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Çiftlik Düzeyinde Hayvan Refahı Değerlendirmesi İçin Bilimsel Yaklaşımlar

Yıl 2016, Cilt 9, Sayı 3, 236 - 246, 01.09.2016

Öz

Gerek tüketici talepleri ve ulusal yönetmelikler ve gerekse de uluslararası gıda kalite standartları pazardaki ürünün niteliğini şekillendirmektedir. Bugün, Dünya hayvansal üretim tekniklerinde gıda kalitesi ve çevre koruma prensiplerine dayanarak şekillenen revizyon olarak da tanımlayabileceğimiz hayvan refahı hayvansal gıda için ürün niteliğini tanımlayan önemli faktörlerden birisidir. Hayvan refahı kalite standartlarının sürdürülebilmesi için çiftlikte hayvan refahı değerlendirmeleri anahtar bir role sahiptir. Hayvan refahının bilimsel metotlarla değerlendirilmesi bakımından biyolojik işleyiş, duygusal durum ve doğal yaşam olarak isimlendirilen üç ayrı kuramsal çerçeve bulunmaktadır. Bu derlemede, hayvan refahı göstergeleri kullanılarak geliştirilmiş bazı refah değerlendirme yöntemleri ile refah değerlendirme protokolleri tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Amlaner CJ, MacDonald DW (eds). A handbook on Biotelemetry and Radio Tracking. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980.
  • Anonim. AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep. Milan, Italy. 2015.
  • Barnett JL, Hemsworth PH. Welfare monitoring schemes: using research to safeguard the welfare of animals on the farm. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2009; 12: 114–31.
  • Bizeray D, Estevez I, Leterriera C, Faurea JM. Effects of increasing environmental complexity on the physical activity of broiler chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2002; 79(1):27-41.
  • Blokhuis HJ, Jones RB, Geers R, Miele M, Veissier I. Measuring and monitoring animal welfare: transparency in the food product quality chain. Animal Welfare 2003; 12 (4): 445-455.
  • Boissy A, Manteuffe G, Jensen MB, Moe RO, Spruijt B, Keeling LJ, Winckler C, Frokman B, Dimitrov I, Langbein J., Bakken M, Veissier I, Aubert A. Assessment of positive emotions in animals to ımprove their welfare. Physiology and Behaviour 2007; 92: 375-97.
  • Bozkurt Z, Bülbül T, Bozkurt MF, Bülbül A, Maralcan G, Çelikeloğlu K. Sıklığa maruz bırakılmış broilerlerde rasyona organik ve inorganik manganez ilavesinin kemik özellikleri, aşılara karsı immun yanıt ve oksidatif stres durumuna etkileri. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 2015; 21: 623-630.
  • Bracke MBM, Hopster H. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2006; 19 (1): 77.
  • Broom DM. Indicators of poor welfare. British Veterinary Journal 1986; 142:524-526.
  • Broom D, Johnson K. Stress andAanimal Welfare. Charpmanand Hall, London, 1993.
  • Bryant MJ. The social environment: behaviour and stress in housed livestock. Vet.Rec. 1972; 90 (22):351-359.
  • Curtis SE. Animal well-being and animal care. Vet. Clin. N. Anim.(Food Anim. Pract.)1987; 3(2):369-382.
  • Danbury TC, Weeks CA, Chambers JP, Waterman-Pearson AE, Kestin SC. Self-Selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens.Vet.Rec. 2000; 246(11):301-311.
  • Dawkins MS. Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare 2004; 13:S3-7.
  • Dobson H, Smith RF. What is stress and how does it affect reproduction?. J.Reprod.Fert.Animal Reproduction Science. 2000;60-61:743-752.
  • Duncan IJH. Poultry welfare: Science or subjectivity?.Br.Poult.Sci. 2002; 43(5):643-652.
  • Duncan IJH. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: farm animals. Rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz. 2005; 24(2):483-492.
  • Duncan JJH, Dawkins MS. The Problem of Assessing “Well-Being” and “Suffering” in Farm Animals. In: Indicators Relevant to Farm Animal Welfare. Springer Netherlands, 1983. p. 13-24.
  • Duncan IJH, Kite VG. Some investigations into motivation in the domestic fowl.Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1987; 18(3-4), 387-388.
  • EFSA. Guidance on Risk Assesment for Animal Welfare. EFSA Pannel on Animal Health and Welfare. EFSA Journal 2012; 10(1):2513.
  • Estevez I, Keeling LJ, Newberry RC. Decreasing aggression with increasing group size in young domestic fowl. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2003; 84:213-218.
  • Etim NN, Offiong EEA, Eyoh GD, Udo M.D. Stress and animal welfare and uneasy relationship. European Journal of Advanced Research in Biological and Life Sciences. 2013a;1(1):9-16.
  • Etim N N, Evans EI, Offiong EEA, Akpabio U(Forthcoming). Endocrine system: indicators of stress and a means of evaluating animal welfare. European International Journal of Science Technology 2013b; 2(9):141-148.
  • Etim NN, Williams ME, Evans EI, Offiong EEA. Physiological and behavioural responses of farm animals to stress: ımplications for animal productivity. American Journal of Advanced Agricultural Research 2013c; 1(2): 53-61.
  • Forkman B, Boissy A, Meunier-Salaün MC, Canali E, Jones RB. A Critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Physiology and Behaviour 2007; 92:340-374.
  • Fraser D. Assesssing animal welfare at the farm and group level: The interplay of science and values. Animal Welfare 2003; 12 :433-443.
  • Fraser D. Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Contect. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2008.
  • Fraser AE, Broom DM. Farm Animal Behaviour and Welfare. 3rd Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London 1990.
  • Fraser D, Duncan IJH. Pleasures, pains and animal welfare: toward a natural history of affect. Animal Welfare 1998; 7(4): 383-396.
  • Fraser D, Nicol CD. Preference and motivation research. In: Appleby MC, Mench JA, Olsson IAS, Hughes BO (eds). Animal Welfare,. CAB International, Oxon, UK, 2011; pp:183-99
  • Fregonesi JA, Leaver JD. Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livest. Prod. Sci. 2001; 68: 205-216.
  • Friend T, Knabe D, Tanksley T. Behavior and performance of pigs grouped by three different methods at weaning. Journal of Animal Science 1983; 57: 1406–1411.
  • Gottarda F, Brscic M, Contiero B, Cozzi G, Righette I. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in ıntensive beef cattle farms. Ital.J.Anim.Sci.2009; 8(1):325-342.
  • Grandin T. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. Journal of An,mal Science, 1997; 1(15):249-257.
  • Green TC, Mellor DJ. Extending ıdeas about animal welfare assessment to include „quality of life‟ and related concepts. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2011;59:263–71.
  • Hemsworth PH, Coleman GJ. Human-Livestock Interactions: The Stockperson and the Productivity and Welfare of Farmed Animals. 2nd Edtn. CAB International, Oxon, United Kingdom, 2011.
  • Hemsworth PH, Mellor DJ, Cronin GM, Tilbrook AJ. Scientific assessment of animal welfare. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015; 63(1):24-30.
  • Hudges BO, Black AJ. The preference of domestic hens for different types of battery cage floor. Br.Poult.Sci. 1973; 14(6): 615-619.
  • Hurnik JE, Lehman H. Ethics and farm animal welfare. J.agric.Ethics 1998; 1(4):305-318.
  • Kaltas GA, Chrousos GP. The Neuroendocrinology of Stress. In:Cacioppo TJ, Tassinary LG, Berntson GG (eds).Handbook of Psychophysiology, 2007;Cambridge University,Cambridge, UK. Pp.303-318.
  • Kılıç İ, Bozkurt Z. The relationship between farmers‟ perceptions and animal welfare standards in sheep farms. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2013; 26(9):1329-1313.
  • Kılıç, İ, Bozkurt Z, Tekerli M, Koçak S, Çelikeloglu K. Afyonkarahisar ili koyunculuk işletmeleri çalışanlarının hayvan refahını etkileyen faktörlerle ilgili algıları. Lalahan Hay. Arast. Enst. Derg. 2013; 53 (1):29-38.
  • Lazarus RS. From physiological stress to the emotion: A history of changing outlooks. Annu. Rev. in Psychiatric,1993; 44:1-2.
  • Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984 (In: Duncan IJH. Science-Based Assessment of Animal Welfare:Farm Animals. Rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz.2005; 24(2):483-492.
  • Leeson S, Diaz G, Summers JD. Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins. University Books, Guelph, 1995.
  • Mellor DJ. Enhancing animal welfare by sreating opportunities for possitive affective engagement. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015a; 63:3-8
  • Mellor DJ. Positive welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015b; 63:9-16.
  • Mellor DJ. Positive animal welfare states and reference standarts for welfare assessment. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015c; 63:17-23.
  • Mellor DJ, Patterson-Kane E, Stafford KJ. The Sicence of Animal Welfare. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2009.
  • Mench JA, Falcone C. Welfare concerns in feed- restricted meat-type poultry parent stocks. Proc. 21st World‟s Poultry Congress, 20th-24th August, 2000; Montreal, Paper S3.3.03.
  • World‟s Poultry Science Association. Mendl M, Burman OHP, Parker RMA, Paul ES. Cognitive Bias as an ındicator of animal emotion and welfare: emerging evidence and underlying mechanisms.Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2009; 118(3–4):161–181.
  • Moberg GP. Biological response to stress: Implications for animal welfare.In Moberg GP, Mench GA (eds).The Biology of Animal Stess; Basic Principles and Applications for Animal Welfare, CABI publishing Wallinford, EK, 2000, pp:1-21.
  • Mormede P. Stress and welfare: A psychoendocrine perspective. Neurogenetique et Stress. 2000 Insermnra. Naturanimal. Stress and animals.2012; Available at: www.naturanimals.com/stress-and- animals.
  • Panksepp J. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.Consciousness and Cognition. 2005;14: 30–80.
  • Perkins J, Bartlett H, Travers C, Rand J. Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: A review. Australas. J. Ageing 2008; 27, 177–182.
  • Pettit-Riley R, Estevez I, Russek-Cohen, E. Effects of crowding and access to perches on aggressive behaviour in broiler. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2002; 79:11-25.
  • Ralph, CR, Tilbrook AJ. Invited review: The usefulness of measuring glucocorticoids for assessing animal welfare.Journal of animal science 2016; 94 (2): 457-470.
  • Renema RA, Robinson FE. Defining normal: Comparison of feed restriction and full feeding of female broiler breeders. World‟s Poult. Sci. J. 2004;60(4), 508-522.
  • Rushen J. Problems asseciated with the interpretation of physiology data in the assessment of animal welfare. Appl.Anim.Behav.Sci.1986; 28(4):381-386.
  • Sejian V, Lakritz J, Ezeji, T, Lal, R. Assessment methods and indicators of aniaml welfare. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2011; 6(4):301-315.
  • Shutt, DA, Fell LR, Correll R, Bell AK, Wallace CA, Smith AI. Stress induced changes in plasma concentrations of immunoreactive B-endorphine and cortisol in response to routine surgical procedures in lambs.Autralian Journal of Biological Science, 1987; 40:97-103.
  • Smith RF, Dobson H. Hormonal interactions within the hypothalamus and pituitary with respect to stress and reproduction in sheep. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2002; 23(1-2):75-85.
  • Sutherland MA, Mellor DJ, Stafford KJ, Gregory NG, Bruce RA, Ward RN, Todd SE. Acute cortisol response of lambto ring catration and docking after the injection of lignocaine into the scrotal neckor testes at the time of ring application. Aust.Vet.J. 1999; 77(11):738-741.
  • Turner AI, Keating C, Tilbrook AJ. Sex differences and the role of sex steroids in sympatho-adrenal medullary system the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis responses to stress. In:S. M. Kahn, editor, Sex steroids. Tech Publishing, Rijeka, Croatia.2012; p. 115–136.
  • WelfareQuality®. WelfareQuality Assessment Protocols (for Cattle, Calf, Poultry and Pig). WelfareQuality® Consortium: Lelystad, the Netherlands, 2009.
  • Wemelsfelder F, Mullan S.Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 2014, 33 (1):111-120.
  • Whitten PL, Brockman DK, Stavisky RC. Recent advances in non-invasive techniques to monitör hormone-behavior ınteractions. Yearbook phys. Anthropol., 1998; 41(1), 1-23.

Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment

Yıl 2016, Cilt 9, Sayı 3, 236 - 246, 01.09.2016

Öz

Consumer demands, national legislation and international food quality standarts shape the quality of the product in the market. In the global livestock production techniques, animal welfare which can be defined as the revision that was shaped based on the food and environmental protection principles, is one of the important factors defining product quality for food of animal origin. On- farm assessment of animal welfare has a key importance in order to sustain of the welfare quality standards. There are three different theoretical framework for assessing animal welfare in a scientific manner known as biological mechanism, the emotional state and natural behaviour. In this review, some welfare assessment methods and welfare assessment protocols were discussed which have been developed using animal welfare indicators.

Kaynakça

  • Amlaner CJ, MacDonald DW (eds). A handbook on Biotelemetry and Radio Tracking. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980.
  • Anonim. AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep. Milan, Italy. 2015.
  • Barnett JL, Hemsworth PH. Welfare monitoring schemes: using research to safeguard the welfare of animals on the farm. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2009; 12: 114–31.
  • Bizeray D, Estevez I, Leterriera C, Faurea JM. Effects of increasing environmental complexity on the physical activity of broiler chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2002; 79(1):27-41.
  • Blokhuis HJ, Jones RB, Geers R, Miele M, Veissier I. Measuring and monitoring animal welfare: transparency in the food product quality chain. Animal Welfare 2003; 12 (4): 445-455.
  • Boissy A, Manteuffe G, Jensen MB, Moe RO, Spruijt B, Keeling LJ, Winckler C, Frokman B, Dimitrov I, Langbein J., Bakken M, Veissier I, Aubert A. Assessment of positive emotions in animals to ımprove their welfare. Physiology and Behaviour 2007; 92: 375-97.
  • Bozkurt Z, Bülbül T, Bozkurt MF, Bülbül A, Maralcan G, Çelikeloğlu K. Sıklığa maruz bırakılmış broilerlerde rasyona organik ve inorganik manganez ilavesinin kemik özellikleri, aşılara karsı immun yanıt ve oksidatif stres durumuna etkileri. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi 2015; 21: 623-630.
  • Bracke MBM, Hopster H. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2006; 19 (1): 77.
  • Broom DM. Indicators of poor welfare. British Veterinary Journal 1986; 142:524-526.
  • Broom D, Johnson K. Stress andAanimal Welfare. Charpmanand Hall, London, 1993.
  • Bryant MJ. The social environment: behaviour and stress in housed livestock. Vet.Rec. 1972; 90 (22):351-359.
  • Curtis SE. Animal well-being and animal care. Vet. Clin. N. Anim.(Food Anim. Pract.)1987; 3(2):369-382.
  • Danbury TC, Weeks CA, Chambers JP, Waterman-Pearson AE, Kestin SC. Self-Selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens.Vet.Rec. 2000; 246(11):301-311.
  • Dawkins MS. Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare 2004; 13:S3-7.
  • Dobson H, Smith RF. What is stress and how does it affect reproduction?. J.Reprod.Fert.Animal Reproduction Science. 2000;60-61:743-752.
  • Duncan IJH. Poultry welfare: Science or subjectivity?.Br.Poult.Sci. 2002; 43(5):643-652.
  • Duncan IJH. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: farm animals. Rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz. 2005; 24(2):483-492.
  • Duncan JJH, Dawkins MS. The Problem of Assessing “Well-Being” and “Suffering” in Farm Animals. In: Indicators Relevant to Farm Animal Welfare. Springer Netherlands, 1983. p. 13-24.
  • Duncan IJH, Kite VG. Some investigations into motivation in the domestic fowl.Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1987; 18(3-4), 387-388.
  • EFSA. Guidance on Risk Assesment for Animal Welfare. EFSA Pannel on Animal Health and Welfare. EFSA Journal 2012; 10(1):2513.
  • Estevez I, Keeling LJ, Newberry RC. Decreasing aggression with increasing group size in young domestic fowl. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2003; 84:213-218.
  • Etim NN, Offiong EEA, Eyoh GD, Udo M.D. Stress and animal welfare and uneasy relationship. European Journal of Advanced Research in Biological and Life Sciences. 2013a;1(1):9-16.
  • Etim N N, Evans EI, Offiong EEA, Akpabio U(Forthcoming). Endocrine system: indicators of stress and a means of evaluating animal welfare. European International Journal of Science Technology 2013b; 2(9):141-148.
  • Etim NN, Williams ME, Evans EI, Offiong EEA. Physiological and behavioural responses of farm animals to stress: ımplications for animal productivity. American Journal of Advanced Agricultural Research 2013c; 1(2): 53-61.
  • Forkman B, Boissy A, Meunier-Salaün MC, Canali E, Jones RB. A Critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Physiology and Behaviour 2007; 92:340-374.
  • Fraser D. Assesssing animal welfare at the farm and group level: The interplay of science and values. Animal Welfare 2003; 12 :433-443.
  • Fraser D. Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Contect. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2008.
  • Fraser AE, Broom DM. Farm Animal Behaviour and Welfare. 3rd Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London 1990.
  • Fraser D, Duncan IJH. Pleasures, pains and animal welfare: toward a natural history of affect. Animal Welfare 1998; 7(4): 383-396.
  • Fraser D, Nicol CD. Preference and motivation research. In: Appleby MC, Mench JA, Olsson IAS, Hughes BO (eds). Animal Welfare,. CAB International, Oxon, UK, 2011; pp:183-99
  • Fregonesi JA, Leaver JD. Behaviour, performance and health indicators of welfare for dairy cows housed in strawyard or cubicle systems. Livest. Prod. Sci. 2001; 68: 205-216.
  • Friend T, Knabe D, Tanksley T. Behavior and performance of pigs grouped by three different methods at weaning. Journal of Animal Science 1983; 57: 1406–1411.
  • Gottarda F, Brscic M, Contiero B, Cozzi G, Righette I. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in ıntensive beef cattle farms. Ital.J.Anim.Sci.2009; 8(1):325-342.
  • Grandin T. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. Journal of An,mal Science, 1997; 1(15):249-257.
  • Green TC, Mellor DJ. Extending ıdeas about animal welfare assessment to include „quality of life‟ and related concepts. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2011;59:263–71.
  • Hemsworth PH, Coleman GJ. Human-Livestock Interactions: The Stockperson and the Productivity and Welfare of Farmed Animals. 2nd Edtn. CAB International, Oxon, United Kingdom, 2011.
  • Hemsworth PH, Mellor DJ, Cronin GM, Tilbrook AJ. Scientific assessment of animal welfare. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015; 63(1):24-30.
  • Hudges BO, Black AJ. The preference of domestic hens for different types of battery cage floor. Br.Poult.Sci. 1973; 14(6): 615-619.
  • Hurnik JE, Lehman H. Ethics and farm animal welfare. J.agric.Ethics 1998; 1(4):305-318.
  • Kaltas GA, Chrousos GP. The Neuroendocrinology of Stress. In:Cacioppo TJ, Tassinary LG, Berntson GG (eds).Handbook of Psychophysiology, 2007;Cambridge University,Cambridge, UK. Pp.303-318.
  • Kılıç İ, Bozkurt Z. The relationship between farmers‟ perceptions and animal welfare standards in sheep farms. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2013; 26(9):1329-1313.
  • Kılıç, İ, Bozkurt Z, Tekerli M, Koçak S, Çelikeloglu K. Afyonkarahisar ili koyunculuk işletmeleri çalışanlarının hayvan refahını etkileyen faktörlerle ilgili algıları. Lalahan Hay. Arast. Enst. Derg. 2013; 53 (1):29-38.
  • Lazarus RS. From physiological stress to the emotion: A history of changing outlooks. Annu. Rev. in Psychiatric,1993; 44:1-2.
  • Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984 (In: Duncan IJH. Science-Based Assessment of Animal Welfare:Farm Animals. Rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz.2005; 24(2):483-492.
  • Leeson S, Diaz G, Summers JD. Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins. University Books, Guelph, 1995.
  • Mellor DJ. Enhancing animal welfare by sreating opportunities for possitive affective engagement. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015a; 63:3-8
  • Mellor DJ. Positive welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015b; 63:9-16.
  • Mellor DJ. Positive animal welfare states and reference standarts for welfare assessment. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015c; 63:17-23.
  • Mellor DJ, Patterson-Kane E, Stafford KJ. The Sicence of Animal Welfare. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2009.
  • Mench JA, Falcone C. Welfare concerns in feed- restricted meat-type poultry parent stocks. Proc. 21st World‟s Poultry Congress, 20th-24th August, 2000; Montreal, Paper S3.3.03.
  • World‟s Poultry Science Association. Mendl M, Burman OHP, Parker RMA, Paul ES. Cognitive Bias as an ındicator of animal emotion and welfare: emerging evidence and underlying mechanisms.Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2009; 118(3–4):161–181.
  • Moberg GP. Biological response to stress: Implications for animal welfare.In Moberg GP, Mench GA (eds).The Biology of Animal Stess; Basic Principles and Applications for Animal Welfare, CABI publishing Wallinford, EK, 2000, pp:1-21.
  • Mormede P. Stress and welfare: A psychoendocrine perspective. Neurogenetique et Stress. 2000 Insermnra. Naturanimal. Stress and animals.2012; Available at: www.naturanimals.com/stress-and- animals.
  • Panksepp J. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.Consciousness and Cognition. 2005;14: 30–80.
  • Perkins J, Bartlett H, Travers C, Rand J. Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: A review. Australas. J. Ageing 2008; 27, 177–182.
  • Pettit-Riley R, Estevez I, Russek-Cohen, E. Effects of crowding and access to perches on aggressive behaviour in broiler. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2002; 79:11-25.
  • Ralph, CR, Tilbrook AJ. Invited review: The usefulness of measuring glucocorticoids for assessing animal welfare.Journal of animal science 2016; 94 (2): 457-470.
  • Renema RA, Robinson FE. Defining normal: Comparison of feed restriction and full feeding of female broiler breeders. World‟s Poult. Sci. J. 2004;60(4), 508-522.
  • Rushen J. Problems asseciated with the interpretation of physiology data in the assessment of animal welfare. Appl.Anim.Behav.Sci.1986; 28(4):381-386.
  • Sejian V, Lakritz J, Ezeji, T, Lal, R. Assessment methods and indicators of aniaml welfare. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2011; 6(4):301-315.
  • Shutt, DA, Fell LR, Correll R, Bell AK, Wallace CA, Smith AI. Stress induced changes in plasma concentrations of immunoreactive B-endorphine and cortisol in response to routine surgical procedures in lambs.Autralian Journal of Biological Science, 1987; 40:97-103.
  • Smith RF, Dobson H. Hormonal interactions within the hypothalamus and pituitary with respect to stress and reproduction in sheep. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2002; 23(1-2):75-85.
  • Sutherland MA, Mellor DJ, Stafford KJ, Gregory NG, Bruce RA, Ward RN, Todd SE. Acute cortisol response of lambto ring catration and docking after the injection of lignocaine into the scrotal neckor testes at the time of ring application. Aust.Vet.J. 1999; 77(11):738-741.
  • Turner AI, Keating C, Tilbrook AJ. Sex differences and the role of sex steroids in sympatho-adrenal medullary system the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis responses to stress. In:S. M. Kahn, editor, Sex steroids. Tech Publishing, Rijeka, Croatia.2012; p. 115–136.
  • WelfareQuality®. WelfareQuality Assessment Protocols (for Cattle, Calf, Poultry and Pig). WelfareQuality® Consortium: Lelystad, the Netherlands, 2009.
  • Wemelsfelder F, Mullan S.Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 2014, 33 (1):111-120.
  • Whitten PL, Brockman DK, Stavisky RC. Recent advances in non-invasive techniques to monitör hormone-behavior ınteractions. Yearbook phys. Anthropol., 1998; 41(1), 1-23.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm DERLEME
Yazarlar

Zehra BOZKURT (Sorumlu Yazar)

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Eylül 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 9, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { kvj370404, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2016}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {236 - 246}, title = {Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment}, key = {cite}, author = {Bozkurt, Zehra} }
APA Bozkurt, Z. (2016). Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 9 (3) , 236-246 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/32994/370404
MLA Bozkurt, Z. "Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 (2016 ): 236-246 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/32994/370404>
Chicago Bozkurt, Z. "Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 (2016 ): 236-246
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment AU - Zehra Bozkurt Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - DO - T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 236 EP - 246 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment %A Zehra Bozkurt %T Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment %D 2016 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 9 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Bozkurt, Zehra . "Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 / 3 (Eylül 2016): 236-246 .
AMA Bozkurt Z. Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2016; 9(3): 236-246.
Vancouver Bozkurt Z. Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2016; 9(3): 236-246.
IEEE Z. Bozkurt , "Scientific Approaches For On-Farm Animal Welfare Assessment", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, c. 9, sayı. 3, ss. 236-246, Eyl. 2016

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