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Genetically Modified Foods and Their Effects on Human Health

Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 3, 165 - 170, 15.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.30565/medalanya.288741

Öz

The area of genetic engineering, where genetic codes of organism are changed, has still been being debated in the scientific community for years. Groups that support the use of genetically modified organisms claim that this technology is useful in increasing both the food quality and the pros for health, in helping shelf lives of the fruits, vegetables and the organoleptic qualities increase, escalating vegetable and animal product yield, producing edible vaccines and drugs, uses in human diseases and organ transplantations as well as environmental advantages. On the other hand, groups that oppose to the use of these organisms think that there might be risks in the change of food quality, food safety, allergenic reactions and their health effects. They also worry that there may/will be some other concerns such as: labeling of the genetically modified products, environmental problems, and problems about religious, cultural and ethical issues. Since gene technology is a new and a rapidly developing technology, there are no sufficient scientific data that prove or support all the existing claims or views. Observations and researches in time would better shed light on this field.


Kaynakça

  • 1. Gültekin F. Fark Etmeden Yediklerimiz Gıda Katkı Maddeleri. 1. Baskı, İstanbul, Türkiye, Server, 2014.
  • 2. Savaş H, Çatalbaş T, Gültekin F . "Helal gıda belgelendirmesinde biyokimya laboratuvarının rolü". Acta Medica Alanya 2017;1(1): 28-32.
  • 3. Pawlowski, W.P. and Somers, D.A., Transgene inheritance in plants genetically engineered by microprojectile bombardment. Molecular Biotechnology, 1996;6: 17-30.
  • 4. Srivastava, V. and Anderson, O.D., Single-copy transgenic wheat generated through the resolution of complex integration patterns. Pros Nat. Acad. Sci. 1999;96: 11117-21.
  • 5. Bergelson, J., Purrington, C.B. and Wichmann, G., Promiscuity in transgenic plants. Nature, 1998, 395: 25. 21 6. Craig, W., Tepfer, M., Degrassi, G. and Ripandelli, D., An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Euphytica, 2008;164:853–880.
  • 7. Editorial, Science, Standing Up for GMOs. Vol. 341, 20 September, 2013.
  • 8. Gordon JW, Scangos GA, Plotkin DJ, Barbosa JA, Ruddle FH., Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1980;77, 7380–7384.
  • 9. Hammer RE, Pursel VG, Rexroad Jr. CE, Wall RJ, Bolt DJ, Ebert KM, Palmiter RD, Brinster RL., Production of transgenic rabbits, sheep and pigs by microinjection. Nature. 1985;315, 680–683.
  • 10. Fraley, RT et al., Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells. Proc. NatL. Acad. Sci. USA 1983;80: 4803–4807.
  • 11. Vaeck, M. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Nature 1987;328, 33–37.
  • 12. Cellini, F., Chesson, A., Colquhoun, I., Constable, A., Davies, H.V., Engel, K., Gatehouse , A.M.R., Karenlampi, S., Kok, E.J., Leguay, J.J., Lehesranta. S., Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Pedersen. J.and Smith, M. 2004. Unintended effects and their detection ingenetically modifed crops. Food. Chem. Toxicol., 2004;42: 1089–1125.
  • 13. Kleter, G.A. and Kok, E.J., Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals – a review. Animal Sci. Pap. and Rep. 2010;2: 105-114.
  • 14. Wahl, G.M., de Saint Vincent, B.R. ve De Rose, M.L., Effect of chromosomal position on amplification of ransfected genes in animal cells, Nature 1984;307: 516-520.
  • 15. Cellini, F., Chesson, A., Colquhoun, I., Constable, A., Davies, H.V., Engel, K., Gatehouse , A.M.R., Karenlampi, S., Kok, E.J., Leguay, J.J., Lehesranta. S., Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Pedersen. J.and Smith, M. 2004. Unintended effects and their detection ingenetically modifed crops. Food. Chem. Toxicol., 2004;42: 1089–1125.
  • 16. Ekser B, Rigotti P, Gridelli B, Cooper DKC., Xenotransplantation of solid organs in the pig-to-primate model, Transpl. Immun. 2009;21, 87-92.
  • 17. Kues WA, Niemann H., The contribution of farm animals to human health. Trends Biotechnol. 2004;22, 286–294.
  • 18. Van Eenennaam AL, Muir WM., Transgenic salmon: a final leap to the grocery shelf? Nat. Biotechnol, 2011; 29, 706–710.
  • 19. Maxmen A., Politics holds back animal engineers. Nature. 2012;490, 318–319.
  • 20. Hakkı, E., Akın, F., Kayış, S.A., Uluslararası 2. Helal ve Sağlıklı Gıda Kongresi Kitabı (7-10 Kasım 2013, Konya). Edt: Gültekin F., Konya, 2013.
  • 21. Li T., Liu B., Spalding,M.H., Weeks D.P., Yang B., High-efficiency TALEN-based gene editing produces disease-resistant rice. Nature Biotechnology 2012;30(5): 390-392.
  • 22. Sanvido, O., Romeis, J and, Bigler, F., Ecological impacts of genetically modified crops: ten years of field research and commercialcultivation. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2007;107:235–278. 23. Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S. and Carter, M.E., Transgenic polen harms monarch larvae. Nature 1999;399:214.
  • 24. Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M. and Bigler, F., Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environmental Entomology, 1998;27: 480-487.
  • 25. Bravo, A., Gill, S.S. and Soberon M., Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control. Toxicon. 2007;49(4):423-435.
  • 26. Smalla, K., Wellington, E. and van Elsas, J.D., Natural background of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. Nordic Seminar on Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes and Transgenic Plants, 1997; 12-13, 103-107.
  • 27. Bergmans, H., Acceptability of the use of antibiotic resistance genes as marker genes in transgenic plants. 1993;106-108. In: OECD Report on the Scientific Approaches for the Assessment of Research Trials with Genetically Modified Plants. April 6-7, 1992. Jouyen-Josas.
  • 28. Gebhard, F. and Smalla, K., Monitoring field releases of genetically modified sugar beets for persistence of transgenic plant DNA and horizontal gene transfer. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 1999;28: 261-272.
  • 29. Keese P., Risks from GMOs due to horizontal gene transfer. Environmental Biosafety Research 2008;7: 123-149.
  • 30. Jonas, D.A., Elmadfa, I., Engel, K.H., Heller, K.J., Kozianowski, G., König, A. et al. Safety considerations of DNA in food. Ann. Nutr. Metab., 2001;45: 235–254.
  • 31. Lander ES. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human. Nature 2001;409: 860-921.
  • 32. Schluter K, Futterer J and Potrykus I., Horizontal gene-transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia-chrysanthem) occurs, if at all, at an extremely lowfrequency. BioTechnology 1995;13:1094-1098.
  • 33. Koskella,J. and Stotzky, G., Microbial utilization of free and clay-bound insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their retention of insecticidal activity after incubation with microbes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1997;63(9):3561-8.
  • 34. Marchetti E, Accinelli C, Talame V and Epifani R., Persistence of Cry toxins and cry genes from genetically modified plants in two agricultural soils. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 2007;27 (3): 231-236.
  • 35. Dona A and Arvanitoyannis IS, Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49: 164-175.
  • 36. Tyshko NV, Aksyuk IN and Tutel'ian VA., Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation. Biotechnol J 2007;2: 826-832.
  • 37. Prescott, V.E. and Hogan, S.P., Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006;111: 374–383.
  • 38. Séralini, G., Cellier, D. and de Vendomois, J.S., New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2007;52: 596–602. 39. Flachowsky G, Halle I and Aulrich K., Long term feeding of Bt-corn – a ten generation study with quails. Arch Anim Nutr 2005;59(6): 449-451.
  • 40. Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J., Forbes, J.M., Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutrition, 2003;89 (2), 159-166.
  • 41. Zhang L., Hou D., Chen X., Li D., Zhu L., Zhang Y. et al. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Research 2012;22:107–126.
  • 42. Heinemann J. A, Agapito-Tenfen S. Z., Carman J. A., A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments. Environment International 2013;55: 43–55.
  • 43. Jiang M., Sang X. ve Hong Z., Beyond nutrients: Food-derived microRNAs provide cross-kingdom regulation. BioEssays 2012;34(4): 280–284.

Genetiği Değiştirilmiş Gıdalar ve İnsan Sağlığına Etkileri

Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 3, 165 - 170, 15.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.30565/medalanya.288741

Öz

Organizmaların genetik yapısının değiştirildiği genetik mühendisliği konusu, bilimsel platformlarda hâlâ tartışılmaktadır. Genetiği değiştirilmiş organizmaları destekleyen gruplar, bu teknolojinin besin kalitesinin ve sağlığa yönelik faydalarının artırılmasında, meyve ve sebzelerin raf ömürlerinin ve organoleptik kalitelerinin iyileştirilmesinde, bitkisel ve hayvansal ürün veriminin artırılmasında, yenilebilir aşı ve ilaç üretiminde, insan hastalıklarının tedavisi ve organ nakli için kullanılmasında ve çevresel olarak birçok faydaları olacağı görüşündedirler. Diğer yandan bu organizmaları eleştirenlere göre ise besin kalitesindeki değişiklik, gıda güvenliği, alerjik reaksiyonlar ve bunların toksik etkileri ile ilgili önemli riskler olabilir. Bu grup aynı zamanda genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlerin etiketlenmesi, çevresel sorunlar ile dini, kültürel ve etik sorunlar gibi meselelerin olduğunu/olacağını düşünmektedirler. Gen teknolojisinin oldukça yeni olması ve çok hızlı gelişmesi nedeniyle ileri sürülen bütün görüşleri kesin olarak ispatlayacak kadar yeterli bilimsel veri bulunmamaktadır. Zaman içindeki gözlemler ve araştırmalar bu alana daha iyi ışık tutacaktır.


Kaynakça

  • 1. Gültekin F. Fark Etmeden Yediklerimiz Gıda Katkı Maddeleri. 1. Baskı, İstanbul, Türkiye, Server, 2014.
  • 2. Savaş H, Çatalbaş T, Gültekin F . "Helal gıda belgelendirmesinde biyokimya laboratuvarının rolü". Acta Medica Alanya 2017;1(1): 28-32.
  • 3. Pawlowski, W.P. and Somers, D.A., Transgene inheritance in plants genetically engineered by microprojectile bombardment. Molecular Biotechnology, 1996;6: 17-30.
  • 4. Srivastava, V. and Anderson, O.D., Single-copy transgenic wheat generated through the resolution of complex integration patterns. Pros Nat. Acad. Sci. 1999;96: 11117-21.
  • 5. Bergelson, J., Purrington, C.B. and Wichmann, G., Promiscuity in transgenic plants. Nature, 1998, 395: 25. 21 6. Craig, W., Tepfer, M., Degrassi, G. and Ripandelli, D., An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Euphytica, 2008;164:853–880.
  • 7. Editorial, Science, Standing Up for GMOs. Vol. 341, 20 September, 2013.
  • 8. Gordon JW, Scangos GA, Plotkin DJ, Barbosa JA, Ruddle FH., Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1980;77, 7380–7384.
  • 9. Hammer RE, Pursel VG, Rexroad Jr. CE, Wall RJ, Bolt DJ, Ebert KM, Palmiter RD, Brinster RL., Production of transgenic rabbits, sheep and pigs by microinjection. Nature. 1985;315, 680–683.
  • 10. Fraley, RT et al., Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells. Proc. NatL. Acad. Sci. USA 1983;80: 4803–4807.
  • 11. Vaeck, M. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Nature 1987;328, 33–37.
  • 12. Cellini, F., Chesson, A., Colquhoun, I., Constable, A., Davies, H.V., Engel, K., Gatehouse , A.M.R., Karenlampi, S., Kok, E.J., Leguay, J.J., Lehesranta. S., Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Pedersen. J.and Smith, M. 2004. Unintended effects and their detection ingenetically modifed crops. Food. Chem. Toxicol., 2004;42: 1089–1125.
  • 13. Kleter, G.A. and Kok, E.J., Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals – a review. Animal Sci. Pap. and Rep. 2010;2: 105-114.
  • 14. Wahl, G.M., de Saint Vincent, B.R. ve De Rose, M.L., Effect of chromosomal position on amplification of ransfected genes in animal cells, Nature 1984;307: 516-520.
  • 15. Cellini, F., Chesson, A., Colquhoun, I., Constable, A., Davies, H.V., Engel, K., Gatehouse , A.M.R., Karenlampi, S., Kok, E.J., Leguay, J.J., Lehesranta. S., Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Pedersen. J.and Smith, M. 2004. Unintended effects and their detection ingenetically modifed crops. Food. Chem. Toxicol., 2004;42: 1089–1125.
  • 16. Ekser B, Rigotti P, Gridelli B, Cooper DKC., Xenotransplantation of solid organs in the pig-to-primate model, Transpl. Immun. 2009;21, 87-92.
  • 17. Kues WA, Niemann H., The contribution of farm animals to human health. Trends Biotechnol. 2004;22, 286–294.
  • 18. Van Eenennaam AL, Muir WM., Transgenic salmon: a final leap to the grocery shelf? Nat. Biotechnol, 2011; 29, 706–710.
  • 19. Maxmen A., Politics holds back animal engineers. Nature. 2012;490, 318–319.
  • 20. Hakkı, E., Akın, F., Kayış, S.A., Uluslararası 2. Helal ve Sağlıklı Gıda Kongresi Kitabı (7-10 Kasım 2013, Konya). Edt: Gültekin F., Konya, 2013.
  • 21. Li T., Liu B., Spalding,M.H., Weeks D.P., Yang B., High-efficiency TALEN-based gene editing produces disease-resistant rice. Nature Biotechnology 2012;30(5): 390-392.
  • 22. Sanvido, O., Romeis, J and, Bigler, F., Ecological impacts of genetically modified crops: ten years of field research and commercialcultivation. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2007;107:235–278. 23. Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S. and Carter, M.E., Transgenic polen harms monarch larvae. Nature 1999;399:214.
  • 24. Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M. and Bigler, F., Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environmental Entomology, 1998;27: 480-487.
  • 25. Bravo, A., Gill, S.S. and Soberon M., Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control. Toxicon. 2007;49(4):423-435.
  • 26. Smalla, K., Wellington, E. and van Elsas, J.D., Natural background of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. Nordic Seminar on Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes and Transgenic Plants, 1997; 12-13, 103-107.
  • 27. Bergmans, H., Acceptability of the use of antibiotic resistance genes as marker genes in transgenic plants. 1993;106-108. In: OECD Report on the Scientific Approaches for the Assessment of Research Trials with Genetically Modified Plants. April 6-7, 1992. Jouyen-Josas.
  • 28. Gebhard, F. and Smalla, K., Monitoring field releases of genetically modified sugar beets for persistence of transgenic plant DNA and horizontal gene transfer. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 1999;28: 261-272.
  • 29. Keese P., Risks from GMOs due to horizontal gene transfer. Environmental Biosafety Research 2008;7: 123-149.
  • 30. Jonas, D.A., Elmadfa, I., Engel, K.H., Heller, K.J., Kozianowski, G., König, A. et al. Safety considerations of DNA in food. Ann. Nutr. Metab., 2001;45: 235–254.
  • 31. Lander ES. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human. Nature 2001;409: 860-921.
  • 32. Schluter K, Futterer J and Potrykus I., Horizontal gene-transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia-chrysanthem) occurs, if at all, at an extremely lowfrequency. BioTechnology 1995;13:1094-1098.
  • 33. Koskella,J. and Stotzky, G., Microbial utilization of free and clay-bound insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their retention of insecticidal activity after incubation with microbes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1997;63(9):3561-8.
  • 34. Marchetti E, Accinelli C, Talame V and Epifani R., Persistence of Cry toxins and cry genes from genetically modified plants in two agricultural soils. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 2007;27 (3): 231-236.
  • 35. Dona A and Arvanitoyannis IS, Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49: 164-175.
  • 36. Tyshko NV, Aksyuk IN and Tutel'ian VA., Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation. Biotechnol J 2007;2: 826-832.
  • 37. Prescott, V.E. and Hogan, S.P., Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006;111: 374–383.
  • 38. Séralini, G., Cellier, D. and de Vendomois, J.S., New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2007;52: 596–602. 39. Flachowsky G, Halle I and Aulrich K., Long term feeding of Bt-corn – a ten generation study with quails. Arch Anim Nutr 2005;59(6): 449-451.
  • 40. Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J., Forbes, J.M., Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutrition, 2003;89 (2), 159-166.
  • 41. Zhang L., Hou D., Chen X., Li D., Zhu L., Zhang Y. et al. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Research 2012;22:107–126.
  • 42. Heinemann J. A, Agapito-Tenfen S. Z., Carman J. A., A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments. Environment International 2013;55: 43–55.
  • 43. Jiang M., Sang X. ve Hong Z., Beyond nutrients: Food-derived microRNAs provide cross-kingdom regulation. BioEssays 2012;34(4): 280–284.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tıp
Yayınlanma Tarihi Cilt 1 Sayı 3
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Tahir Çatalbaş Bu kişi benim
SABANCI ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Hasan Basri Savaş
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Fatih Gültekin
ALANYA ALAADDİN KEYKUBAT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2888-3215
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Aralık 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Ocak 2017
Kabul Tarihi 25 Temmuz 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 1, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Çatalbaş T. , Savaş H. B. , Gültekin F. Genetiği Değiştirilmiş Gıdalar ve İnsan Sağlığına Etkileri. Acta Medica Alanya. 2017; 1(3): 165-170.

9705 

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