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OECD VE AB ÜYESİ ÜLKELERİN SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR YÖNETİŞİM DÜZEYLERİNE GÖRE SWARA TABANLI TOPSIS-SORT-B VE WASPAS YÖNTEMLERİYLE İNCELENMESİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 56, 943 - 971, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.14783/maruoneri.862996

Öz

Sürdürülebilir yönetişim göstergeleri ülkelerin uzun dönemli amaçlarına ulaşmalarında önemli yere sahiptir. Bu noktadan hareketle ele alınan çalışmada, OECD ve AB üyesi ülkelerin sürdürülebilir yönetişim düzeyleri açısından farklılıklarının ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Söz konusu amaca ulaşmak için ülkeler sürdürülebilir yönetişim göstergelerine göre çok kriterli karar verme yöntemleriyle sınıflama ve sıralama işlemine tabi tutulmuştur. Bu çerçevede, ülkelerin değerlendirilmesinde kullanılan kriterlerin ağırlıklandırılması işlemi SWARA yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ağırlıklandırma işlemi sonucuna göre, en önemli ilk iki kriter yürütmenin hesap verebilirliği ve hukukun üstünlüğü kriterleridir. Sınıflama ve sıralama sonuçlarına göre sonlarda veya beklenenden daha düşük konumda bulunan ülkelerin sürdürülebilir yönetişim performansları ise detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. Bu kapsamda gerçekleştirilen analizlerde, sınıflandırma amacıyla TOPSIS-Sort-B yönteminden yararlanılmış ve ülkeler beş sınıfa ayrılmıştır. İlk sınıfta, İsveç, Norveç, Danimarka, Finlandiya, Almanya ve İsviçre bulunmaktadır. Söz konusu ülkeler WASPAS ile elde edilen sıralamalarda da ilk sıralarda yer almıştır. Son sınıfta ve son üç sırada yer alan ülkeler ise Romanya, Macaristan ve Türkiye olmuştur. Genel olarak, Kuzey ve Batı Avrupa ülkelerinin ise ön sıra ve sınıflarda yer aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Öte yandan, ABD ve Japonya sürdürülebilir yönetişim açısından beklenenden daha düşük sıralarda yer almıştır. Ayrıca, analiz sonuçları Türkiye’nin sürdürülebilir yönetişimde önemli eksikliklerinin bulunduğunu göstermiştir. Bununla birlikte, Türkiye’nin gelişmiş ülkelerin sahip olduğu yönetişim düzeyine ulaşabilecek potansiyelinin bulunduğu düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ágh, A., Dieringer, J., & Bönker, F. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Hungary Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Ahrens, J., & Rudolph, P. M. (2006). The importance of governance in risk reduction and disaster management. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(4), 207-220.
  • Ansell, C., Boin, A., & Keller, A. (2010). Managing transboundary crises: Identifying the building blocks of an effective response system. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(4), 195-207.
  • Awuzie, B., & Monyane, T. G. (2020). Conceptualizing sustainability governance implementation for infrastructure delivery systems in developing countries: Success Factors. Sustainability, 12(3), 961, 1-13. doi:10.3390/su12030961
  • Ayçin, E. (2019). Çok kriterli karar verme: Bilgisayar uygulamali çözümler. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Aytekin, A., & Orakçı, E. (2020). Spor Kulüplerinin performanslarinin çok kriterli karar verme ve toplulaştırma teknikleriyle incelenmesi. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2), 435-470. doi: 10.30784/epfad.752483
  • Brundtland, G. H. (1987). Our common future-Call for action. Environmental Conservation, 14(4), 291-294.
  • Brusis, M., & Siegmund, J. (2011). Designing sustainable governance indicators 2011: Criteria and Methodology. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Commission of the European Communities (2001). European governance: A white paper. COM (2001) 428 final. Brussels: European Commission.
  • Costanza, R., Andrade, F., Antunes, P., van den Belt, M., Boesch, D., Boersma, D., ... Young, M. (1999). Ecological economics and sustainable governance of the oceans. Ecological economics, 31(2), 171-187.
  • CPI (2020, 21 Kasım). Corruptions Perceptions Index. https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2020/index/nzl# adresinden alındı.
  • De Lima Silva, D. F., & de Almeida Filho, A. T. (2020). Sorting with TOPSIS through boundary and characteristic profiles. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 141. doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2020.106328
  • Duxbury, J., & Dickinson, S. (2007). Principles for sustainable governance of the coastal zone: In the context of coastal disasters. Ecological Economics, 63(2-3), 319-330.
  • Dünya Bankası (2020, 4 Eylül). Dünya Bankası açık veritabanı. https://data.worldbank.org/ adresinden alındı.
  • Ecer, F. (2020). Çok kriterli karar verme: Geçmişten günümüze kapsamlı bir yaklaşım. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Gençkaya, Ö. F., Togan, S., Schulz, L., & Karadağ, R. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Turkey report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Global Competitiveness Report (2020, 25 Aralık). The Global Competitiveness Report special edition 2020: How countries are performing on the road to recovery. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2020.pdf adresinden alındı.
  • Gulick, L. (1937). Notes on the theory of organizations. With special reference to government in the United States. Gulick, L., & Urwick, L. (Eds.). The Early Sociology of Management and Organizations-Volume IV Papers on the Science of Administration. (ss. 3-44). New York: A. M. Kelley.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G. (2019). The importance of the participatory democracy and the multilevel governance in the solution of the problems of representative democracy. Uysal, T. U., & Aldemir, C. (Eds.). Multi-Level Governance in Developing Economies. (ss. 215-239). Hershey PA: IGI Global Publisher.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G., & Aytekin, A. (2020a). Yönetişim göstergeleri bağlamında ülkelerin kümeleme analizi ve ARAS ile değerlendirilmesi, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 66, 301-318.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G., & Aytekin, A. (2020b). Vatandaşların kamu yönetimine güveni: Ampirik bir araştırma. Mete, M. (Ed.). İktisadi ve İdari Bilimlerde Teori ve Araştırmalar II. (ss.297-338). Ankara: Gece Yayınları.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G. (2020). Türkiye’de kamu yönetiminde koordinasyon. Ankara: Nobel Bilimsel Eserler.
  • Hartmann, H. (2020). High vulnerability to crisis. Governance in International Perspective. Policy Brief 2020/01. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Hermansson, H. M. L. (2015). Disaster management collaboration in Turkey: Assessing Progress and challenges of hybrid network governance. Public Administration, 94(2), 333-349.
  • IBP (2020, 25 Aralık). Open budget survey: Data explorer. http://survey.internationalbudget.org/#map adresinden alındı.
  • Ishizaka, A., & Pereira, V. (2019). Utilisation of ANPSort for sorting alternative with interdependent criteria illustrated through a researcher’s classification problem in an academic context. Soft Computing, 24(24), 13639-13650.
  • Keršuliene, V., Zavadskas, E. K., & Turskis, Z. (2010). Selection of rational dispute resolution method by applying new step‐wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA). Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11(2), 243-258.
  • Kroll, C. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals: Are the rich countries ready?. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation.
  • McChesney, I. G. (1991). The Brundtland Report and sustainable development in New Zealand. Canterbury: Centre for Resource Management, Lincoln University. Information Paper No 25.
  • Meadowcroft, J., Farrell, K. N., & Spangenberg, J. H. (2005). Developing a framework for sustainability governance in the European Union. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1/2), 3-11.
  • Mo Ibrahim Foundation (2020, 21 Kasım). The Ibrahim Index of African governance, IIAG–downloads. https://mo.ibrahim.foundation/iiag/downloads adresinden alındı.
  • Özer, M. A. (2006). Yönetişim üzerine notlar. Sayıştay Dergisi, 63(1), 59-89.
  • Park, J., Finger, M., & Conca, K. (Eds.) (2008). The crisis of global environmental governance. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Pascha, W., Köllner, P., & Croissant, A. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Japan Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2017). Public management reform: A comparative analysis-into the age of austerity. 4th Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Quirk, P. J., Lammert, C., & Thunert, M. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: United States Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Rinfret, S. R., Scheberle, D. & Pautz, M. C. (2018). Public policy: A concise introduction. USA: SAGE Publications.
  • Sabokbar, H. F., Hosseini, A., Banaitis, A. & Banaitiene, N. (2016). A novel sorting method TOPSIS-Sort: An application for Tehran environmental quality evaluation. Ekonomie a Management, 19(2), 87-104.
  • Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G., & Woelm, F. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. Sustainable Development Report 2020. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sarker, A. E. (2006). New public management in developing countries: An analysis of success and failure with particular reference to Singapore and Bangladesh. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(2), 180-203.
  • Schiller C. & Hellmann, T. (2021). Major differences in the conditions for successful COVID-19 crisis management. Governance in International Perspective. Policy Brief 2021/01. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Schimmelfennig, F., & Sedelmeier, U. (2004). Governance by conditionality: EU rule transfer to the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of European Public Policy, 11(4), 669-687.
  • Schwarz, R. (2020). Some reform minded governments withstand negative trend. Governance report BTI 2020. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • SGI Codebook. (2020). Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Spangenberg, J. H. (2002). Environmental space and the prism of sustainability: frameworks for indicators measuring sustainable development. Ecological Indicators, 2(3), 295-309.
  • Sustainable Governance Indicators. (2020a, 5 Eylül). About the SGI: Mission statement, methodology, survey structure, questionnaire. https://www.sgi-network.org/2020/About adresinden alındı.
  • Sustainable Governance Indicators. (2020b, 8 Eylül). Results + data. https://www.sgi-network.org/2020/Downloads adresinden alındı.
  • Tierney, K. (2012). Disaster governance: Social, political, and economic dimensions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(1), 341-363.
  • Tischler, D. S., & Seelkopf L. (2015). Concept and methodology-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2015. Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Toksöz, F. (2008). İyi yönetişim el kitabı. İstanbul: TESEV Yayınları.
  • Treib, O., Bähr, H., & Falkner, G. (2007). Modes of governance: towards a conceptual clarification. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(1), 1-20.
  • Turke, R. E. (2012). Sustainable governance. Grösser, S. N., & Zeier, R. (Eds.), Systemic management for intelligent organizations: Concepts, models-based approaches and applications. (ss. 237-247), Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Uluslararası Şeffaflık Derneği. (2021, 18 Şubat). 2020 Yolsuzluk algı endeksi açıklandı!. https://www.seffaflik.org/cpi2020/ adresinden alındı.
  • UNDP (1997). Reconceptualising governance: Discussion Paper 2. New York: Management Development and Governance Division.
  • Wagner, A., Stan, L., & Bönker, F. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Romania report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • WGI (2020, 21 Kasım). Worldwide governance indicators World Bank, Washington, DC. https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/Home/Documents#wgiDataSources adresinden alındı.
  • World Bank. (1992). Governance and Development, Washington, DC.: The World Bank Publication.
  • World Bank (2020, 6 Ekim). DataBank microdata data catalog: Turkey's GDP growth (annual %). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=TR adresinden alındı.
  • Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z., Antucheviciene, J., & Zakarevicius, A. (2012). Optimization of weighted aggregated sum product assessment. Elektronika ir elektrotechnika, 122(6), 3-6.
  • Zopounidis, C., & Doumpos, M. (2002). Multicriteria classification and sorting methods: A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 138(2), 229-246.

INVESTIGATION OF OECD AND EU MEMBER COUNTRIES BY SWARA-BASED TOPSIS-SORT-B AND WASPAS METHODS ACCORDING TO SUSTAINABLE GOVERNANCE LEVELS

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 56, 943 - 971, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.14783/maruoneri.862996

Öz

Sustainable governance indicators have an important place for countries to achieve their long-term goals. From this point of view, this study aims to reveal the differences of OECD and EU member countries in terms of sustainable governance levels. To achieve this aim, countries were classified and ranked according to their sustainable governance indicators with multi-criteria decision-making methods. In this context, the weighting of the criteria used in the evaluation of countries was carried out using the SWARA method. Accordingly, the first two most important criteria are the accountability of the executive and the rule of law. The sustainable governance performances of the countries that are at the last or lower places than expected according to the classification and ranking results have been examined in detail. In the analyzes carried out in this context, TOPSIS-Sort-B method was used for ordinal classification, and countries were divided into five classes. The first class includes Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Switzerland. These countries also took first place in the rankings obtained with WASPAS. Countries in the last three ranks and the last class are Romania, Hungary, and Turkey. In general, it has been determined that Northern and Western European countries are placed near the top class and rank. In terms of sustainable governance, the United States and Japan, on the other hand, performed worse than expected. Furthermore, the findings of the study reveal that Turkey has serious shortcomings in terms of sustainable governance. However, Turkey has the potential to reach the governance level of developed countries.

Kaynakça

  • Ágh, A., Dieringer, J., & Bönker, F. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Hungary Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Ahrens, J., & Rudolph, P. M. (2006). The importance of governance in risk reduction and disaster management. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(4), 207-220.
  • Ansell, C., Boin, A., & Keller, A. (2010). Managing transboundary crises: Identifying the building blocks of an effective response system. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(4), 195-207.
  • Awuzie, B., & Monyane, T. G. (2020). Conceptualizing sustainability governance implementation for infrastructure delivery systems in developing countries: Success Factors. Sustainability, 12(3), 961, 1-13. doi:10.3390/su12030961
  • Ayçin, E. (2019). Çok kriterli karar verme: Bilgisayar uygulamali çözümler. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Aytekin, A., & Orakçı, E. (2020). Spor Kulüplerinin performanslarinin çok kriterli karar verme ve toplulaştırma teknikleriyle incelenmesi. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2), 435-470. doi: 10.30784/epfad.752483
  • Brundtland, G. H. (1987). Our common future-Call for action. Environmental Conservation, 14(4), 291-294.
  • Brusis, M., & Siegmund, J. (2011). Designing sustainable governance indicators 2011: Criteria and Methodology. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Commission of the European Communities (2001). European governance: A white paper. COM (2001) 428 final. Brussels: European Commission.
  • Costanza, R., Andrade, F., Antunes, P., van den Belt, M., Boesch, D., Boersma, D., ... Young, M. (1999). Ecological economics and sustainable governance of the oceans. Ecological economics, 31(2), 171-187.
  • CPI (2020, 21 Kasım). Corruptions Perceptions Index. https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2020/index/nzl# adresinden alındı.
  • De Lima Silva, D. F., & de Almeida Filho, A. T. (2020). Sorting with TOPSIS through boundary and characteristic profiles. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 141. doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2020.106328
  • Duxbury, J., & Dickinson, S. (2007). Principles for sustainable governance of the coastal zone: In the context of coastal disasters. Ecological Economics, 63(2-3), 319-330.
  • Dünya Bankası (2020, 4 Eylül). Dünya Bankası açık veritabanı. https://data.worldbank.org/ adresinden alındı.
  • Ecer, F. (2020). Çok kriterli karar verme: Geçmişten günümüze kapsamlı bir yaklaşım. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Gençkaya, Ö. F., Togan, S., Schulz, L., & Karadağ, R. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Turkey report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Global Competitiveness Report (2020, 25 Aralık). The Global Competitiveness Report special edition 2020: How countries are performing on the road to recovery. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2020.pdf adresinden alındı.
  • Gulick, L. (1937). Notes on the theory of organizations. With special reference to government in the United States. Gulick, L., & Urwick, L. (Eds.). The Early Sociology of Management and Organizations-Volume IV Papers on the Science of Administration. (ss. 3-44). New York: A. M. Kelley.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G. (2019). The importance of the participatory democracy and the multilevel governance in the solution of the problems of representative democracy. Uysal, T. U., & Aldemir, C. (Eds.). Multi-Level Governance in Developing Economies. (ss. 215-239). Hershey PA: IGI Global Publisher.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G., & Aytekin, A. (2020a). Yönetişim göstergeleri bağlamında ülkelerin kümeleme analizi ve ARAS ile değerlendirilmesi, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 66, 301-318.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G., & Aytekin, A. (2020b). Vatandaşların kamu yönetimine güveni: Ampirik bir araştırma. Mete, M. (Ed.). İktisadi ve İdari Bilimlerde Teori ve Araştırmalar II. (ss.297-338). Ankara: Gece Yayınları.
  • Gündoğdu, H. G. (2020). Türkiye’de kamu yönetiminde koordinasyon. Ankara: Nobel Bilimsel Eserler.
  • Hartmann, H. (2020). High vulnerability to crisis. Governance in International Perspective. Policy Brief 2020/01. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Hermansson, H. M. L. (2015). Disaster management collaboration in Turkey: Assessing Progress and challenges of hybrid network governance. Public Administration, 94(2), 333-349.
  • IBP (2020, 25 Aralık). Open budget survey: Data explorer. http://survey.internationalbudget.org/#map adresinden alındı.
  • Ishizaka, A., & Pereira, V. (2019). Utilisation of ANPSort for sorting alternative with interdependent criteria illustrated through a researcher’s classification problem in an academic context. Soft Computing, 24(24), 13639-13650.
  • Keršuliene, V., Zavadskas, E. K., & Turskis, Z. (2010). Selection of rational dispute resolution method by applying new step‐wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA). Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11(2), 243-258.
  • Kroll, C. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals: Are the rich countries ready?. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation.
  • McChesney, I. G. (1991). The Brundtland Report and sustainable development in New Zealand. Canterbury: Centre for Resource Management, Lincoln University. Information Paper No 25.
  • Meadowcroft, J., Farrell, K. N., & Spangenberg, J. H. (2005). Developing a framework for sustainability governance in the European Union. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1/2), 3-11.
  • Mo Ibrahim Foundation (2020, 21 Kasım). The Ibrahim Index of African governance, IIAG–downloads. https://mo.ibrahim.foundation/iiag/downloads adresinden alındı.
  • Özer, M. A. (2006). Yönetişim üzerine notlar. Sayıştay Dergisi, 63(1), 59-89.
  • Park, J., Finger, M., & Conca, K. (Eds.) (2008). The crisis of global environmental governance. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Pascha, W., Köllner, P., & Croissant, A. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Japan Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2017). Public management reform: A comparative analysis-into the age of austerity. 4th Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Quirk, P. J., Lammert, C., & Thunert, M. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: United States Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Rinfret, S. R., Scheberle, D. & Pautz, M. C. (2018). Public policy: A concise introduction. USA: SAGE Publications.
  • Sabokbar, H. F., Hosseini, A., Banaitis, A. & Banaitiene, N. (2016). A novel sorting method TOPSIS-Sort: An application for Tehran environmental quality evaluation. Ekonomie a Management, 19(2), 87-104.
  • Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G., & Woelm, F. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. Sustainable Development Report 2020. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sarker, A. E. (2006). New public management in developing countries: An analysis of success and failure with particular reference to Singapore and Bangladesh. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(2), 180-203.
  • Schiller C. & Hellmann, T. (2021). Major differences in the conditions for successful COVID-19 crisis management. Governance in International Perspective. Policy Brief 2021/01. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Schimmelfennig, F., & Sedelmeier, U. (2004). Governance by conditionality: EU rule transfer to the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of European Public Policy, 11(4), 669-687.
  • Schwarz, R. (2020). Some reform minded governments withstand negative trend. Governance report BTI 2020. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • SGI Codebook. (2020). Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Spangenberg, J. H. (2002). Environmental space and the prism of sustainability: frameworks for indicators measuring sustainable development. Ecological Indicators, 2(3), 295-309.
  • Sustainable Governance Indicators. (2020a, 5 Eylül). About the SGI: Mission statement, methodology, survey structure, questionnaire. https://www.sgi-network.org/2020/About adresinden alındı.
  • Sustainable Governance Indicators. (2020b, 8 Eylül). Results + data. https://www.sgi-network.org/2020/Downloads adresinden alındı.
  • Tierney, K. (2012). Disaster governance: Social, political, and economic dimensions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(1), 341-363.
  • Tischler, D. S., & Seelkopf L. (2015). Concept and methodology-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2015. Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Toksöz, F. (2008). İyi yönetişim el kitabı. İstanbul: TESEV Yayınları.
  • Treib, O., Bähr, H., & Falkner, G. (2007). Modes of governance: towards a conceptual clarification. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(1), 1-20.
  • Turke, R. E. (2012). Sustainable governance. Grösser, S. N., & Zeier, R. (Eds.), Systemic management for intelligent organizations: Concepts, models-based approaches and applications. (ss. 237-247), Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Uluslararası Şeffaflık Derneği. (2021, 18 Şubat). 2020 Yolsuzluk algı endeksi açıklandı!. https://www.seffaflik.org/cpi2020/ adresinden alındı.
  • UNDP (1997). Reconceptualising governance: Discussion Paper 2. New York: Management Development and Governance Division.
  • Wagner, A., Stan, L., & Bönker, F. (2020). SGI-Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020: Romania report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • WGI (2020, 21 Kasım). Worldwide governance indicators World Bank, Washington, DC. https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/Home/Documents#wgiDataSources adresinden alındı.
  • World Bank. (1992). Governance and Development, Washington, DC.: The World Bank Publication.
  • World Bank (2020, 6 Ekim). DataBank microdata data catalog: Turkey's GDP growth (annual %). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=TR adresinden alındı.
  • Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z., Antucheviciene, J., & Zakarevicius, A. (2012). Optimization of weighted aggregated sum product assessment. Elektronika ir elektrotechnika, 122(6), 3-6.
  • Zopounidis, C., & Doumpos, M. (2002). Multicriteria classification and sorting methods: A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 138(2), 229-246.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makale Başvuru
Yazarlar

Ahmet AYTEKİN
ARTVİN ÇORUH ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1536-7097
Türkiye


Hakan Gökhan GÜNDOĞDU (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0656-4152
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 56

Kaynak Göster

APA Aytekin, A. & Gündoğdu, H. G. (2021). OECD VE AB ÜYESİ ÜLKELERİN SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR YÖNETİŞİM DÜZEYLERİNE GÖRE SWARA TABANLI TOPSIS-SORT-B VE WASPAS YÖNTEMLERİYLE İNCELENMESİ . Öneri Dergisi , 16 (56) , 943-971 . DOI: 10.14783/maruoneri.862996

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Öneri Dergisi

Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü

Göztepe Kampüsü Enstitüler Binası Kat:5 34722  Kadıköy/İstanbul

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