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Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 83 - 91, 31.05.2020

Öz

The salinity of the Shatt al-Arab River is determined by the volume of freshwater entering the river from tributaries and on the tidal forces from the Arabian Gulf. The implementation of hydrological projects by upstream countries has led to a reduction in the freshwater discharges reaching the Shatt al-Arab. The decrease in freshwater volume in the Shatt al-Arab has made space for saltwater from the Arabian Gulf to intrude 150 km upstream from the river mouth. Saltwater intrusion (SWI) in the Shatt al-Arab is harmful fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, north of Basrah, southern Iraq. The SWI in 2018 was the most severe on record, resulting in the mass mortality of farmed fish in Al-Mashab marshes. As a result of the mass mortality of fish, farmers lost the main source of their income, which led to serious and complicated problems at the socioeconomic level. These problems may finally lead to social and political unrest in the case of absence of governmental planning and solutions.

Kaynakça

  • UN-ESCWA and BGR (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia; Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe). 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. Beirut.
  • Al-Ramadhan, B.M, Pastour, M. (1987). Tidal characteristics of Shatt Al-Arab River. Marina Mesopotamica. 2 (1): 15-28. Abdullah, A.D, Masih. I., Zaag, P., Karim, U.F.A, Popescu, L., Al Suhail, Q. (2015) Shatt al Arab River system under escalating pressure: a preliminary exploration of the issues and options for mitigation. Int J River Basin Manag (13)215–227. DOI: 10.1080/15715124.2015.1007870
  • Abdullah, A.D, Castro-Gama, M.E., Popescu, I., van der Zaag, P., Karim, U., Al Suhail, Q. (2018). Optimization of water allocation in the Shatt al-Arab River under different salinity regimes and tide impact, HYDROLOG SCI J. 63(4): 646-656, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1446213
  • Partow, H. (2001). The Mesopotomian Marshlands: demise of an ecosystem. Early warning and assessment technical report, UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3. Rev. 1. Division of Early Warning and Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Price, R. (2108). Environmental risks in Iraq. Institute of Development Studies. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/13838/Environmental_risks_in_Iraq.pdf?sequence=1https://research.utwente.nl/en/publications/evaluation-of-water-demand-and-supply-in-the-southof-iraq
  • Brandimarte, L., Popescu, I., Neamah, N.K. (2015) Analysis of fresh saline water interface at the Shatt al-Arab estuary. Int. J. River Basin Manag.13 (1): 17–25.
  • Al-Tawash, B., Al-Lafta, S.H., Merkel, B. (2013). Preliminary assessment of the Shatt al Arab river in environment, Basra Government, Southern Iraq. J. Nat. Sci. Res. (13): 120–136.
  • Moyel, M.S. (2014) Assessment of water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River, using multivariate statistical technique. Mesopotomia Environ J. (1):39-46.
  • Moyel, M.S, Hussain, N.A. (2015) Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq. J Coast Life Med. (6): 459-465.
  • Mohamed, A.M., Abood, A. (2017) Ecological Health Assessment of the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. JAVS. (10):1–8. DOI: 10.9790/2380-1010010108
  • Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V.K, Knutsson, S.J. (2018) Climate change: consequences on Iraq’s environmentJ Earth Sci Geotech Eng. (3):43-58.
  • IPCC. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation (SREX). Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Geneva, IPCC Secretariat.
  • Salati, A.P., Baghbanzadeh A., Soltani, M., Peyghan, R., Riazi, G. (2011) Effect of different level of salinity on gill and kidney function in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ital. J. Zool. (78)298-303.
  • Maceina, M.J., Nordlie, F.G., Shireman, J.V. (1980) The influence of salinity of oxygen consumption and plasma electrolytes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. J Fish Biol. (16):613–619.
  • UNEP, (2007) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Global Environment.Outlook4.https://na.unep.net/atlas/datlas/sites/default/files/GEO-4_Report_Full_en.pdf.
  • Karfakis, P., Lipper, L., Smulders, M. (2012) The assessment of the socio-economic impacts of climate change at household level and policy implications. Available from http://www.fao.org/3/i3084e/i3084e11.pdf. Conference Proceedings
  • Wood, W.B. (2001) Ecomigration: Linkages between environmental change and migration. In Zolberg, A.R. and Benda, P. M.(eds.) Global Migrants, Global Refugees. Berghahn, Oxford.
  • Matutinovic, I. (2006) Mass migrations, income inequality and ecosystem health in the second wave of globalization. In Ecological Economics. (59):199 – 203.
  • Padoch, C.E, Brondizio, S., Costa, M., Pinedo-Vasquez, R.R., Sears, A., Siqueira (2008) Urban forest and rural cities: multi-sited households, cunmsumption patterns, and forest resources in Amazonia. Ecology and Society;13(2):2. URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art2/.
  • Nguyen, T.A, Rigg, J., Luong T.T.H., Dinh, T.D., (2012) Becoming and being urban in Hanoi: rural-urban migration and relations in Viet Nam. J. Peasant Stud.; 39(5):1103–31
  • Al-Furaiji, M., Karim, U.F.A., Augustijn, D.C.M., Waisi, B,, Hulscher, S.J.M.H. (2016) Evaluation of water demand and supply in the south of Iraq. J WATER REUSE DESAL. 6(1): 214-226. DOI: 10.2166/wrd.2015.043.
  • White, E., Kaplan, D., (2017) Restore or retreat? Saltwater intrusion and water management in coastal wetlands. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.,3(1):e01258. doi: 10.1002/ehs2.1258
  • Mishra PK. (2017) Socio-economic impacts of climate change in Odisha: Issues, challenges and policy options. J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change, Vol. 3, No. (1)93–107. DOI 10.3233/JCC-170009.
  • UNISDR (2015) The United Nations office for Disaster Reduction. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Available from https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_arabicsendaiframeworkfordisasterris.pdf
  • Al-Ansari N, Adamo N. (2018) Present water crises in Iraq and its human and environmental implications. Engineering, (10): 305-319. https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2018.106021. Levy BS, Patz JA (2015). Climate change, human rights, and social justice. Ann. Glob. Health (81):310–32.

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 83 - 91, 31.05.2020

Öz

Kaynakça

  • UN-ESCWA and BGR (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia; Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe). 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. Beirut.
  • Al-Ramadhan, B.M, Pastour, M. (1987). Tidal characteristics of Shatt Al-Arab River. Marina Mesopotamica. 2 (1): 15-28. Abdullah, A.D, Masih. I., Zaag, P., Karim, U.F.A, Popescu, L., Al Suhail, Q. (2015) Shatt al Arab River system under escalating pressure: a preliminary exploration of the issues and options for mitigation. Int J River Basin Manag (13)215–227. DOI: 10.1080/15715124.2015.1007870
  • Abdullah, A.D, Castro-Gama, M.E., Popescu, I., van der Zaag, P., Karim, U., Al Suhail, Q. (2018). Optimization of water allocation in the Shatt al-Arab River under different salinity regimes and tide impact, HYDROLOG SCI J. 63(4): 646-656, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1446213
  • Partow, H. (2001). The Mesopotomian Marshlands: demise of an ecosystem. Early warning and assessment technical report, UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3. Rev. 1. Division of Early Warning and Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Price, R. (2108). Environmental risks in Iraq. Institute of Development Studies. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/13838/Environmental_risks_in_Iraq.pdf?sequence=1https://research.utwente.nl/en/publications/evaluation-of-water-demand-and-supply-in-the-southof-iraq
  • Brandimarte, L., Popescu, I., Neamah, N.K. (2015) Analysis of fresh saline water interface at the Shatt al-Arab estuary. Int. J. River Basin Manag.13 (1): 17–25.
  • Al-Tawash, B., Al-Lafta, S.H., Merkel, B. (2013). Preliminary assessment of the Shatt al Arab river in environment, Basra Government, Southern Iraq. J. Nat. Sci. Res. (13): 120–136.
  • Moyel, M.S. (2014) Assessment of water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River, using multivariate statistical technique. Mesopotomia Environ J. (1):39-46.
  • Moyel, M.S, Hussain, N.A. (2015) Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq. J Coast Life Med. (6): 459-465.
  • Mohamed, A.M., Abood, A. (2017) Ecological Health Assessment of the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. JAVS. (10):1–8. DOI: 10.9790/2380-1010010108
  • Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V.K, Knutsson, S.J. (2018) Climate change: consequences on Iraq’s environmentJ Earth Sci Geotech Eng. (3):43-58.
  • IPCC. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation (SREX). Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Geneva, IPCC Secretariat.
  • Salati, A.P., Baghbanzadeh A., Soltani, M., Peyghan, R., Riazi, G. (2011) Effect of different level of salinity on gill and kidney function in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ital. J. Zool. (78)298-303.
  • Maceina, M.J., Nordlie, F.G., Shireman, J.V. (1980) The influence of salinity of oxygen consumption and plasma electrolytes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. J Fish Biol. (16):613–619.
  • UNEP, (2007) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Global Environment.Outlook4.https://na.unep.net/atlas/datlas/sites/default/files/GEO-4_Report_Full_en.pdf.
  • Karfakis, P., Lipper, L., Smulders, M. (2012) The assessment of the socio-economic impacts of climate change at household level and policy implications. Available from http://www.fao.org/3/i3084e/i3084e11.pdf. Conference Proceedings
  • Wood, W.B. (2001) Ecomigration: Linkages between environmental change and migration. In Zolberg, A.R. and Benda, P. M.(eds.) Global Migrants, Global Refugees. Berghahn, Oxford.
  • Matutinovic, I. (2006) Mass migrations, income inequality and ecosystem health in the second wave of globalization. In Ecological Economics. (59):199 – 203.
  • Padoch, C.E, Brondizio, S., Costa, M., Pinedo-Vasquez, R.R., Sears, A., Siqueira (2008) Urban forest and rural cities: multi-sited households, cunmsumption patterns, and forest resources in Amazonia. Ecology and Society;13(2):2. URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art2/.
  • Nguyen, T.A, Rigg, J., Luong T.T.H., Dinh, T.D., (2012) Becoming and being urban in Hanoi: rural-urban migration and relations in Viet Nam. J. Peasant Stud.; 39(5):1103–31
  • Al-Furaiji, M., Karim, U.F.A., Augustijn, D.C.M., Waisi, B,, Hulscher, S.J.M.H. (2016) Evaluation of water demand and supply in the south of Iraq. J WATER REUSE DESAL. 6(1): 214-226. DOI: 10.2166/wrd.2015.043.
  • White, E., Kaplan, D., (2017) Restore or retreat? Saltwater intrusion and water management in coastal wetlands. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.,3(1):e01258. doi: 10.1002/ehs2.1258
  • Mishra PK. (2017) Socio-economic impacts of climate change in Odisha: Issues, challenges and policy options. J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change, Vol. 3, No. (1)93–107. DOI 10.3233/JCC-170009.
  • UNISDR (2015) The United Nations office for Disaster Reduction. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Available from https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_arabicsendaiframeworkfordisasterris.pdf
  • Al-Ansari N, Adamo N. (2018) Present water crises in Iraq and its human and environmental implications. Engineering, (10): 305-319. https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2018.106021. Levy BS, Patz JA (2015). Climate change, human rights, and social justice. Ann. Glob. Health (81):310–32.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Deniz ve Tatlı Su Biyolojisi
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Jihad AL-ZEWAR Bu kişi benim
Basrah University
Iraq


Arafat AHMED> (Sorumlu Yazar)
University of Basrah
0000-0002-3586-3733
Iraq

Destekleyen Kurum University of Basrah
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mayıs 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Şubat 2020
Kabul Tarihi 22 Mayıs 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { medfar695774, journal = {Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research}, eissn = {2618-6551}, address = {medfar@mersin.edu.tr}, publisher = {Mersin Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {83 - 91}, doi = {/medfar.v3i54660.695774}, title = {Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq}, key = {cite}, author = {Ahmed, Arafat} }
APA Al-zewar, J. & Ahmed, A. (2020). Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq . Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research , 3 (2) , 83-91 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/medfar/issue/54660/695774
MLA Al-zewar, J. , Ahmed, A. "Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq" . Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research 3 (2020 ): 83-91 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/medfar/issue/54660/695774>
Chicago Al-zewar, J. , Ahmed, A. "Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq". Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research 3 (2020 ): 83-91
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq AU - JihadAl-zewar, ArafatAhmed Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 83 EP - 91 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2618-6551 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq %A Jihad Al-zewar , Arafat Ahmed %T Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq %D 2020 %J Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research %P -2618-6551 %V 3 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Al-zewar, Jihad , Ahmed, Arafat . "Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq". Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research 3 / 2 (Mayıs 2020): 83-91 .
AMA Al-zewar J. , Ahmed A. Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq. MedFAR. 2020; 3(2): 83-91.
Vancouver Al-zewar J. , Ahmed A. Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq. Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research. 2020; 3(2): 83-91.
IEEE J. Al-zewar ve A. Ahmed , "Socio-economic impact of the saltwater intrusion in the Shatt al-Arab River on fish farmers in Al-Mashab marshes, Southern Iraq", Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, c. 3, sayı. 2, ss. 83-91, May. 2020, doi:/medfar.v3i54660.695774

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