çev., Ali Dönmez. Ankara: İmge.
  • Weiser, Judy (1975). “Photography as a Verb.” The B.C. Photographer, 2: 33-36.
  • Weiser, Judy (1984). “Phototherapy-becoming Visually Literate About Oneself or, “Phototherapy??? What’s Phototherapy???” Phototherapy Journal, 4(2): 2-7.
  • Weiser, Judy (1999). PhotoTherapy Techniques: Exploring the Secrets of Personal Snapshots and Family Albums. Vancouver: PhotoTherapy Centre.
  • Weiser, Judy (2002). “Phototherapy Techniques: Exploring Secrets of Personal Snapshots and Family Albums.” Child & Family, 5(3): 16-25.
  • Weiser, Judy (2005). “Remembering Jo Spence: A Brief Personal and Professional Memoir.” Jo Spence Autobiographical Photography. Hiroko Hagiwara (der.) içinde. Osaka: Shinsuisha. 240-248.
  • Weiser, Judy (2014). “Comparing PhotoTherapy and Art Therapy.” https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 20.12. 2019.
  • Weiser, Judy (2015). “History and Development.” https://phototherapy-centre.com. Erişim tarihi: 19.11.2019.
  • Weiser, Judy (2021). Kişisel İletişim (20 Mayıs).
  • Worth, Sol ve Adair, John (1972). Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication And Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Ziller, Robert C. (1990). Photographing the Self. London: Sage.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Lewis, Douglas (1981). “Orientations: Self, Social, and Environmental Percepts Through Auto-Photography.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7(2): 338-343.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Rorer, Brett A. (1985). “Shyness‐Environment Interaction: A View from the Shy Side Through Auto‐photography.” Journal of Personality, 53 (4): 626-639.
  • Ziller, Robert C. ve Smith, Dale E. (1977). “A Phenomenological Utilization of Photographs.” Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 7(2): 172-185.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası, İletişim
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Özge ARSLAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4466-4223
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 48

Kaynak Göster

APA Arslan, Ö. (2021). Terapötik Oto-Fotografi: Terapötik Fotoğrafçılık ve Benlik Kavramına İlişkin Bir Uygulama . Kültür ve İletişim , 24 (48) , 406-450 . DOI: 10.18691/kulturveiletisim.895982