Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Why don’t the pandemic-fighting capitalist states fight ecological crisis in the same way? A political-ecological approach to the pandemic

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 22 - 44, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.913427

Öz

The apparent lack of effectiveness in contemporary states’ fight against coronavirus show their unpreparedness to the impending ecological crisis. The states failed to set up containment mechanisms against the rapid dissemination of coronavirus and were unable to prevent the virus’ mortal impacts for more than a year. Somehow, capitalist states implement certain policies to struggle against coronavirus thereby extending their ordinary limits of capitalist logic during the process. It has been demonstrated that the capitalist states do not act against ecological crises in the same way that they fight against coronavirus. Under the conditions of ecological crises, providing that capitalism, state, human, and nature build an intricate interrelationship; characteristics and reasons became a remarkable issue. Thus, this article puts forward three arguments in order to come up with possible answers to this question. First, the coronavirus crisis is not only a health crisis, but also an ecological one and it is a states’ political choice to separate these two crises. Secondly, the health crisis concept led states to consolidate their political capacities through discourses used as a political instrument. Finally, when the political choice of the state is to control Coronavirus, it contributes to the state’s and capitalist system’s persistence by favouring social class alliances. But solving ecological problems poses a greater challenge to capitalism.

Kaynakça

  • Almond, R. E. A., Grooten, M., ve Petersen, T. (2020). Living Planet Report 2020—Bending the Curve of Biodiversity Loss. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.
  • Althusser, L. (1976). Positions (1964-1975). Paris: Editions Sociales.
  • Balta, E., ve Özel, S. (2020). La bataille des chiffres : un faible taux de mortalité en Turquie. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from Institut Montaigne website: https://www.institutmontaigne.org/blog/la-bataille-des-chiffres-un-faible-taux-de-mortalite-en-turquie
  • Başkaya, F. (2017). Başka Bir Uygarlık İçin Manifesto Nasıl Üretmeli Nasıl Tüketmeli Nasıl Yaşamalı. İstanbul: Yordam.
  • BBC. (2020a). Biden Thanksgiving speech: We’re at war with the virus, not each other. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-55078066
  • BBC. (2020b). Coronavirus: Trump grilled on use of term “Chinese virus.” Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-51953315
  • BBC. (2020c). Coronavirus: “We must act like any wartime government.” Retrieved February 2, 2021, from bbc.com/news/av/uk-51936760
  • BBC. (2020d). Extreme poverty set for first rise since 1998, World Bank warns. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-54448589
  • Bennett, M. (1999). Zoonoses. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 53, 514–515.
  • Bouckaert, G., Galli, D., Kuhlmann, S., Reiter, R., ve Van Hecke, S. (2020). European Coronationalism? A Hot Spot Governing a Pandemic Crisis. Public Administration Review, 80(5), 765–773.
  • Burkett, P. (2006). Marxism and Ecological Economics Toward a Red and Green Political Economy. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047408567
  • Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2021). COVID-19 Dashboard. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from Johns Hopkins University website: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
  • Condon, R. (2020). The coronavirus crisis and the legitimation crisis of neoliberalism. European Societies 23(özel sayı 1), S805-S816. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2020.1839669
  • Cooke, S. L., ve Kim, S. C. (2018). Exploring the “Evil Twin of Global Warming”: Public Understanding of Ocean Acidification in the United States. Science Communication, 41(1), 66-89. doi: 10.1177/1075547018821434
  • DW. (2020). Koronavirüs ile mücadelede ülkeler hangi önlemleri aldı? Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Deutsche Welle Tr website: https://p.dw.com/p/3ZanU
  • Eroğlu, D. (2020). Türkiye’nin iklim eylemsizliği: 30 yıllık cendere. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Teyit.org website: https://teyit.org/turkiyenin-iklim-eylemsizligi-30-yillik-cendere.
  • Everard, M., Johnston, P., Santillo, D., ve Staddon, C. (2020). The role of ecosystems in mitigation and management of Covid-19 and other zoonoses. Environmental Science & Policy, 111, 7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.05.017
  • FAO. (2020). The COVID-19 challenge: Zoonotic diseases and wildlife. Collaborative Partnership on Sustainable Wildlife Management’s four guiding principles to reduce risk from zoonotic diseases and build more collaborative approaches in human health and wildlife manag. Roma. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb1163en
  • Foster, J. B. (2020). Mutlak Kapitalizm. Monthly Review Türkçe, 9, 11–29.
  • Foster, J. B., ve Clark, B. (2020). Capitalism and the Ecological Rift The Robbery of Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Foster, J. B., Clark, B., ve York, R. (2008). Ecology: The moment of truth - An introduction. Monthly Review, 60(3). https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-060-03-2008-07_1
  • Foster, J. B., ve Suwandi, I. (2020). COVID-19 and catastrophe capitalism commodity chains and ecological-epidemiological-economic crises. Monthly Review, 72(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-072-02-2020-06_1
  • Gambetti, Z. (2020, Mayıs 19). Politics of Life vs. Politics of Death. Retrieved August 04, 2021, from Critical Times website: https://ctjournal.org/2020/05/19/politics-of-life-vs-politics-of-death/.
  • Gorz, A. (1992). L’écologie politique entre expertocratie et autolimitation. Actuel Marx, 2(12), 15–29. https://doi.org/10.3917/amx.012.0015
  • Gunn, C. (2005). Book Review: The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? Review of Radical Political Economics 37(3), 405-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0486613405279134
  • Gülalp, H. (2021). Kara Ölüm’den Covid-19’a, Kapitalizmin Yükselişi ve Çöküşü. Praksis, (55), 9-44.
  • Hartley, D. (2016). Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and the Problem of Culture. In J. W. Moore (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 154–165). Kairos.
  • Harvey, D. (2020). Covid-19 Günlerinde Anti-Kapitalist Siyaset. In E. Ünal (Ed.), Çivisi Çıkan Dünya Covid-19 Salgını Üzerine Muhasebeler (pp. 42–52). İstanbul: Runik Yayınları.
  • Keesing, F., ve Ostfeld, R. S. (2021). Impacts of biodiversity and biodiversity loss on zoonotic diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17). doi: 10.1073/pnas.2023540118
  • Kovel, J. (2007). The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? (1st ed.). Black Point: Zed Books. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350251007
  • Kuhn, T., ve Constantine, D. (2018). The Collected Poems of Bertolt Brecht. Liveright Publishing Corporation [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Lemarié, A., ve Pietralunga, C. (2020). « Nous sommes en guerre » : face au coronavirus, Emmanuel Macron sonne la « mobilisation générale ». Retrieved February 20, 2021, from Le Monde website: https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2020/03/17/nous-sommes-en-guerre-face-au-coronavirus-emmanuel-macron-sonne-la-mobilisation-generale_6033338_823448.html
  • Magdoff, F., ve Foster, J. B. (2011). What every environmentalist needs to know about capitalism: A citizen’s guide to capitalism and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press. [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Mallapaty, S. (2020). The coronavirus is most deadly if you are older and male. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Nature website: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02483-2
  • Malm, A. (2016). Fossil Capital: The rise of steam power and the roots of global warming. Londra: Verso [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Malm, A. (2020). Corona, Climate, Chronic Emergency: War Communism in the twenty-first century. Londra: Verso [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Marx, K. (1993). Le Capital: Critique de l’économie politique, cilt 1. Paris: PUF.
  • Marx, K. (2015). 1844 El Yazmaları: Ekonomi Politik ve Felsefe. Ankara: Sol Yayınları.
  • Moore, J. W. (2015). Capitalism in the Web of Life Ecology and the accumulation of capital. Londra: Verso.
  • Moore, J. W., der. (2016a). Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and the Problem of Culture. Kairos.
  • Moore, J. W. (2016b). The Rise of Cheap Nature. In J. W. Moore (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 78–116). Kairos.
  • Morand, S., ve Lajaunie, C. (2020). Outbreaks of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Are Associated With Changes in Forest Cover and Oil Palm Expansion at Global Scale. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3710299
  • National Center for Health Statistics. (2021). Deaths involving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pneumonia, and influenza reported to NCHS by sex and age group, United States, (1/1/2020-2/13/2021). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm#SexAndAge
  • Neate, R. (2020). Billionaires’ wealth rises to $10.2 trillion amid Covid crisis. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from The Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/oct/07/covid-19-crisis-boosts-the-fortunes-of-worlds-billionaires
  • O’Driscoll, M., Santos, G. R. Dos, Wang, L., Cummings, D. A. T., Azman, A. S., Paireau, J., … Salje, H. (2020). Age-specific mortality and immunity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 45 countries. MedRxiv, 2020.08.24.20180851. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.24.20180851
  • Patel, R., ve Moore, J. W. (2017). A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet. Black Inc [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Poulantzas, N. (2010). Poulantzas Kitabı Seçme Yazılar (J. Martin, Ed.). Ankara: Dipnot.
  • Rancière, J. (1997). Onze thèses sur la politique. Filozofski Vestnik, 18(2), 91–106.
  • Read, S. (2020). Billionaires see fortunes rise by 27% during the pandemic. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from BBC website: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-54446285
  • Readfearn, G. (2020). How did coronavirus start and where did it come from? Was it really Wuhan’s animal market? Retrieved February 2, 2021, from The Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/28/how-did-the-coronavirus-start-where-did-it-come-from-how-did-it-spread-humans-was-it-really-bats-pangolins-wuhan-animal-market
  • Sangomla, A. (2020). US Elections 2020 A history of Trump’s climate change denial. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Down to earth website: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/us-elections-2020-a-history-of-trump-s-climate-change-denial-74075
  • Service Public Français. (2021). Le passe sanitaire devient européen à partir du 1er juillet. Retrieved August 05, 2021, from Service Public Français website: https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/actualites/A15022.
  • Slingenbergh, J., ve FAO (Ed.). (2013). World livestock 2013: Changing disease landscapes. Rome: FAO.
  • Sputnik. (2020). Erdoğan: Görünmez düşmana karşı zor bir savaş yürütüyoruz. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/202004101041796719-erdogan-gorunmez-dusmana-karsi-zor-bir-savas-yurutuyoruz/
  • Sweezy, P. M. (2004). Capitalism and the environment. Monthly Review, 56(4). https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-056-05-2004-09_6
  • TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı. (2021). “Türkiye, son bir asrın en büyük sağlık krizi diye nitelenen salgını, dünyada en başarılı şekilde yöneten ülkelerden biri olmuştur”. Retrieved August 05, 2021, from TCCB website: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/128579/-turkiye-son-bir-asrin-en-buyuk-saglik-krizi-diye-nitelenen-salgini-dunyada-en-basarili-sekilde-yoneten-ulkelerden-biri-olmustur-
  • Toscano, A. (2021). The state of the pandemic. Historical Materialism, 28(4), 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1163/1569206X-12342804
  • United Nations Environment Programme International Livestock Research Institute (Ed.). (2020). Preventing the Next Pandemic. Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission. Nairobi. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/
  • Walker, P. G. T., Whittaker, C., Watson, O. J., Baguelin, M., Winskill, P., Hamlet, A., … Ghani, A. C. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- And middle-income countries. In Science (Vol. 369). London. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc0035
  • Wallace, D., ve Wallace, R. (2021). COVID-19 in New York City An Ecology of Race and Class Oppression. Springer. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59624-8 [Epub Formatlı Kitap]
  • Wallace, R., Liebman, A., Chaves, L. F., ve Wallace, R. (2020). COVID-19 and Circuits of Capital. Monthly Review. https://doi.org/10.14452/mr-072-01-2020-05_1
  • Yalman, G. L. (2021). Kapitalizmin Krizleri Üzerine Gözlemler. Praksis, (55), 99-108.

Kapitalist Devletler Ekolojik Krizle Neden Covid-19’la Olduğu Gibi Savaşmazlar? Pandemiye politik ekolojik bir yaklaşım

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 22 - 44, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.913427

Öz

Covid-19 virüsüyle mücadele tecrübesi, devletlerin ekolojik krize karşı savunmasız olduğunu göstermiştir. Bir seneyi aşkın süredir kontrol altına alınamayan bu salgın karşısında kapitalist devletler önlem alabilmek için geleneksel eylem repertuvarının dışına taşan bazı politikalar üretmiştir. Öte yandan kapitalist devletlerin, ekolojik kriz bağlamında değerlendirilmesi gereken Covid-19 pandemisine karşı gösterdiği tepkiyi ekolojik kriz ile ilişkilendirilen diğer gündemlerde göstermediği tespit edilebilmektedir. Karmaşık bir ilişkiler ağı ortaya koyan kapitalizm, devlet, insan ve doğa ekolojik bir perspektifle ele alındığında, pandemi ve ekolojik kriz karşısında devletlerin tercihlerinin niteliği ve nedeni dikkat çekici olmaktadır. Çalışma bu sorunu irdelemek adına politik ekoloji perspektifinden hareketle üç hipotez sunmaktadır: Birincisi, koronavirüs pandemisi bir sağlık krizi olmanın yanı sıra ekolojik krizdir, bu iki krizi ayrıştırmak politik bir tercihtir. İkincisi, kendi başına pandemi gündemi devletlere kendi otoritelerini konsolide etmek anlamında ekolojik krizden farklı olarak bir politik araçsallaştırma imkânı sunmaktadır. Üçüncüsü, Covid-19’un yayılımını engelleyip kontrol altına alma yönündeki politika değişiklikleri, çeşitli sınıfsal ittifaklar aracılığıyla kapitalist sistem ve devletin devamlılığını sağlıyorken, ekolojik kriz ile eşitlikçi bir mücadele kapitalist sisteme meydan okumayı dayatmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Almond, R. E. A., Grooten, M., ve Petersen, T. (2020). Living Planet Report 2020—Bending the Curve of Biodiversity Loss. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.
  • Althusser, L. (1976). Positions (1964-1975). Paris: Editions Sociales.
  • Balta, E., ve Özel, S. (2020). La bataille des chiffres : un faible taux de mortalité en Turquie. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from Institut Montaigne website: https://www.institutmontaigne.org/blog/la-bataille-des-chiffres-un-faible-taux-de-mortalite-en-turquie
  • Başkaya, F. (2017). Başka Bir Uygarlık İçin Manifesto Nasıl Üretmeli Nasıl Tüketmeli Nasıl Yaşamalı. İstanbul: Yordam.
  • BBC. (2020a). Biden Thanksgiving speech: We’re at war with the virus, not each other. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-55078066
  • BBC. (2020b). Coronavirus: Trump grilled on use of term “Chinese virus.” Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-51953315
  • BBC. (2020c). Coronavirus: “We must act like any wartime government.” Retrieved February 2, 2021, from bbc.com/news/av/uk-51936760
  • BBC. (2020d). Extreme poverty set for first rise since 1998, World Bank warns. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-54448589
  • Bennett, M. (1999). Zoonoses. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 53, 514–515.
  • Bouckaert, G., Galli, D., Kuhlmann, S., Reiter, R., ve Van Hecke, S. (2020). European Coronationalism? A Hot Spot Governing a Pandemic Crisis. Public Administration Review, 80(5), 765–773.
  • Burkett, P. (2006). Marxism and Ecological Economics Toward a Red and Green Political Economy. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047408567
  • Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2021). COVID-19 Dashboard. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from Johns Hopkins University website: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
  • Condon, R. (2020). The coronavirus crisis and the legitimation crisis of neoliberalism. European Societies 23(özel sayı 1), S805-S816. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2020.1839669
  • Cooke, S. L., ve Kim, S. C. (2018). Exploring the “Evil Twin of Global Warming”: Public Understanding of Ocean Acidification in the United States. Science Communication, 41(1), 66-89. doi: 10.1177/1075547018821434
  • DW. (2020). Koronavirüs ile mücadelede ülkeler hangi önlemleri aldı? Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Deutsche Welle Tr website: https://p.dw.com/p/3ZanU
  • Eroğlu, D. (2020). Türkiye’nin iklim eylemsizliği: 30 yıllık cendere. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Teyit.org website: https://teyit.org/turkiyenin-iklim-eylemsizligi-30-yillik-cendere.
  • Everard, M., Johnston, P., Santillo, D., ve Staddon, C. (2020). The role of ecosystems in mitigation and management of Covid-19 and other zoonoses. Environmental Science & Policy, 111, 7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.05.017
  • FAO. (2020). The COVID-19 challenge: Zoonotic diseases and wildlife. Collaborative Partnership on Sustainable Wildlife Management’s four guiding principles to reduce risk from zoonotic diseases and build more collaborative approaches in human health and wildlife manag. Roma. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb1163en
  • Foster, J. B. (2020). Mutlak Kapitalizm. Monthly Review Türkçe, 9, 11–29.
  • Foster, J. B., ve Clark, B. (2020). Capitalism and the Ecological Rift The Robbery of Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Foster, J. B., Clark, B., ve York, R. (2008). Ecology: The moment of truth - An introduction. Monthly Review, 60(3). https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-060-03-2008-07_1
  • Foster, J. B., ve Suwandi, I. (2020). COVID-19 and catastrophe capitalism commodity chains and ecological-epidemiological-economic crises. Monthly Review, 72(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-072-02-2020-06_1
  • Gambetti, Z. (2020, Mayıs 19). Politics of Life vs. Politics of Death. Retrieved August 04, 2021, from Critical Times website: https://ctjournal.org/2020/05/19/politics-of-life-vs-politics-of-death/.
  • Gorz, A. (1992). L’écologie politique entre expertocratie et autolimitation. Actuel Marx, 2(12), 15–29. https://doi.org/10.3917/amx.012.0015
  • Gunn, C. (2005). Book Review: The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? Review of Radical Political Economics 37(3), 405-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0486613405279134
  • Gülalp, H. (2021). Kara Ölüm’den Covid-19’a, Kapitalizmin Yükselişi ve Çöküşü. Praksis, (55), 9-44.
  • Hartley, D. (2016). Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and the Problem of Culture. In J. W. Moore (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 154–165). Kairos.
  • Harvey, D. (2020). Covid-19 Günlerinde Anti-Kapitalist Siyaset. In E. Ünal (Ed.), Çivisi Çıkan Dünya Covid-19 Salgını Üzerine Muhasebeler (pp. 42–52). İstanbul: Runik Yayınları.
  • Keesing, F., ve Ostfeld, R. S. (2021). Impacts of biodiversity and biodiversity loss on zoonotic diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17). doi: 10.1073/pnas.2023540118
  • Kovel, J. (2007). The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? (1st ed.). Black Point: Zed Books. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350251007
  • Kuhn, T., ve Constantine, D. (2018). The Collected Poems of Bertolt Brecht. Liveright Publishing Corporation [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Lemarié, A., ve Pietralunga, C. (2020). « Nous sommes en guerre » : face au coronavirus, Emmanuel Macron sonne la « mobilisation générale ». Retrieved February 20, 2021, from Le Monde website: https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2020/03/17/nous-sommes-en-guerre-face-au-coronavirus-emmanuel-macron-sonne-la-mobilisation-generale_6033338_823448.html
  • Magdoff, F., ve Foster, J. B. (2011). What every environmentalist needs to know about capitalism: A citizen’s guide to capitalism and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press. [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Mallapaty, S. (2020). The coronavirus is most deadly if you are older and male. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Nature website: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02483-2
  • Malm, A. (2016). Fossil Capital: The rise of steam power and the roots of global warming. Londra: Verso [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Malm, A. (2020). Corona, Climate, Chronic Emergency: War Communism in the twenty-first century. Londra: Verso [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Marx, K. (1993). Le Capital: Critique de l’économie politique, cilt 1. Paris: PUF.
  • Marx, K. (2015). 1844 El Yazmaları: Ekonomi Politik ve Felsefe. Ankara: Sol Yayınları.
  • Moore, J. W. (2015). Capitalism in the Web of Life Ecology and the accumulation of capital. Londra: Verso.
  • Moore, J. W., der. (2016a). Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and the Problem of Culture. Kairos.
  • Moore, J. W. (2016b). The Rise of Cheap Nature. In J. W. Moore (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 78–116). Kairos.
  • Morand, S., ve Lajaunie, C. (2020). Outbreaks of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Are Associated With Changes in Forest Cover and Oil Palm Expansion at Global Scale. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3710299
  • National Center for Health Statistics. (2021). Deaths involving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pneumonia, and influenza reported to NCHS by sex and age group, United States, (1/1/2020-2/13/2021). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm#SexAndAge
  • Neate, R. (2020). Billionaires’ wealth rises to $10.2 trillion amid Covid crisis. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from The Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/oct/07/covid-19-crisis-boosts-the-fortunes-of-worlds-billionaires
  • O’Driscoll, M., Santos, G. R. Dos, Wang, L., Cummings, D. A. T., Azman, A. S., Paireau, J., … Salje, H. (2020). Age-specific mortality and immunity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 45 countries. MedRxiv, 2020.08.24.20180851. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.24.20180851
  • Patel, R., ve Moore, J. W. (2017). A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet. Black Inc [Epub Formatlı Kitap].
  • Poulantzas, N. (2010). Poulantzas Kitabı Seçme Yazılar (J. Martin, Ed.). Ankara: Dipnot.
  • Rancière, J. (1997). Onze thèses sur la politique. Filozofski Vestnik, 18(2), 91–106.
  • Read, S. (2020). Billionaires see fortunes rise by 27% during the pandemic. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from BBC website: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-54446285
  • Readfearn, G. (2020). How did coronavirus start and where did it come from? Was it really Wuhan’s animal market? Retrieved February 2, 2021, from The Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/28/how-did-the-coronavirus-start-where-did-it-come-from-how-did-it-spread-humans-was-it-really-bats-pangolins-wuhan-animal-market
  • Sangomla, A. (2020). US Elections 2020 A history of Trump’s climate change denial. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from Down to earth website: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/us-elections-2020-a-history-of-trump-s-climate-change-denial-74075
  • Service Public Français. (2021). Le passe sanitaire devient européen à partir du 1er juillet. Retrieved August 05, 2021, from Service Public Français website: https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/actualites/A15022.
  • Slingenbergh, J., ve FAO (Ed.). (2013). World livestock 2013: Changing disease landscapes. Rome: FAO.
  • Sputnik. (2020). Erdoğan: Görünmez düşmana karşı zor bir savaş yürütüyoruz. Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/202004101041796719-erdogan-gorunmez-dusmana-karsi-zor-bir-savas-yurutuyoruz/
  • Sweezy, P. M. (2004). Capitalism and the environment. Monthly Review, 56(4). https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-056-05-2004-09_6
  • TC Cumhurbaşkanlığı. (2021). “Türkiye, son bir asrın en büyük sağlık krizi diye nitelenen salgını, dünyada en başarılı şekilde yöneten ülkelerden biri olmuştur”. Retrieved August 05, 2021, from TCCB website: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/128579/-turkiye-son-bir-asrin-en-buyuk-saglik-krizi-diye-nitelenen-salgini-dunyada-en-basarili-sekilde-yoneten-ulkelerden-biri-olmustur-
  • Toscano, A. (2021). The state of the pandemic. Historical Materialism, 28(4), 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1163/1569206X-12342804
  • United Nations Environment Programme International Livestock Research Institute (Ed.). (2020). Preventing the Next Pandemic. Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission. Nairobi. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/
  • Walker, P. G. T., Whittaker, C., Watson, O. J., Baguelin, M., Winskill, P., Hamlet, A., … Ghani, A. C. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- And middle-income countries. In Science (Vol. 369). London. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc0035
  • Wallace, D., ve Wallace, R. (2021). COVID-19 in New York City An Ecology of Race and Class Oppression. Springer. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59624-8 [Epub Formatlı Kitap]
  • Wallace, R., Liebman, A., Chaves, L. F., ve Wallace, R. (2020). COVID-19 and Circuits of Capital. Monthly Review. https://doi.org/10.14452/mr-072-01-2020-05_1
  • Yalman, G. L. (2021). Kapitalizmin Krizleri Üzerine Gözlemler. Praksis, (55), 99-108.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Aybala ERTEKİN (Sorumlu Yazar)
GALATASARAY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ, SİYASET BİLİMİ (DR)
0000-0001-9822-7307
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı

Kaynak Göster

APA Ertekin, A. (2021). Kapitalist Devletler Ekolojik Krizle Neden Covid-19’la Olduğu Gibi Savaşmazlar? Pandemiye politik ekolojik bir yaklaşım . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi , Pandemi, Devlet ve Toplum , 22-44 . DOI: 10.14782/marmarasbd.913427