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Kayaağıl (Uşak) Termal Sularının Hidrojeoloji ve Hidrojeokimyasal İncelemesi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 1 - 13, 05.01.2018
https://doi.org/10.29048/makufebed.338361

Öz

Bu çalışmada Uşak İlinde bulunan Kayaağıl ve Karaağaç köyleri çevresinin hidrojeolojisi ve bölgede yer alan sıcak - soğuk suların hidrojeokimyasal özellikleri incelenmiştir. İnceleme alanının temelinde yer alan Paleozoyik yaşlı Eşme formasyonunu oluşturan şistler ve şistler içerisindeki mermer bantları hidrotermal sistemin ana hazne kayacını, Tersiyer ve Kuvaterner yaşlı birimlerin geçirimsiz seviyeleri örtü kayacı, faylanma ile gelişen kırık hatları ise akışkanları yüzeye taşıyan akım yollarını oluşturmaktadır. Bölgede derinlere süzülen yeraltısuları, jeotermik gradyana bağlı olarak ısınmaktadır. İnceleme alanında termal suların Na-HCO3 , soğuk suların Ca-Mg-HCO3, karışım sularının ise Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3'lı sular fasiyesinde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Termal sularda Na artışı suların sıcaklığı ve kaya-su etkileşim sürecine bağlıdır. Kayaağıl termal suyu albit, analsim, aragonit, kalsit, barit, kalsedon, kristobalit, dolomit, florit, jipsit, kuvars ve sanidin minerallerine doygundur. Termal suların silis jeotermometrelerine göre hesaplanan hazne kaya sıcaklıkları 102-147 0C arasındadır. Ayrıca, yeraltısularının Al, As, B, Fe, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni ve Pb gibi ağır metal içerikleri incelenmiştir. Termal ve karışım sularında As artışı suyun sıcaklığı ile doğru orantılıdır. Soğuk sulardaki As artışının kaynak sularının etkileşim halinde bulunduğu volkanik kayaçlar ile ilişkili olarak kaya-su etkileşiminde kaynaklandığı düşünülmektedir. Sularda tespit edilen ekstrem Al ve Mn değerleri antropojenik kökenli faaliyetlerden kaynaklanmaktadır. 

Kaynakça

  • Akgöz, R. (2011). Uşak-Merkez-Kayaağıl Köyü-Kurşuntaşı Mevkii, 2011/64-02 Numaralı Arama Ruhsatı İşletme Projesi, Uşak Belediyesi (yayınlanmamış)
  • Arnorsson, S., Gunnlaugsson, E., and Svavarsson, H. (1983a). The Chemistry of Geothermal Waters in Iceland-II. Mineral Equlibria and Independent Variables Controlling Water Compositions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 547–566.
  • Arnorsson, S., Gunnlaugsson, E., Svavarsson, H. (1983b). The Chemistry of Geothermal Waters in Iceland III. Chemical Geothermometry in Geothermal Investigations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46, 1513–1532.
  • Davraz, A. (2008). Hydrogeochemical and Hydrogeological Investigations of Thermal Waters in the Usak Area (Turkey). Environ Geol, 54:615–628.
  • Ercan, T., Dinçel, A., Metin, S., Türkecan, A., Günay, E. (1978). Geology of the Neogene Basins in Uşak Region. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey, 21: 97-106 (in Turkish)
  • Fournier, R.O. (1977). A Review of Chemical and Isotopic Geothermometers for Geothermal Systems. In: Proceedings of the Sym. On Geoth. Energy, Cento Scientific Programme, Ankara, 133-143.
  • Fournier, R.O. (1979). A Revised Equation for the Na-K Geothermometer. Geothermal Res. Council Trans., 3: 221-224.
  • Gibbs, R.J. (1973). Mechanisms to Trace Metal Transport in Rivers. Science, 180:71-173.
  • Giggenbach, W.F., Gonfiantini, R., Jangi, B.L., Truesdell, A.H. (1983). Isotopic and Chemical Composition of Parbati Valley Geothermal Discharges, NW Himalaya, Indiana. Geothermics, 5: 51-62.
  • Giggenbach, W. F. (1988). Geothermal Solute Equilibria: Derivation of Na-K-Mg-Ca Geoindicators, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 2749-2765.
  • Giggenbach, W.F., Corrales, R.S. (1992). The Isotopic and Chemical Composition of Waters and Steam Discharges from Volcanic-Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems of the Guanacoste Geothermal Province, Costa Rica. Applied Geochemistry, 7: 309-332.
  • Gökgöz, A., Özkul, M., Kaya, A., Hançer, M., Baykara, O., Örü, Z., Akın, T., Minissale, A. Vaselli, O. (2011). Farklı Rezervuarlara Sahip Uşak İli Jeotermal Alanlarının Kavramsal Hidrojeokimyasal Modellenmesi, 108Y016 nolu TÜBITAK Projesi raporu
  • İça, M. (1979). Geology and Hydrogeology Investigations of Uşak-Eşme-Örencik spa. J Geol Eng Ankara, 37–46.
  • Kharaka, Y.K., Gunter, W.D., Affarwall, P.K., Perkins, E.H., De Braall, J.D. (1988). SOLMINEQ (a computer program code for geochemical modelling of water-rock interactions). In: US Geological Survey Water Investigations, Report 88-4227
  • Makris, J. (1985). Geophysical and Geodynamic Implications for the Evolution of the Hellenides. In: Stanley DI, Wezel FC (eds) Geological Evolution of the Mediterranean Basin. Springer, New York, pp 23–269.
  • Mc Kenzie, D.P. (1978). Active Tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan belt: the Aegean and the Surrounding Regions. Geophys J R Astron Soc 55:217–254
  • MTA (1980). 1:50.000 Ölçekli Jeoloji Haritası Serisi, Uşak-K22-c (Derleyenler: Tuncay Ercan ve Ali Dinçel)
  • Mutlu, H., Guleç, N. (1998). Hydrogeochemical Outline of Thermal Waters and Geothermometry Applications in Anatolia (Turkey). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 85:495–515.
  • Nieva, D., Nieva, R. (1987). Developments in Geothermal Energy in Mexico, Part 12- Acationic Composition Geothermometer for Prospecting Geothermal Resources. Heat Recovery Systems, 7:243-258
  • Piper, A.M. (1944). A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analyses. Transactions - American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-928.
  • Tezcan, A.K. (1979). Geothermal Studies, Their Present Status and Contribution to Heat Flow Contouring in Turkey. In: Cermac V, Rybach L (eds) Terrestrial Heat Flow in Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 283–292.
  • Truesdell, A.H. (1976). Summary of Section III Geochemical Techniques in Explanation. In: Proceedings, Second United Nations Symposium on the Development and Use of Geothermal
  • Resources. San Francisco, V.1, Washington DC, US Government Printing Office
  • TSE (2005). İnsani Tüketim Amaçlı Sular. Türk İçme Suyu Standartları TS 266 Sayılı Standart -Türk Standartları Enstitüsü –Ankara.
  • WHO (2011). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th edn. World Health Organization, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data, ISBN 9789241548151

Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Kayaağıl (Uşak) Thermal Waters

Yıl 2018, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 1 - 13, 05.01.2018
https://doi.org/10.29048/makufebed.338361

Öz

In this study, hydrogeology of Kayaağıl and Karaağaç villages in Uşak province and hydrogeochemical properties of thermal and cold waters were investigated. The Paleozoic aged Eşme formation which are formed from schists and marble bands is the main reservoir rocks of the hydrothermal system, the impermeable levels of the Tertiary and Quaternary units constitute the cover rocks and the fracture lines developed by the faulting are the flow paths carrying the fluids to the surface. Groundwater infiltrating to deep in the region heat due to the geothermal gradient. In the study area, it was determined that the thermal waters are Na-HCO3, the cold waters Ca-Mg-HCO3 and the mixed waters are Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3 waters. The increase of Na in the thermal waters depends on the water temperature and the rock-water interaction process. Kayaağıl thermal water is saturated with albite, analsim, aragonite, calcite, barite, calcite, cristobalite, dolomite, fluorite, gypsum, quartz and sanidine minerals. The reservoir temperatures of the thermal waters are calculated as 102-1470C according to the silica geothermometers. In addition, trace metal contents of groundwater such as Al, As, B, Fe, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb were also researched. The increase of As in the thermal and mixture waters is directly proportional to the water temperature. The increase of As in the cold waters originated from water-rock interaction. The high Al and Mn values of water are due to the anthropogenic activities. 

Kaynakça

  • Akgöz, R. (2011). Uşak-Merkez-Kayaağıl Köyü-Kurşuntaşı Mevkii, 2011/64-02 Numaralı Arama Ruhsatı İşletme Projesi, Uşak Belediyesi (yayınlanmamış)
  • Arnorsson, S., Gunnlaugsson, E., and Svavarsson, H. (1983a). The Chemistry of Geothermal Waters in Iceland-II. Mineral Equlibria and Independent Variables Controlling Water Compositions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 547–566.
  • Arnorsson, S., Gunnlaugsson, E., Svavarsson, H. (1983b). The Chemistry of Geothermal Waters in Iceland III. Chemical Geothermometry in Geothermal Investigations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46, 1513–1532.
  • Davraz, A. (2008). Hydrogeochemical and Hydrogeological Investigations of Thermal Waters in the Usak Area (Turkey). Environ Geol, 54:615–628.
  • Ercan, T., Dinçel, A., Metin, S., Türkecan, A., Günay, E. (1978). Geology of the Neogene Basins in Uşak Region. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey, 21: 97-106 (in Turkish)
  • Fournier, R.O. (1977). A Review of Chemical and Isotopic Geothermometers for Geothermal Systems. In: Proceedings of the Sym. On Geoth. Energy, Cento Scientific Programme, Ankara, 133-143.
  • Fournier, R.O. (1979). A Revised Equation for the Na-K Geothermometer. Geothermal Res. Council Trans., 3: 221-224.
  • Gibbs, R.J. (1973). Mechanisms to Trace Metal Transport in Rivers. Science, 180:71-173.
  • Giggenbach, W.F., Gonfiantini, R., Jangi, B.L., Truesdell, A.H. (1983). Isotopic and Chemical Composition of Parbati Valley Geothermal Discharges, NW Himalaya, Indiana. Geothermics, 5: 51-62.
  • Giggenbach, W. F. (1988). Geothermal Solute Equilibria: Derivation of Na-K-Mg-Ca Geoindicators, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 2749-2765.
  • Giggenbach, W.F., Corrales, R.S. (1992). The Isotopic and Chemical Composition of Waters and Steam Discharges from Volcanic-Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems of the Guanacoste Geothermal Province, Costa Rica. Applied Geochemistry, 7: 309-332.
  • Gökgöz, A., Özkul, M., Kaya, A., Hançer, M., Baykara, O., Örü, Z., Akın, T., Minissale, A. Vaselli, O. (2011). Farklı Rezervuarlara Sahip Uşak İli Jeotermal Alanlarının Kavramsal Hidrojeokimyasal Modellenmesi, 108Y016 nolu TÜBITAK Projesi raporu
  • İça, M. (1979). Geology and Hydrogeology Investigations of Uşak-Eşme-Örencik spa. J Geol Eng Ankara, 37–46.
  • Kharaka, Y.K., Gunter, W.D., Affarwall, P.K., Perkins, E.H., De Braall, J.D. (1988). SOLMINEQ (a computer program code for geochemical modelling of water-rock interactions). In: US Geological Survey Water Investigations, Report 88-4227
  • Makris, J. (1985). Geophysical and Geodynamic Implications for the Evolution of the Hellenides. In: Stanley DI, Wezel FC (eds) Geological Evolution of the Mediterranean Basin. Springer, New York, pp 23–269.
  • Mc Kenzie, D.P. (1978). Active Tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan belt: the Aegean and the Surrounding Regions. Geophys J R Astron Soc 55:217–254
  • MTA (1980). 1:50.000 Ölçekli Jeoloji Haritası Serisi, Uşak-K22-c (Derleyenler: Tuncay Ercan ve Ali Dinçel)
  • Mutlu, H., Guleç, N. (1998). Hydrogeochemical Outline of Thermal Waters and Geothermometry Applications in Anatolia (Turkey). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 85:495–515.
  • Nieva, D., Nieva, R. (1987). Developments in Geothermal Energy in Mexico, Part 12- Acationic Composition Geothermometer for Prospecting Geothermal Resources. Heat Recovery Systems, 7:243-258
  • Piper, A.M. (1944). A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analyses. Transactions - American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-928.
  • Tezcan, A.K. (1979). Geothermal Studies, Their Present Status and Contribution to Heat Flow Contouring in Turkey. In: Cermac V, Rybach L (eds) Terrestrial Heat Flow in Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 283–292.
  • Truesdell, A.H. (1976). Summary of Section III Geochemical Techniques in Explanation. In: Proceedings, Second United Nations Symposium on the Development and Use of Geothermal
  • Resources. San Francisco, V.1, Washington DC, US Government Printing Office
  • TSE (2005). İnsani Tüketim Amaçlı Sular. Türk İçme Suyu Standartları TS 266 Sayılı Standart -Türk Standartları Enstitüsü –Ankara.
  • WHO (2011). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th edn. World Health Organization, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data, ISBN 9789241548151

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Ayşen DAVRAZ>
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2442-103X
Türkiye


Hayriye YURT Bu kişi benim

Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 5 Ocak 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 9, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Davraz, A. & Yurt, H. (2018). Kayaağıl (Uşak) Termal Sularının Hidrojeoloji ve Hidrojeokimyasal İncelemesi . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 9 (1) , 1-13 . DOI: 10.29048/makufebed.338361

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